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Report of the ... . 

South nfitican 



dissociation 



for the 



Advancement . 
of Science. 



FIRST mEETino, 

Cape Tou>n 1903. 




V- \ 



CAP»E TIMES, Ltd. 



PRINTERS, 



CAPE TOWN 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 



Kevd. WM. KLINT. D.D. (Chairman and Editor) 

Prof. L. CRAWFOKD. M.A., D.Sc. F.R.S.E. 

Prof. A. DEXDY, D.Sc. F.L.S. 

Prof. H. E. S. FREMAXTLE. M.A,. F.S.S. 

R. MARLOTH. Eso.. Ph.D., M.A. 

ARTHUR H. REID, Esy., F.R.I.B.A. 

ALBERT WALSH, Eso. 



CONTENTS. 



I do 



N> 



,OS A, 



o/y 



Mji L I B R A^ Y .^1 



:^ 



V 



-^^ 



Constitution of the Association ... 
Officers for the Year ... 

Officers for the Sections at the Cape Town Meeting 
I. Presidential Address by Sir David Gill, K.C.B., LL.D. 
F.R.S.E 



F.R.S., Hon. 



8f:ction a. 

2. Presidential Address hy P. D. Hahn, M.A., Ph U. 

3. On Ferments causing " Cassc " in Wine, by Raymond Dubois, 

Diplome E.A.M., B.Sc, F.C.S., F.S.C.I. (Victoria) 

4. Meteorology in South Africa, a Retrospect and Prospect, bv C. .M. 

Stewart, B.Sc. 

5. Meteorological Records of the Transvaal, bv W. Cullen. .Ibsfrncf 

6. Nitro-Glycerine Explosives : their Influence on Industrial Develop- 

ment, by W. Cullen... 

7. A Preliminary Note on some Observations on .\tmospheric Elec- 

tricity in Cape Town and Bloemfontein, by Prof. J. C. Beattie, 
D.Sc, F.R.S.E, J. Lyle, M.A., and \V. H. Logeman, B.A. 

8. A Geodesic on a Spheroid and an .Associated Ellipse, by Prof. L. 

Crawford, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

9. A Consideration of close Binary Systems in relation to Light 

Variation, b\ Alex. W. Roberts, D.Sc, F.R.A.S., F.R.S.E. 

10. The Determination of Mean Results from Observations made at 

Second-Order Stations on the Table-Land of South Africa, bv .1. 
R. Sutton, M.A., Cantab 

11. On the Electrification of the Atmosphere surrounding Solid Bodies 

when these are raised to moderate temperatures, bv Prof. J. C. 
Beattie, D.Sc, P\R.S.E. 

12. A Third List of Writings on Determinanls, bv Thos. Muir, C.M.G., 

LL.D., F.R.S.S., L. & E. 

13. A General Theorem giving Expressions for certain Powers of a De- 

terminant, by Thos. Muir, C.M.G., &c 

14. Theorems for regarding Aggregates of Detei-minants and Pfaffians, 

by Thos. Muir, C.M.G., &c ... 

15. The Development of Gold Extraction Methods on the Witwaters- 

rand, hy W. A. Caldecott, B.A., F.C.S. 

16. The Solar Corona, by Prof. .1. T. Morris<in. M.A., B.Sc, F.R.S.E. (not 

printed! 

17. The Elmore Ore Concentration Process, by E, A. Blume. Ahxtract 



Page. 
9 
15 
16 

17 



^:>7 

7.T 

So 

[02 
106 



IIC) 

J -14 
154 
229 

233 

240 

249 
25U 



Contents. — Continued. 



SECTION B. 

Page. 
i8. Presidential Address — The Historical Development of the Geo- 
graphical Botany of Southern Africa, hy R. Marloth, Ph.D., M.A. 251 

19. On the Occurrence of an Epidemic among the Domesticated Animals 

in Mauritius, in which Trypanosomata were found in the blood, 

by Alexander Edington, M.D., F.R.S.E. Ahstmcl ... ... 258 

20. Note- on the Co-relation of Several Diseases occurring among 

Animals in South Africa, by Alexander Edington, M.D., F.K.S.E. 260 

21. On the Production of a Malarial Form of South African Horse-sick- 

ness, by Alexander Edington, M.D., F.R.S.E. ... ... ... 276 

22. The Minerals of some South African Granites, by F. P. Mennell. 

F.G.S. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2S2 

23. On the Classification of the Theriodonts and their Allies, by R, 

Broom, M.D., B.Sc., C.M.Z.S. ... ... ... ... 2S6 

24. Morphological and Biological Observations on the genus Anacamp- 

seros. L. (Rulmgia. Ehrh). by S. Schonland. Ph.D.. Hon. M.A.. 
Oxon ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2Q5 

25. On some Stone-implements in the Collection of the .'\lbany Museum. 

by S. Schonland. Ph.D., Hon. M.A., Oxon ... ... ... 302 

26. The Development of some South African Fishes, by .1. D. F. 

Gilchrist, M.A., B.Sc, Ph.D. Ahstmct ... ... ... 310 

27. The Teaching of Botany, by H. H. W. Pearson. M.A.. F.L.S.. 

Professor of Botany, South African College, Cape Town ... 313 

2S. Tlie Nature of Heredity, by Arthur Dendy, D.Sc. F.L.S.. Professor 

of Zoology in the South African College, Cape Town ... ... 317 



SECTION C. 

29. Presidential Address, by Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bart.. M.I.C.F. ... 341 

30. Some Aspects of South African Forestry, bv D. K. Hutchins. 

F.R.Met. Soc. ... ... ... ... ... ... 354 

31. Dry Crushing of Ore preparatorv to the Extraction of Gold, by 

Franklin While ... ... ... ... ... ... 362 

32. Sewage Disposal in Cape Colony, by .T. Edward Fitt, A.M.I.C.E. ... 369 

33. The Irrigation Question in South .Africa, by W. Westhofen, M.I.C.E. 373 

34. The Artesian Wells of the Cape Colony, by Bernard William Ritso. 

M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S. ... ... ... ... ... 383 

35. Curved Concrete Reservoir Walls as constructed by the Public 

Works Department of New South Wales, by William Craig. 
A.M.I.C.E.... ... ... ... ... ... ... 404 

36. Notes on the Progress of Survey Operations in South .\frica, by Sir 

David Gill, K.C.B,, LL.D., F.R.S,, Hon. F.R.S.E. (not printed) .,. 40S 



Contents. — Continued. 



SECTK^X I). 

Page. 

^7. Presidential Address — Education and Science, by Tiios. Muir, 

C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S.S., L. & E. ... ... ... ... 409 

3t!. Tile Public Library Systems of Great Britain. .America and South 

Africa, by Bertram L. Dyer ... ... ... ... ... 415 

39. Iteration as a Factor in Language, by Wm. Ritchie, M..\. ... ... 42q 

40. Cape Dutch, by W. S. Logeman, L.H.C., B.A. ... ... ... 439 

41. How we get Knowledge through our Senses, by Kev. P". C. Kolbe, 

D.D., B.A. ... ... ... ... ... 450 

42. Recoupment and Betterment, by Basil Williams, M..\. ... ... 454 

43. The Moral Education of Children in Schools, by Rev. R. Balniforth. 

Abstract ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 460 

44. The Sociology of Comte with special reference to the Political Con- 

ditions of Young Countries, by H. E. S. Fremantle, M..A.., F^.S.S.... 462 

45. The less known Ruins in Rhodesia, by Franklin White ... ... 480 

46. The Life of the City, by Francis Masey, F.R.LR.A. ... ... 492 

47. Great Zimbabwe, by Richard N, Hall ... ... ... ... 504 

Report of the Council ... ... ... ... ... ... 5^6 

Treasurer's Repoit ... ... ... ... ... ... 520 

List I if Members ... ... ... ... ... ... 523 

„ Associates ... ... ... ... ... ... 54^ 

Index ... ... ... ... ... ... • ... 547 




ILLUvSTRATIOXS. 



Apparatus for testiiiii Cassc in Wine 
Diagrams of Meteorological Records ((» 
Diagram of Light Variation 

,, shewing Nucleus of Rotating Matter 
Figure of Equilibrium of R. R. Centauri ... 

„ „ „ Two Rotating Masses almost in 

Decomposing Cordierile, Cape Town Granite 
Buiawayo Granite 
Matopo Granite ... 
Biotite enclosing Epidote ... 
Section of Reservoir Wall 
Regina Ruins (5) ... 
Khami Ruins (6) ... 





Page 




55. 59 




.S0-S8 




112 




114 




117 


Contact . 


117 


... 


i<S2 




283 




284 




285 




405 


... 


. 480-484 


... 


• 4«5-490 



COXSTITUTIOX OF THE ASSOCIATIOX. 



I.— OBJECTS. 

The objects of the Association are : — To give a stronger impulse 
and a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote 
the intercourse of Societies and individuals interested in Science in 
different parts of South Africa ; to obtain a more general attention 
to the objects of pure and applied Science, and the removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which may impede its progress. 

II.— MEMBERSHIP. 

(a) All persons interested in the objects of the Association are 
eligible for Membership. 

(b) The Association shall consist of Permanent Members, here- 
after called " Members,'' and Temporary Members, hereafter called 
" Associates.'" 

(c) Members shall be elected directly by the Council ; Associates 
by Local Committees. 

(d) The Council shall have the power, by a three-fourths vote, 
to remove the name of anyone whose Membership is no longer 
desirable in the interests of the Association. 

III.— PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

(a) Members shall be eligible for all offices of the Association, 
and to serve on its Committees, and shall be entitled to a copy of 
all ordinarv publications issued by the Association subsequent to the 
date of their election. 

(b) Associates are eligible to serve on the Local Reception 
Committee, but are not eligible to hold any other office, and they 
are not entitled to receive gratuitously the publications of the 
Association. 

IV.— SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

(a) The Annual Subscriptions for Members shall be One Pound, 
payable first at election, and thereafter on the First of July of each 
year. After the first session intending Members shall be required 
to pay an Entrance Fee of One Pound, in addition. 

c 



lo Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

{b) A Member may at any time become a Life Member by one 
payment of Ten Pounds, in lieu of future Annual Subscriptions, or 
in lieu of Entrance Fee and future Annual Subscriptions. 

{c) The Annual Subscription for Associates shall be Fifteen 
Shillings. 

{d) The Council may authorise Local Committees to admit 
students as Associates at a reduced subscription on the special cir- 
cumstances of each case bein<r submitted. 



v.— MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet in Session periodically for one week 
or longer. The place of meeting shall be appointed by the Council 
as far in advance as possible, and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Local Committee, in conjunction with the Council. 



VL— COUNCIL. 

{a) The Management of the affairs of the Association shall i)e 
entrusted to a Council. 

{b) The Council shall, in the first instance, be elected by the 
General Committee, and shall consist of Twenty-five Members. 
Thereafter it shall consist of the President and four Vice-Presidents 
of the Association, Past Presidents of the Association, Past and 
Present General Secretaries and Treasurers, representatives to be 
elected by each Centre in the proportion of one representative for 
every 25 Members, and such others to be elected by the Members 
at the Annual Meeting of the Associ.ition, as shall give altogether 
one Member of Council to every 25 Members of the Association. 

(c) The Council so elected shall at once proceed to elect the 
President, Vice-Presidents, two Secretaries, Treasurer, and an 
Assistant General Secretar}-. The Council shall have the power to 
pay for the services of the Assistant General Secretary, and for other 
such clerical assistance as it may consider necessary. 

{d) During any Session of the Association the Council shall meet, 
at least, twice. 

{e) The Council shall have power to frame Eve-laws to facilitate 
the practical working of the Association, so long as these Hve-laws 
are not at variance with the Constitution. 



VII.— MANAGING COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL. 

In the intervals between the Sessions of the Association, its 
general affairs shall be managed by a Committee of Council, con- 
sisting of President, General Treasurer. General Secretaries, and four 
other Members, elected annually bv the Council. 



Constitution. 1 1 

VIII.— LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

In the intervals between the Sessions of the Association, its 
local affairs shall be managed by the Local Committees. This 
Committee shall consist of the Members of the Council resident in 
that Centre, with such other Members of the Association as the said 
Members of Council may elect. 

IX.— RECEPTION COMMITTEE. 

The Local Committee of the Centre at which the Session is to 
be held shall form a Reception Committee, to assist in making 
arrangements for the meeting, and for the reception and entertain- 
ment of the visitors. This Committee shall have power to add to 
its number from among the Members and Associates of the 
Association.* 

X.— HE AD(^ CARTERS. 

The Headquarters of the As.sociation shall be in Cape Town at 
the outset. 

XL— FIXAXCE. 

(a) The Financial Year shall end on' the 30th of June. 

(b) All sums received for Life Subscriptions and for Entrance 
Fees shall be invested in the names of three Trustees appointed by 
the Council, and only the interest arising from such Investment shall 
be applied to the uses of the Association. 

(c) Subscriptions shall be collected by the Local Secretary of 
each Centre, and by him forwarded to the General Treasurer. 

(d) The Local Committees shall not have power to expend 
money Avithout the authority of the Council, with the exception of 
the Local Committee of the Centre at which the next ensuing Session 
is to be held, which shall have the power to expend money collected, 
or otherwise obtained in that Centre. Such disbursements shall 
.be audited, and the balance-sheet and the surplus funds forwarded 
to the General Treasurer a month before the end of the Financial 
Year. 

(e) All Cheques shall be signed either b\ the General Treasurer 
and a General Secretary, or by the Local Treasurer and Secretarv 
of the Centre at which the next ensuing Session is to be held. 

(/) Whenever the balance in the hands of the Treasurer shall 
■exceed the sum requisite for the probable or current expenses of the 
Association, the Council shall invest the excess in the names of the 
Trustees. 



*For arrangements witli regard to Papers to be read, see Section 14. 



c 2 



12 Report S.A.A. Advancement of wScience. 

(g) The whole of the accounts of the Association, i.e., the locat 
as well as the general accounts, shall be audited annually by an 
auditor appointed by the Council, and the Balance-sheet shall be 
submitted to the Council at the first meetinij- thereafter, and be- 
printed in the Annual Report of the Association. 

XII.— GRAMS FOR RESEARCH. 

(a) Grants may be made by the Association to Committees or 
to individuals for the promotion of Scientific Research. 

(b) Committees and individuals to whom grants of money shall' 
be entrusted are required to present to the following Meeting a 
report of the progress which has been made, together with a state- 
ment of the sums which have been expended. Any balance shall be 
returned to the General Treasurer. In each Committee the Secretary 
is the only person entitled to call on the Treasurer for such portions- 
of the sums granted as may from time to time be required. In 
making grants to money to Com.mittees or to individuals, the- 
Association does not contemplate the payments of personal expenses, 
to the Members, or to individuals. 

XIII.— SECTIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Council shall have the power to constitute such sections- 
of the Association as it may consider necessary, the following being, 
constituted at the outset : — 

A. Astronomy. 
Chemistry. 
Mathematics. 
Meteorology. 
Physics. 

B. Anthropology and Ethnology. 
Bacteriolog). 

Botany. 

Geography. 

Geology and Mineralogy. 

Zoology. 

C. Agriculture. 
Architecture. 
Engineering, 
(ieodesy and Surveying. 
Sanitary Science. 

D. Archaeology. 
Education. 
Mental Science. 
Philology. 
Political Economv. 
Sociology. 
Statistics. 



Constitution. 13 

XIV.— SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

(a) The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the 
several sections shall be chosen by the Council, after consultation 
with the Local Committee of the Centre at which the next ensuing 
Session of the Association is to be held. 

(b) From the time of their election, which shall take place as 
soon as possible after the Session of the Association, they shall 
form themselves into an organising Committee for the purpose of 
obtaining information upon Papers likely to be submitted to the 
Sections, and for the general furtherance of the work of the 
Sectional Committees. The Sectional Presidents of former years 
shall be ex officio members of the Organising Committee. 

(c) The Sectional Committee shall have power to add to their 
number from among the Members and Associates of the Associa- 
tion. 

(d) The Committees of the several Sections shall determine the 
acceptance of Papers before the beginning of the Session, keeping 
the General Secretaries informed from time to time of their work. 
It is therefore desirable, in order to give an opportunity to the 
Committees of doing justice to the several communications, that 
•each author should prepare an Abstract of his Paper of a length 
suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and he should send it, together with the original Paper, to the 
Secretary of the Section before which it is tO' be read, sO' that it may 
reach him, at least, a fortnight before the Session. 

(e) Members may communicate to the Sections the Papers of 
non-members. 

(/) The Author of any Paper is at liberty to reserve his right 
of property therein. 

(g) The Sectional Committees shall meet not later than the 
first day of the Session in the Rooms of their respective Sections, 
and prepare the programme for their Sections and forward the same 
to the General Secretaries for publication. 

(h) The Council cannot guarantee the insertion of any Report, 
Paper, or Abstract in the Annual Volume, unless it be handed to 
the Secretary before the conclusion of the Session. 

(/) The Sectional Committees shall report to the Council what 
Reports, Papers, or Abstracts it is thought advisable to print, but the 
final decision shall rest with the Council. 

XV.— RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

(a) In recommending the appointment of Research Committees, 
all members of such Committees shall be named, and one of them, 
who has notified his wnllingness to accept the office, shall be ap- 
pointed to act as Secretary. The number of Members appointed 
to serve on a Research Committee shall be as small as is consistent 
with its efficient working. Individuals may be recommended to ma 
reports. /^VX^C/^^ 




iBRARYl::o 



14 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

(b) All recommeMidations adopted by Sectional Committees shall 
be forwarded without delay to^ the Council for consideration and 
deqision. 

XVI.— ALTERATION TO RULES. 

Any proposed alteration of the Rules 

(a) Shall be intimated to the Council Six Months before 

the next Session of the Association, 

(b) Shall be duly considered by the Council. 

(c) And. if approved, shall be communicated by Circular 

to the Members of Association for their consideration, 

(d) And dealt with at the said Session of the Association. 

XVII.— VOTING. 

In Voting for Members of Council, or on questions connected 
with Alterations to Rules, absent Members may record their vote 
in writin";. 



Officers of the Year. 
OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1902—03. 



15 



President : 
SIR DAVID GILL, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., Hon. F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents : 
SYDNEY J. JEXXIXGS, M.Amer., [ THOS. MUIR, C.M.G., LL.D., M.A.,. 

I.M.E., M.I.M.E., Johannesburg. F.R.S.S., L. & E., Cape Town. 

SIR CHARLES METCALFE, Bart., GARDNER F. WILLIAMS, Kim- 
M.I.C.E., Cape Town. I berley. 

Members of Council : 

Johannesburg : 



Blocinfonteiu : 
F^RANCIS OLDFIELD. 

Buhmuiyo : 
JOHN LAUGHTON. 

Cape Toivn : 
W. L. SCLATER, M.A., F.Z.S. 
PROF. J. C. BEATTIE, D.Sc. F.R.S.E. 
A. J. GREGORY, M.D., M.R.C.S., 

L.S.A. 
PROF. P. D. HAHN, Ph.D., M.A. 
R. MARLOTH, Ph.D., M.A. 
W. WESTHOFEN, M.I.C.E. 

Durban : 
J. FLETCHER, A.M.I. C.E. 
East London : 
J. D. TILNEY, M.I.C.E. 

Grahiun's Toxot : 
S. SCHONLAND, Ph.D., Hon. M.A. 

(OXON.). 



E. H. V. MELVILL, Govt. Surveyor, 
A.M.I. C.E., F.R.G.S. 
Kim berley : 
PROF\ J. G. LAWN, A.R.C.S. 

Loveclale : 
ALEX. W. ROBERTS, Hon. D.Sc, 
(Cape), F.R.A.S. 

Pieterniaritzburg : 
J. W. SHORES, C.M.G., M.I.C.E. 

Port Elizabeth : 
THOS. REEVE. 
ALBERT WALSH. 

Queenstoii'ii : 
HON. SIR WILLIAM BISSET- 
BERRY, Kt., M.A., M.D. 
Salisbury : 

C. T. ROBERTS, A.M.I.M.E. 
Simon's loTi'u : 

D. MACFARLANE, M.I.C.E. 

Hon. Secretaries : 

J. D. F. GILCHRIST, M.A., B.Sc, THEODORE REUNERT, M.I.C.E., 

Ph.D. M.I.M.E. 

Hon. Tieasiner : 

W. WESTHOFEX, M.I.C.E. (P.W. Dept., Cape Town). 

Assistant General Secretaries : 

For Transvaal, Orange River 



For Cape Colony .\nd Rhodesla. 
E. H. JOXES, South African Museum, 
Cape Town. 



Colony and Natal. 

W. E. CURSOXS, P.O. Box 93, 

Johannesburg. 



Trustees : 



H. M. ARDERXE, Esq. 



HEXRY de SMIDT, Esq., C.M.G,, 
B.A., F.S.S. 



A iiditor : 
J. M. p. MUIRHEAD, Esq., F'.S.A.A., F.S.S., F.A.S.L. 



i6 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

OFFICERS FOR THE SECTIONS AT THE CAPE 
TOWN MEETING. 



A.— Astronomy, Chemistry, Mathematics, Meteorology and 
Physics. 

P resilient : 
Professor P. D. HAHX, Ph.D., M.A. 

Viec-Presideiits : 

^\. A. CALDECOTT, B.A., F.C.S. ; A. CROSSE ; S. S. HOUGH, M.A., 

F.R.S. ; Prof. J. T. MORRISON. M.A., B.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

Secretary : 
Prof. L. CRAWFORD, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., South African College. 

B. —Anthropology, Ethnology, Bacteriology, Botany, Geo- 
graphy, Geology, Mineralogy, and Zoology. 

President : 
R. MARLOTH, Ph.D., M.A. 

Vice-Ptesidents : 

ALEX. EDIXGTOX, M.D., F.R.S.E. ; C. P. LOUXSBURY, B.Sc. ; A. W. 

ROGERS, M.A. (Cantab), F.G.S. ; S. SCHOXLAXD, Ph.D., Hon. M.A. (O.xon) ; 

W. C. SCULLY ; Prof. A. YOUXG, M.A., B.Sc. 

Sec let a ry : 
Prof. A. DEXDY, D.Sc, F.L.S., Soutli African College. 

C— Agriculture, Architecture, Engineering, Geodesy, Survey- 
ing and Sanitary Science. 

President : 
Sir CHARLES METCALFE, Bart., M.I.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents : 

C. ABURROW ; D. E. HUTCHIXS, F'.R. Met. Soc. ; MAX JURISCH ; E. B. 

J. KXOX ; W. MASOX, B.Sc, F.H.A.S. ; E. H. V. MELYILL, Government 

Surveyor, A. M.I.C.E., F.R.G.S. ; Dr. C. PORTER. 

Secretary : 
ARTHUR H. REID, F.R.I. B.A., P.O. Box 120, Cape Town. 

D.— Archaeology, Education, Mental Science, Philology, 
Political Economy, Sociology and Statistics. 

President : 
THOS. MUIR, C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S.S. L. & E. 

Vice-Presidents : 
Hon. Sir WILLIAM BISSET-BERRY, Kt., M.A., M.D. ; Rkv. WM. FLIXT, 
D.D. ; Prof. W. S. LOGEMAX, L.H.C, B.A. ; Prok. T. WALKER, M.A., 

LL.D. 

Secretary : 
Prof. H. E. S. FREEMAXTLE, M.A., F.S.S., South African College. 




ADDRESS. \^>^A15<C^ 

By Sir David Gill, K.C.B., LL.D., P^R.S., Hon. F.K.S.E..-"""^ 

President. 



It gives me much pleasure, as President, to welcome the large 
number of Members and Associates of the South African Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science who have assembled here to- 
night. 

Our history up to the present time is a very brief one. On the 
2nd of July, 1901, a meeting was held under the presidency of Sir 
Charles Metcalfe with a view to arrange for an Annual Congress 
•of Engineers. It was felt that as there are many men throughout 
South Africa who are engaged in work connected with applied 
Science, they would do well to arrange an annual opportunity of meet- 
ing together in order to compare notes and to derive from mutual 
intercourse that stimulus to thought which can only be acquired 
by personal intercourse, or, in a more detailed way, by the reading 
and discussion of technical papers. 

At the meeting in question a preliminary resolution was proposed 
by Mr. T. Reunert, and finally carried unanimously, viz. : 

" That this meeting approves of the proposal to hold an Annual 
Engineering Congress in South Africa. 
In the discussion which followed, questions were raised as to the 
exact meaning to be attached to the word " Engineering," and it was 
agreed, for the time being, to accept the definition of the Institute 
-of Civil Engineers, viz. : " The art of directing the great sources of 
power in Nature for the use and convenience of Man." At the same 
time the whole subject both as to the nature and scope of the Con- 
_gress was left open for further consideration, and a Committee was 
appointed (with powder to add to their number) for the purpose of 
framing a Constitution to be submitted to the first Annual Congress. 

Even at this first meeting there was a tendency to define the term 
^' Engineer " in a very wide sense, and to embrace within the list 
of members of the proposed Congress not only those engaged in 
the utilization of Science, but those also whose lives and interests 
are occupied in the pursuit of Science for its own sake. 

The first meeting of the Committee was held on Tuesday, the 9th 
July, 1 901. and its first object was naturally to define more precisely 
the exact scope, form and objects of the proposed Congress. The 
opening discussion shewed plainly enough that, in the minds of thos:^ 



i8 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

present, the various views of the originators of the proposed Congress^ 
as well as those of the other members of the Committee, could be 
best brought into accord by the formation of an Association — some- 
what on the lines of the British Association — meeting once a year, 
now at one centre of South Africa now at another, and its work should 
be divided into sections devoted to different subjects. Thus, whilst 
those interested in any particular department of Science could give 
attendance chiefly to their own special section, all would have an 
opportunity of meeting socially and enjoying that advantage of inter- 
change of ideas which is so helpful to general scientific progress. 

Finally, on the 12th September. 1901, a general meeting was held 
in the Hall of the Education Department. Cape Town, at which 
the following resolution was passed : 

" That this meeting approves, and hereby confirms, the forma- 
tion of a South African Association for the Advancement 
of Science, as far as possible on the lines of the British 
Association." 

A Committee was appointed to draw up a draft constitution, and 
the results of its finally revised and approved labours are in the 
hands of members. 

When in London in 1900. 1 was requested to attend a meeting of 
Council of the British Association for the purpose of discussing the 
possibility of holding one of their meetings in South Africa. It 
had seemed to the founders of our new Society that to bring about 
such a visit would in itself be a great object. Accordinglv, so soon as 
peace was declared, steps were taken to ascertain the earliest date 
for which an invitation from the Cape could be entertained. It 
appeared that the arrangements for the meetings of the British 
Association had been made as far as 1904 inclusive, and we now 
know that the meeting for that }ear will be held at Cambridge 
under the Presidency of the Right Hon. Arthur Balfour, Prime 
Minister of England. 

On approaching Sir Gordon Sprigg as to what facilities couM be 
offered to induce the British Association to accept an invitation to 
visit the Cape in 1905, I received in reply the following sympathetic 
and encouraging letter : 

Prime Minister's Office. 

Cape Town, 

i6th August, 1902. 
Sir,— 

I have submitted to the Prime Minister \our letter of the 15th 
instant, addressed to me. with reference to the proposed invitation to 
the British Association to visit South Africa in 1905, and I am 
directed to inform you in reply that the Cape Government agrees as. 
follows, viz. : — 

I. That free railway passes be granted over the Cape Railway 
system for all officials of the British Association and a 
limited number of invited "-uests. 



Address by Sir David Gill. 19' 

2. That a sum not exceeding ^6,000 be guaranteed towards 
the cost of passages to and from the Cape for the above- 
mentioned officials and visitors. This amount to be shared 
by the Governments of the Transvaal, Natal, and the Cape. 

I have, etc., 

(Signed) HENRY DE SMIDT, 

Acting Secretary to the Prime Minister. 

Sir David Gill, 

H.M. Astronomer. 

The other Governments have undertaken to share the half of this 
responsibility, and to grant similar free use of their railways. I am 
assured that there will be no lack of private hospitality, and, as you 
are all now proltably aware, the Council of the British Association, 
on the 6th of March, unanimously resolved to recommend to the 
General Committee of the Association at the Southport Meeting 
next September that the invitation to hold the Annual Meeting in 
1905 in South Africa be accepted. 

This much for our history up to the present moment, and so far 
as it goes it is a very gratifying one. 

We have at the present time a roll of 702 ordinary members and 
36 associates. In point of numbers this compares favourably with 
the beginnings of the British Association, which at its first meeting 
at York in 1831 had 353 members — numbers which, however, in the 
following year at Oxford increased to 435 members. 

One cannot, of course, compare in weight of scientific importance 
the present meeting with those at York and Oxford on the occasions 
in question. But, if we consider how comparativelv small is the 
white population of South Africa, how great are the distances which 
separate it. we may at least congratulate ourselves on the fact that 
there have been found so many ready to take a sympathetic interest 
in the objects of the Association, and so large a proportion of men 
who have come forward to contribute papers of scientific interest 
and practical value. 

With such encouragement let us consider carefully in what way 
the interest thus aroused may be turned to the best account for the 
promotion of Science and the welfare and progress of this countrv. 

My first duty is to lay before you the claims of Science to the 
sympathy and support of every citizen and every Government of a 
civilized community. - 

Persons gifted by nature with the capacity for original scientific 
research of high value are comparatively few in number — much in 
the same degree that the number of original poets, musicians, 
painters and sculptors is also limited. 

The world has long recognised the value of art and literature as 
refining and elevating influences. But, for one who can lay claim 
to the creation of classic work in literature, music, painting or 
sculpture, there are thousands with minor claims to originality in 



20 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

these subjects, and tens of thousands with sufficient knowledge to 
raise the plane of their aspirations, to unite them in bonds of sym- 
pathy with others of like tastes, and thus to brighten their enjovment 
of life. 

Nay, more than this, there is no ordinary thinker or worker in any 
•of these fields who may not at some time contribute an original 
idea, \yhich, in the hands of genius, may later be fashioned into the 
great and beautiful. 

If these things be true of Literature and Art how much more are 
they so in regard to Science. To the Colonist Science appeals, or 
.should appeal, with a double force. It is not only a source of 
intellectual elevation and a high form of enjoyment to all who suffi- 
ciently interest themselves in its pursuit, but it also lies at the 
foundation of our civilization, and even of our existence. To it we 
owe conveniences, comforts, and the possibility of activities which 
have insensibly become to us the necessities of life ; and more than 
this, it is not too much to say that, without the advantages of defence 
and inter-communication given to us by the applications of Science, 
the very existence of a scattered white population in South Africa 
would be impossible ; and it is mainly to the applications of Science 
that we must look for the development of those natural resources 
with which this Sub-Continent has been so abundantly endowed. 

There is a type of self-called practical man who forgets these 
things. He adopts the results and methods of Science, but too 
often cares and knows nothing of the processes by which these 
results have been obtained or the principles which underlie their 
attainment. Do you understand the electric telegraph ? " Oh, yes ! 
You have only to write your message, give it to the man at the 
•counter, and pay a shilling. '" That, really, with little exaggeration, 
is typical of the attitude of mind to which I refer, and with which 
too many people regard the thousand amenities that Science has 
brought into modern life. 

Too often indeed there is an assumed antagonism in many minds 
between Science and Commerce — or, as others put it. between theory 
and practice. 

Bear, however, this in mind, that between true theory and true 
practice there never can be any discordance. The laws of Nature 
do not change in capricious ways, and, therefore, in regard to any 
mechanical or natural process about which the laws and facts are 
absolutely known, the results of theory and practice must coincide. 

By what process, then, can we attain to true theorv ? I cannot 
put the matter better than in the words of Dr. Whewell in an address 
delivered by him before the meeting of the British Association held 
.at Cambridge in 1833. He said: 

" Without attempting any nice or technical distinctions 
between theory and hypothesis, it may be sufficient to observe 
that all deductions from theory for any other purpose than that 
of comparison with observation are frivolous and useless exercises 
of ingenuity, so far as the interests of physical science are con- 
cerned. Speculators, if of active and inventive minds, will 



Address bv Sir David Gill. 25 

form theories whether we wish it or no. These theories may 
be useful or they may be otherwise — we have examples of both, 
results. If the theories merely stimulate the examination of 
facts, and are modified as and when the facts suggest modifica- 
tion, thev may be erroneous, but they will still be beneficial ; 
they may die, but they will not have lived in vain. If, on the- 
other hand, our theory be supposed to have a truth of a superior 
kind to the facts, to be certain independently of its exemplifica- 
tion in particular cases ; if, when exceptions to our propositions- 
occur, instead of modifying our theory^ we explain away the facts,, 
our theory then becomes our tyrant, and all who work under its 
bidding do the work of slaves, they themselves deriving no' 
benefit from the results of their labours." 
This seems to me one of the most thoughtful and best expressed 
summaries of the proper scientific use of the imagination with which-. 
I am acquainted, and it indicates the slow and gradual process by 
which alone the laws of Nature can be traced. 

Take, for example, the history of Newton's discovery of the- 
law of gravitation. 

About the year 1666, Newton began to turn his attention to the- 
consideration of the force which we now call gravity. In that year,, 
according to the well-known story, he was one day sitting in a garden 
when he saw an apple fall to the ground, and came to the conclusion' 
that such a phenomenon could only be the result of the Earth's, 
attraction. Then it immediately flashed upon him, if the Earthi 
attracts the apple so that when, by decay, the stalk becomes sufli- 
cientlv weak, the apple is pulled to the ground, why should not this. 
same force of attraction extend from the Earth to the Moon ? 

Here the popular story stops, and it is inferred that Newton,, 
then and there, made his immortal discovery; but in reality it is. 
just here that the truest interest of the storj' begins. 

The idea of an attractive force like gravity was no new one. 
Kepler, in his " De Stella Martis," states that every two bodies - 
of the same kind have the property of attracting each other — thus 
the Earth attracts a stone and the stone attracts the Earth, but the- 
attraction of the Earth is much greater than that of the single stone 
in the proportion of the much greater quantity of matter which it 
contains. Kepler had discussed the numerous planetary observations 
of Tycho Brahe, and from these and his own observations had dis- 
covered his three now well-known laws of planetary motion ; but. 
apparently, from assuming that the gravitational attractive force 
between two bodies must vary in direct proportion to the distance- 
between them, he missed the great generalization which it was left- 
to Newton to discover. 

Newton, of course, knew that the intensity of the illumination 
of a surface from a point of light varies inversely as the square of the- 
distance of that surface from the source of illumination. 

Reasoning by analogv, it seems probable that Xewton would 
imagine that the force of attraction between two bodies would vary 
according to the same law, and he worked out a ri'dd mathem.atical: 



.22 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

proof demonstrating that if the planets move according to Kepler's 
laws they must move under the influence of a force directed towards 
the Sun and varying inversely as the square of the distance from the 
Sun. 

Having obtained this law, Newton sought to verify it, and to 
ascertain whether the attractive force of the Earth is similar in 
kind to that of the Sun, and whether, therefore, the Moon moves 
round the Earth in obedience to the same law. He had first to 
prove, and with some difficulty and delay did prove mathematically, 
that the attraction of a globe is the same as if its matter were all 

• concentrated at its centre. This dune, he obtained a measure of the 
attractive force of the Earth at a distance from its centre equal to 
its radius, by determining experimentally that any heavy body near 
the Earth's surface droi)ped from a height would fall from rest about 
16 feet in the first second of time; or, if the law of inverse squares 
Avere true, the amount of fall would increase as the square of the 
time, so that the fall of a heavy budy near the Earth's surface in 60 
seconds would be 60-, or 3.600 times 16 feet. 

In Newton's time it was fairly well known that the mean distance 

• of the Moon from the Earth is approximately 60 radii of the Earth. 
Therefore the force of the Earth's attraction on the Moon would 

^be 1/60- or 1/3600 part of that which it exerts on a body near the 
Earth's surface. In other words, the Moon would fall towards the 
Earth just as far in a minute of time as a stone near the Earths 
surface would fall in a second of time — that is to say, 16 feet. 

Xewton next compared this hypothetical fall of the Moon 
towards the Earth in a minute of time with the actual deflection 
of the Moon's orbit from a straight line in the same unit of time. 
With the data at his disposal he found the computed actual fall to be 
13 feet instead of :6 feet, as he had determined that it should be 
if his hypothesis was correct. 

Newton regarded this discrei)anc\ as so fatal that, in his own 
words, he "laid aside at that time an\ further thought about the 
matter."' 

In 1672 the result of Picards new measurement of an Arc of 
Meridian in France was communicated to the Royal Society, and it 
shewed that the length of a degree, instead of being 60 miles as 
Newton had accepted it to be, was in fact 69 ^\ miles. Newton 
does not appear to have known of Picard's result until his attention 
was called to it by a letter from Hooke in 1679, and then Newton 
at once realized its important influence on his original conclusions. 
His previous unit of measure for the dimensions of the Moon's orbit, 
and therefore for the actual fall of the Moon towards the Earth in 
a minute of time, was erroneous by 16 per cent. It is said that Newton 
was so excited when making the comparatively simple calculation 
required to ascertain the effect of the new data upon his original 
ronclusions. that he was unable to comjjlete it, and had to ask a 
friend to do it for him. The result shejwed that, with the new data, 
the actual fall of the Moon towards the Earth in a minute of time 
-v'.-'p t6 feet per minute, agreeing exactly with the amount calculated 



Address by Sir David Gill. 23 

from the known distance of the Moon in terms of the Earth's raihus 
and the rate of fall of heavy objects at the Earth's surface. 

Still, Newton's work was not yet done — in fact in this matter it 
was only begun. He had not only to conceive all the possible con- 
sequences of the existence of his law of gravity but to invent the 
mathematical processes by which these consequences had to be 
traced. It was only by the combination of the most supreme genius 
both as a physicist and mathematician, coupled with the severest 
abstraction of thought from any subject but the one in contemi)latit)n, 
that such results could be reached ; or, as he himself puts it. " I keep 
the subject constantly before me till the first dawnings open slowly 
bv little and little into a full and clear light." 

The vears of 1685 and 1686 will ever be memorable in the 
history of Science, as in them was produced Newton's Principia. of 
which it is no exaggeration to say that it is the greatest intellectual 
effort ever achieved by man. 

It is a notworthy fact that Newton's Principia, which appeared 
in 1687, was not printed at the cost of the Royal Society, but 
actually at the private cost of his friend Halley, because that learned 
but then impecunious body, the Royal Society, had exhausted its 
resources in the publication of a Historv of Fishes bv a Mr. 
Willoghby ! 

Some apology is due for introducing in an address like the 
present so old and oft repeated a story as the history of the discovery 
of the law of gravitation. My only excuse is that I know of none 
other which illustrates so completely the points on which I desir,? 
to insist. 

First of all, note the long laborious process and the efforts of 
many men and many minds by which alone knowledge of any law 
• of Nature can be evolved and established, and how great scientific 
discoveries, like coming events, cast their shadows before. 

Leonardo da Vinci, a hundred and fifty years before Newton, 
and later, Galileo and Huvgens, all had glimpses of the action of 
some force like gravity, and wrote about and discussed its existence ; 
Kepler had the matter almost in his grasp, and probably, but for a 
preconceived hypothesis that an attractive force must vary as the 
distance, would have discovered it, although he was not mathe- 
matician enough to trace out its consequences. Tycho Brahe, 100 
years before Newton, began the series of observations of the planets 
which he and Kepler continued for 50 years, when the latter derive.! 
from their discussion his laws of planetary motion — the primarv key 
to Newton's discovery. 

Note also Newton's true philosophic spirit. There was no 
attempt on his part to claim for his hypothesis " a truth of a 
superior kind to the facts." or to explain away facts, as he might have 
done in view of the then uncertain determination of the dimensions 
of the Earth. He waited 1 1 years for improved facts, and then 
devoted 7 years to the completion of his Principia — the irrefrangible 
proof of the truth of his theory. 



24 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

If we may trust the story of the fallen apple — and it rests oas 
the authority of Voltaire — note the importance of reflexion upO'i, 
and study of the origin of the most simple and ordinary phenomena,. 
and of the value of suggestion from every source. The history ot 
Newton's life shews how much even he was indebted to the suggestion, 
and incentive of his few scientific contemporaries. 

Above all, note his recognition of Man's intellectual limitations^ 
Newton realised that he had discovered a great law of Nature, and' 
that, by means of this discovery coupled with observation over a 
comparatively short period, the motions of the heavenly bodies could' 
be traced out in all past and future time ; but he felt himself 
intellectually powerless in face of the question : " By what method! 
does this action at a distance take place ? " 

" I know not," said he, " what the World will think of my 
labours, but to myself it seems to me that I have been but as a child' 
plaving on the seashore ; now finding some pebble rather more- 
polished, and now some shell rather more agreeably variegated than 
another, while the immense ocean of truth extended itself unexplored' 
before me." 

We find a like key-note in the words used by the greatest living 
scientist of our day — I mean by Lord Kelvin — on the occasion of 
the celebration of the Jubilee of his Professoriate at Glasgow in 
1896: "One word characterises the most strenuous of the efforts for 
the advancement of Science that I have made perseveringly during 
fiftv-five years ; that word is failure. I know no more of electric 
and magnetic force or of the relation between ether, electricity and 
ponderable matter, or of chemical affinity than I knew and tried to 
teach my students 50 years ago in my first session as a Professor. 
Something of sadness must come of failure ; but in the pursuit of 
Science, inborn necessity to make the effort brings with it much of" 
the certaminis gaudia, and saves the naturalist from being wholly 
miserable, perhaps even allows him to be fairly happy, in his dailv 
work. 

" And what splendid compensation for philosophical failures 
we have had in the admirable discoveries by observation and experi- 
ment on the properties of matter and in the exquisitely beneficent 
applications of Science to the use of mankind with which these fifty 
years have so abounded." 

What are we to derive from these and like expressions of our 
greatest masters — certainly not discouragement, for the great ocean 
of truth still remains open for exploration. 

But are there not limitations which we may never hope to pass?' 
Are the possibilities of scientific knowledge really divisible into the 
knowable and the unknowable ? 

One may perhaps venture on a conjecture, viz.. that fhe limit of 
ihc KNOWABLE is a complete mastery of the laws according to 
which the great agencies of Nature ivork, bid that these agencies 
themselves are the UNKNOWABLE. 

The conjecture is at least justified by experience, although 1 
fear it verges dangerously on the shoals of philosophy. 



Address bv Sir David Gill. -5 

It is not wise to attempt to define too closely the borderland 
of profitable scientific activity, for one cannot forget that about 60 
years ago the French Philosopher Comte, in his Cours de Pliilo- 
Sophie Positive, quoted the chemical constitution of the Sun and 
Stars as an example of the Unknowable, a statement the fallacy of 
which was proved by the subsequent results of Spectrum Analysis. 

And \et the greatest of scientific men have at times forgotten 
.the futility of Aristotelian methods and been drawn aside b} some 
irresistible attraction from the strait and narrow paths of the Ba- 
<:onian method. 

I mav perhaps be allowed to quote an interesting instance with- 
in my own experience. 

Some 20 vears ago, in the old smoking-room of the Athenaeum, 
I was talking with Professor Huxley about the rising scientific men 
in England, when he brought up the name of my late dear friend 
•George Romanes. " Now," said Huxley, " there is a man that I regard 
as the ablest of the young men in my line of work; but of late he 
has taken to philosophy, and it is all up with a man of Science when 
he does that." Some years later George Romanes founded the 
Romanes Lectureship at Oxford. The idea i)f the foundation was 
to obtain every year from some distinguished man, towards the 
■close of his career, a lecture which should, as far as possible, repre- 
sent the outcome of his experience and knowledge. At the end of 
10 years the lectures were to be printed and published in a volume, 
which might thus be expected to contain the best thoughts of the 
-decade. Gladstone was the first Romanesdecturer, Huxley was tlie 
.second. Not very long after the delivery of his lecture I again met 
Huxley in the same place and reminded him of our earlier conver- 
sation, asking how it was that, after censuring Romanes so severely 
for dabbling in philosophy, his own Romanes lecture was only 
philosophy of the dee^Dest dye. " Ah, yes," he replied wdth a smile, 
■*' I suppose it is the decadence of old age." 

Pure Mathematics is the only Science which, if its original postu- 
lates and definitions are granted, is independent of comparison with 
external nature, and it might ha^■e been developed from them alone 
ito its present stage, or further, by generations of men who never saw 
the earth or sky. Carping philosophers may gird at the sufiiciency 
•of its axioms and definitions, but these axioms and definitions are 
self-evident to common-sense, and no part of the superstructure 
logically raised on them has ever departed a hair's breath from the 
-truth under any stress to which, during the centuries since Pvthag- 
■oras. it has been exposed. 

A supreme point to be impressed on every worker in Science 
is the cultivation of the most rigorous accuracv of thought, work 
and expression. In the sciences of observation too much stress can- 
not be laid upon the necessity of accepting for fact only that which 
is really fact. This, on the face of it, seems a needless statement. 
But in the determination of any fact w^hich depends on measure- 
ment or estimation by human agency there must remain an outstand- 
5ng uncertainty which may be great or small according to the skill 



26 Report S.A.A. Advanxement of Science. 

of the observer, and the precision of his tools and methods. A 
determination is only exact — its result only a true fact — when all the 
possible sources of error which can possibly affect it, have been 
carefully computed and estimated, and the uncertainty of the result, 
as well as the result itself, are stated. The value of a result, as a 
published addition to Science, will very much depend on the clearness 
of the statement as to the precautions which have been taken for 
elimination of systematic errors and the completeness of the deduc- 
tion of its probable or its possible error due to sources of all kinds — 
systematic and accidental. 

We may safely state that it is largely to the increased attention 
paid to this necessary feature in the conduct and publication of re- 
searches that we owe much of the scientific advance of the past 25 
years. 

Were this a purely Physical, Chemical, Astronomical or Geo- 
detic Association, one would be tempted to dwell on this subject for 
the remainder of the Address, and to illustrate by examples the 
fuller significance of these remarks ; but as there are many other sub- 
jects w^hich it seems desirable to touch, it must suffice to quote Lord 
Kelvin's words of over 30 years ago, viz. : 

" Accurate and minute measurement seems to the non- 
scientific imagination a less lofty and dignified work than look- 
ing for something new. But nearly all the grandest discoveries 
of science have been the rewards of accurate measurement and 
patient, long-continued labour in the minute sifting of numerical 
results.'' 

That is undoubtedly true of Astronomy, Chemistry and Physics- 
- — 1 believe it to be increasingly true of Geology and Physiology, and 
probably also of other sciences. 

Turning now from the duties of the Scientist to Science, let us 
consider briefly the duties of our Association to Scientists and to 
other Scientific bodies. 

The ol)jects of our Association are defined by our Constitution 
as follows.: 

" To give a stronger impulse and a more systematic direc 

tion to Scientific enquiry; to promote the intercourse of Societies 

and Individuals interested in Science in different parts of South 

Africa ; to obtain a more general attention to the objects of 

pure and applied Science, and the removal of any disadvantages 

of a public kind which may impede its progress." 

This definition is, as nearly as possible, identical with that 

adopted by the British Association, and it has proved to be a sound 

and satisfactory basis for the work carried on by that body with so 

much success for more than 70 years. 

You will observe that we use the words to promote " the inter 
course of Societies and individuals interested in Science," instead 
of " the intercourse of those who cultivate Science," and this altera- 
tion was advisedly introduced on two accounts. 

In the first place we think it the more accurate description of 
our own possibilities, and. if I may venture to sav so, it is also a 



Address by Sir David Gill. 27 

more complete description of the actual practice or the British 
Association. 

In the second place we wish to emphasise the fact that the 
last thing which this Association desires to do is to interfere with 
the existence or function of any existing Society. 

Some misunderstanding has arisen on this point, an idea that 
this As.sociation was to usurp all the scientific functions of the 
country — to absorb all the other Societies in itself, to have active 
branches in all parts of South Africa, each of them with frequent 
meetings and popular lectures given by lecturers supplied by the 
Association — and I know not what besides. In fact we were to 
combine in ourselves not only the functions performed in England 
bv the British Association, but also those of the Royal Society, of 
the whole of the metropolitan and local Scientific Societies, of the 
University Extension Lectures, and of the sensational popular lec- 
turer as well. Even if this were possible on an Annual Subscription 
of jQi — which it is needless to say it is not — it would be hard to 
conceive any plan more likely to discourage working Scientists and 
to do more harm to scientific progress in this country. 

Take, for example, the South African Philosophical Society, 
which in spite of much neglect and discouragement after its founda- 
tion by Sir Bartle Frere, has fought a good fight for 25 years and 
won for itself a recognized position amongst the Scientific Societies 
of the world by publishing regular transactions containing some 
papers of classic value ; and it has also acquired by exchange and 
purchase a valuable scientific library of reference. 

Is it reasonal)le to suppose that such a Society and its followers 
in other parts of Africa are to extinguish themselves because this 
Association has come into being ? Certainly not. The hard work 
of original research and its presentation, discussion and regular 
publication are the business of these Societies. That important 
work should go on quietly at their regular meetings, and we beliefve 
it will do so with increased efficiency in future, not in spite of but 
partly because of the very existence of this Association. 

But to return to the " Objects of our Association." You may 
note that we describe the field of our operations as that of promoting 
intercourse " in different parts of Africa '" instead of the more ambi- 
tious field " the British Empire and foreign philosophers." 

Thei-e modifications of ours appear to be justified. We can 
hardly — not yet at least — expect to attract man\- foreign philosophers 
to our shores for the sake of this Association alone, although we do 
expect to help in a humble l)ut effective way in bringing the parent 
Association here, and with it not a few foreign Scientists in its 
train, as well as many m(jre from the Old Country and from all 
parts of the British Empire. (I may perhaps be allowed here to add 
parenthetically that I have heard from Lord Kelvin to the effect 
that although he does not forget that in 1905 he would be 81 years 
of age. yet, if he is as well then as he is now. nothing would give 
him greater pleasure than to visit us at the Ob.servatory and attend' 



^S Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

the Meeting of the British Association in South Africa in that 
year.) 

It cannot be without a lasting Ijeneficial influence on the 
intellectual and material progress of the country that a body of men, 
distinguished in every branch of pure and applied Science, should 
come to this country, meet us in social and scientific intercourse, 
■examine for themselves the resources of the country and the great 
social and scientific problems which call for solution. That, I think, 
goes without saying. But we venture to hope also that out of such 
a visit must arise a deeper common interest, a wider mutual view, 
a larger sympathy even than that which exists at present, ami which 
already binds Britain and her Colonies together by so strong a lie. 

I feel sure that every one here to-night, everv member of the 
Association, all who have the best interests of the country at heart, 
will unite in giving to our visitors our warmest hospitality and 
welcome, that they may carry back with them not only memories 
of an interesting visit, but of true and warm hearted friends that they 
have found in South Africa. 

One of our chief functions is to bring together once a year (now 
at one centre in South Africa, now in another), not only the working 
members of the various Scientific Societies throughout the country, 
but all who are interested in Science either in an active or svmpathetic 
sense. 

There are many with undefined scientific tastes or with very 
modest appreciation of their own possible usefulness, who hesitate to 
join the more formal societies, but who feel that they may join such 
an association as this. I know not a few who, in attending a meeting 
of the British Association, have found such sympathy, such help, 
such interest as the result, and who have developed such unexpected 
capacity of their own that they have subsequently themselves become 
active workers in Science. 

Speaking from my own experience, I have a boyish recollection 
•of the meeting of the British Association at Aberdeen in 1859. with 
Prince Albert in the chair, but beyond an excited general interest in 
the whole affair I can remember no special benefit I derived from it. 
The next at which I was present was the meeting at Edinburgh in 
1871. 

Lord Kelvin (then Sir William Thomson) was in the chair. I 
was ver)- keen about a little l)it of practical astronomical work of 
my own from which I attempted to draw an important conclusion. 
It was a very bad bit of work, and its conclusions were all wrong; 
but I was treated with a kindness and consideration which my work 
did not deserve. I received useful hints and suggestions, and had 
instilled into me some of those principles of scientific caution which 
T have already tried to preach to you. I met men for the first time 
whom I have since had the privilege of regarding as amongst mv best 
and dearest friends, and without whose help, encouragement and 
guidance I could never have accomplished even the little which I 
have since been enabled to do in the way of useful work for Science. 



Address bv Sir David Gill. 29* 

Believe me., there is no more important function of an Associa- 
tion like this than the opportunity which it offers for suggestion,, 
guidance, and the formation of scientific friendship. I hope, in the 
days to come, that there will be not a few who are able to speak from 
experience in like terms of the benefits of this Association. 

The advances of Science during the past century have been so- 
rapid that none but a specialist in a limited department can hope 
to follow all the work done, as it appears in the original com- 
munications. But the British Association has stepped in and pro- 
vided its " Reports on the State of Science '" ; these are invaluable 
to the general scientist, and they afford even to the specialist a 
comprehensive glance of his subject, an invaluable source of 
reference. 

There are two promised communications in our Agenda which 
may be quoted as types. I refer, on the side of pure Science, to 
Dr. Muir s paper, entitled, " A Third List of Writings on Deter- 
minants. In this department of Mathematics, Dr. Muir is probably 
the leading authority. The work in question completes the exten- 
sive bibliography of the subject of which two parts have already 
been published by him. 

On the side of Applied Science I refer to Mr. Caldecott's com- 
munication on " The Cyanide Process from its Introduction into the 
Rand to the Present Day." 

Both these papers, and many others in the list of our Agenda, 
are types of reports peculiarly suited for communication to such an 
Association as ours. They are not mainly the results of original 
investigations on the part of their authors, and. therefore, as such 
they come less distinctly within the field of a body like our 
Philosophical Society, but they are precisely the sort of thing which 
it is the province of this Association to cultivate and to publish as 
reports. In their respective subjects they are condensed archives 
to which either the .specialist or the more general scientist would 
turn as a first aid to further investigation or knowledge. 

There is a third function of our Association which is no less 
important if we are to follow the example of the British Association — 
I mean the " grants to committees and individuals for scientific 
purposes "' which have been voted by that body from the third year 
after its inception. The first step in this direction Avas made in 1834, 
when a modest sum of ^20 was voted in aid of tidal discussions. 
This rose to ^157 the following year, to ;^435 in 1836, and to ^922 
in 1837. since which time the vote has generally exceeded ^i.ooo 
a year. The total amount expended by the Association in this wav 
to the present time amounts to nearlv ^70,000. 

The principal cities of the United Kingdom emulate one 
another in the cordiality of their invitations for the Association to 
become their guests, and sometimes deputations with the Mayor 
and some of the Councillors attend a meeting to urge officiallv the 
acceptance of their hospitality. Doubtless the blandishments of 
various Municipal Corporations will be exercised this year at South- 
port to induce the British Association to visit their respective cities 



_30 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

in 1905, but I have great confidence that the unanimous decision of 
its Council taken seven weeks ago will prevail, viz., to recommend 
the meeting at Southport in September next to accept the South 
African invitation. 

We unquestionably owe to Sir Gordon vSprigg and to the 
representatives of the other Governments of South Africa our warmest 
thanks for the hearty and substantial manner in which they have 
backed this invitation. 

It is the practice for the local authorities to make arrangements 
to defray a large part of the expenses of the meeting, to entertain 
•by private hospitality its office-bearers and specially invited 
distinguished men, and to provide the whole of the expenses of the 
various general entertainments, so that the income of the British 
Association is free to be spent upon its scientific objects. 

Here in Cape Town we gratefully acknowledge the h(jsi)itality 
of the Mayor at this first meeting of our South African Association. 
Your programmes will inform you how generous that hospitality is. 

No attempts have been made to solicit local subscriptions, so 
that the funds available for the use of our Association arise entirely 
from the entrance fees of Members and Associates. 

Within the past few days. Sir Gordon Sprigg has informed me 
that the Government of the Cape Colony has undertaken the cost 
■of printing the Reports and Papers of this Meeting. This sympa- 
thetic and generous action on the part of Government will allow the 
whole of the assets of the Association to be available for the cost of 
secretarial work and grants in aid of scientific research. 

This being so, every citizen who has joined our Association will 
have the satisfaction of knowing that, even if he or she has made no 
researches in Science, they have at least contributed something in 
sympathy and aid for its advancement. 

Looking to the future prospects of scientific progress in South 
Africa, I believe there is sound reason for the statement that these 
prospects are very hopeful, and the present a peculiarly suitable 
time for the inauguration of such an Association as this. 

The nucleus of active original work in Science must in any 
community centre round the comparatively small number of men 
whose lives are professionally devoted to its pursuit. Far be it from 
me to deprecate the efforts of the so-called amateur. In the true 
.sense of the word every professional scientist should be an amateur, for 
if he does not love his work he is certain to be a miserablv inefficient 
creature. In young countries, where most men find their daily 
bread by their daily work, the number of those who have the capacity, 
and at the same time can afford to add the active cultivation of 
Science to their daily pursuits, is necessarily more limited than in 
countries where means and leisure are more abundant. 

All the more honour to those who, like Roberts of Loverlale in 
Astronomy, or Bolus of Cape Town in Botany, have done, and are 
doing, work for Science which any professional astronomer or 
botanist might well envy. It is a hopeful sign for us that the Cape 



Address by Sir David Gill. 31 

University has c(jnferred on these men the honorary degree of Doctor 
■of Science, the highest recognitirm of their labours which it is in its 
power to bestow. 

Full)-, therefore, as one recognises the invaluable work of men 
like Roberts and Bolus, and the still more invaluable example which 
they give, it is impossible to overlook the fact that it must be mainly 
on the professional scientist that we have to rely for the increase of 
•our workers in the higher departments of research. 

Reference to the papers in the Philosophical Transactions of 
the Royal Society and the like will shew that even in the United 
Kingdom this is the case. 

It is, therefore, a most hopeful sign of progress that the South 
African College has of late made a great stride by way of strengthen- 
ing its staff. Within the past few months there have been added 
Chairs of Zoology, Botany, and History. The departments of 
Mathematics and Chemistry have been strengthened by additional 
assistants. A Chair of Engineering is about to be created, and the 
subjects of Logic and English Literature, formerly in the hands 
of one Professor, are now divided into two Chairs. 

Steps are being taken at the Victoria College, Stellenbosch, 
with a view to the creation of a new Chair in Zoology, and a separate 
Chair of Geology (instead of connecting the latter as at present 
"with Chemistry) ; it is also proposed to raise the Lectureship in 
Botany to a full Professorship. Of St. Andrew's College at Graham's 
Town one hears that there is a possibility of its being remodelled into 
a University-College that will provide for efficient higher Science 
teaching in the Eastern Province. 

In addition to the Professors of University Colleges we have 
as professional scientific men in the Cape Colony the officers of 
the Museums, of the Geological Survey, and of the Bacteriological 
Institute, the Government Biologist with his Trawler and Marine 
Laboratory, the Government Botanist, the Entomologist, the Analyst, 
the Secretary of the Meteorological Commission, the Conservator 
oi Forests, and the Chief Government Veterinarv Surgeon. 

In the Transvaal Ave have the Departments of the Ordnance 
Surrey, the Geological Survey, of the Museum and Zoological Gar- 
den, of the Government Analyst, the Government Bacteriologist, 
the Director of the Meteorological Department, and corresponding 
officers of similar but less numerous departments in Xatal, the Orange 
Hiver Colony, and Rhodesia. 

Many of these men and the otiicers of their staffs are doing 
good original scientific work — all of them should do it. 

I am unable to enumerate the many who are engaged in the 
utilization of Science as in railway construction, mechanical 
engineering, and in the design and erection of large machinery for 
•waterworks, irrigation works, works for electric lighting and electric 
power transmission, rock-drilling, water-boring, hoists, and all the 
appliances connected with large mining operations. The rapidly 
growing discoveries of mineral wealth point to an immense industrial 
development in the near future. 



^2 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

We have, foreshadowed, the utiHzation of the Zambesi Falls and 
the electric transmission of such part of their immense energy as is 
necessary for working the great coal, iron, copper, and gold mines 
which lie inside a radius that is well within the limit of economic 
working by use of high tension currents. 

With cheap power thus available, with excellent coal and good 
iron ore. it will probably be possible to manufacture economically 
in Rhodesia all the steel rails required for present and future use 
in South Africa, and to compete successfully with the Home market 
in the manufacture of corrugated iron, wire fencing, and other articles- 
of the kind, for which there is so large a demand in this part of the 
world. 

But it is not my immediate object to enter into the possibilities' 
of the economic development of South Africa, but rather to point out 
that for such development the services of a very large body of able 
scientific men will be required. 

If her own sons are to take their part in this great development, 
South Africa is bound to provide for their thorough education and 
training. And. along with that education and training of young, 
and eager minds, she will, if the work is properly done, not only 
advance her material interests, but raise the intellectual level of the 
rising generation, and contribute her share in the World's Advance- 
ment of Science. 

In the selection of Professors for this end we must be careful 
to appoint only men of the right type. 

The mere utilization or teaching of Science is not scientific 
activit\. In Science, as in everything else, there is no such thing 
as standing still. You must advance or go backwards. In the earlier 
stages of scientific study it is true that the foundations may be laid, 
and often are very soundly laid, by a teacher who teaches little more 
than what is to be found in the text-books, hut I imagine that the 
fire of the original thinker and worker must be in the heart of every 
successful teacher even of elementary Science although he may lack 
time and opportunity for its pursuit. 

In the higher departments of scientific teaching the spirit of 
the work is missed, its whole essence as a mental development lost, 
if the Professor himself has not the inlmrn spirit and the time and 
opportunity for original research. 

Time was when the attempt was made to teach Physics and 
Chemistry Avithout working laboratories, and with the mere exhibition 
on the lecture-table of routine apparatus and class experiments. I 
remember these conditions only too well. The hopeless inefficiency 
and " dry as dust "" character of such a method of teaching experi- 
mental Science is now so well understood that I need not further 
condemn it. 

Although it is now admitted that laboralorv work is essential 
even in moderately elementary teaching of experimental Science, it 
is not yet fully realized how much greater is the value of the work 
of a teacher in every branch of Science who is himself also aa 
original thinker and worker. 



Address by Sir David Gii.l. 35 

In the higher departments of all kinds of scientific training it 
is not too much to say that the capacity for and the practice of 
original research on the part of the Professor is essential for the 
creation of a vigorous school of thought and healthy aspiration on 
part of the students. This view was w^ell stated by Sir Michael 
Foster in his Presidential Address to Section I. at the Toronto Meet- 
ing of the British Association in 1897. He said: 

" Xow each teacher, however modest his post, feels and 
says that the authorities under whom he works are bound to 
provide him with the means of leading his students along the 
only path by which Science can be truly entered upon, that by 
which each learner repeats for himself the fundamental observa- 
tions on which the Science is based. 

" But there is a still larger outcome from the professorial 
chair than the training of the students ; these are opportunities 
not for training only, but also for research. And perhaps in no 
respect has the development during the past thirteen years been 
so marked as this. Never so clearly as during this period has 
it become recognized that each post for teaching is no less a 
post for learning, that amongst academic duties the making 
knowledge is as urgent as the distributing it, and that among 
professorial qualifications the gift of garnering in new truths is 
at least as needful as facility in the didactic exposition of old 
ones." 

Although these words were spoken more especially in connection 
with the teaching of Physiolog). they hold to the full as true with 
respect to all the experimental sciences ; and in connection with the 
teaching equipment of our Colleges one can hardlv insist too strongly 
on their importance. 

To increase the number of Chairs is certainly a desirable object ; 
but it is even still more necessary to find the right kind of Professor, 
and provide him with assistance in amount and qualitv sufficient 
to allow him reasonable leisure for research. 

The Professor who has not that opportunitv, whose hours of 
teaching alone make up nearly the hours of a schoolmasters duty, 
is practically debarred from research, and his teaching, unless he is 
a man of exceptional energy and strength of constitution, is sure 
to lapse into dull routine and to lose all that fire and interest which 
the pursuit of original thought and research can alone give to it. 

It is eminently satisfactory to find that, in connection with the 
new Chairs of Botany and Zoology at the South African College it 
is expressly stated, that, as the number of classes in each subject will 
be comparatively small, original research will be regarded as part 
of the Professor's duties. 

The South African College has been congratulated on obtaining 
able men to fill these Chairs notwithstanding the modest salaries it 
was able to offer; no doubt the temptation offered bv opportunitv 
for research was the real secret of that success. There is no man 
worth his salt who would not regard such a position as ])referable 
to one more highly paid but without that opportunit\. If ruir 



j4 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Colleges want good Science Professors they now know the true way to 
get them. By these remarks I do not imply that a good Professor 
should be hadlv paid, l)ut that amongst the temptations which induce 
the best men to cf)me forward none can be greater than the acknow- 
ledgment that original research wm l)e regarded as an important part 
of their dut\ , and that lime and opportunity will be gi\-en tor this 
purpose. 

It was mv intention, as part of this address, to present a short 
account of the work that has been already done for Science in South 
Africa, and which, with the assistance of some of our members, was 
prepared for this purpose. The limits imposed by time render it 
necessary to relegate these remarks to the lot of " papers taken as 
read." 

It is impossible, however, to refrain from mention ot one 
particular work now in progress which is not only of great scientific 
and practical value, but the mode of its inception and execution 
marks the kind of .spirit we wish to find in the Professors of our 
University Colleges and in those who are responsible for the govern- 
ment of the countrx. I refer to the Magnetic Survey of South 
Africa. 

This Survey was started in December, 1897, by Professors 
Beattie and Morrison, entirely at their own cost and carried on during 
their vacations. The work was continued by them during the 
College vacations of subsequent years with the aid of grants, partly 
from the Government Grant Fund of the Royal Society of London, 
partly from the Government of the Cape Colony. In August of last 
year a proposal was made Ijy Ur. Beattie to dev(jle the whole of 
the year 1903, and till February, 1904, to the work, if the necessarily 
heavy expenses could be provided. This offer became possible from 
the fact that the terms of Dr. Beatties engagement provided for a 
year"s leave after five year's service, if a suitable temporary substitute 
was supplied. Dr. Beatties work has a special importance during the 
present year because it fills a gap which would otherwise exist in 
the series of magnetic observations now being made in other parts 
of the world simultaneously with those which are now being carried 
out by the Antarctic Expeditions near the Southern Magnetic Pole. 

His Excellency Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson, recognizing the 
importance of the work and the self-sacrifice and devotion which 
prompted it from the beginning, interested himself in procuring the 
necessary funds. Thanks to him and the generosity with which 
the various Governments of South Africa responded to His 
Excellencv's appeal. Dr. Beattie is now free to devote himself whollv 
to ihe work until February. 1904. by which time, if all goes wfll, it 
will be completed. 

I venture, in His PLxcellenc\'s presence, to expi'ess ihe ihanks 
•of all whc are interested in the progress of Science for his ready aid 
in this important matter. 

This Association cannot yet hope to carry out large works like 
a Magnetic Survey from its " Grants for Research." but it shnuld at 
least be in a position from these grants to help men of proved 



Address by Sir David Gill. 35 

-capacity to undertake researches which involve comparatively small 
expenditure ; or. when larger sums are involved, to give sound advice 
to Government on the expenditure of public money for scientific 
purposes. 

The question of Geodetic and Topographic Survey in South 
Africa generally is one that 1 propose to deal with in greater detail 
in a Report to be communicated during the pre.sent meeting 
to Section C. It may be sufficient to state now, in a few words, the 
•crying need for greater progress in this department. 

Good maps are essential for good administration in [)eace as 
as well as in war. The want of any reliable maps during the late 
war sufficiently proves my point in the latter respect. 

In the Cape Colony and Xatal the foundations have been well 
laid, the principal triangulation being complete. Of secondary 
triangulation a little beginning has been made, but only here and 
there is a trace to be found of sound topographic work. Thousands 
and thousands of pounds have been spent in surveys of a feeble, 
unconnected kind in the Cape Peninsula alone — far more money than 
enough to have mapped it thoroughly on a large scale. It is high 
time that the work was undertaken for the whole country, in an 
•economical and systematic way, by a well organized department, 
spending at least ;^25,ooo a year until the work is finished. 

A proper Survey Department is being organized for the Trans- 
vaal and Orange River Colony, which, it is to be hoped, will shew 
an example to the rest of South Africa. 

In Rhodesia a sound basis of geodetic triangles has been carried 
through a part of the country, and the British South Africa Company 
has provided in an enlightened spirit for the extension of the work 
along the 30th Meridian from the Zambesi to Lake Tanganyika, 
a work of great practical importance as well as of high .scientific 
value. We welcome as a distinguished guest here to-night Dr. 
Rubin, who will sail from Cape Town in a few days for Chinde, as 
leader of the Zambesi-Tanganyika ex])edition. His last work was 
upon the measurement of an Arc of Meridian in Spitzbergen. extend- 
ing to within 10 degrees of the North Pole. In North Ea.stern 
Rhodesia he will encounter a very different climate, but I am sure 
we all trust that he will emerge from it with no less success than that 
Avhich crowned his labours in the Far North. 

There are many other points on which one would wish to dwell. 

For example, the successful researches of Dr. Gilchrist ; he has 
not only made valuable contributions to marine biology, but has 
proved the practically inexhaustible character of our fishing grounds. 
This is a fact which our men of business have been too slow to recog- 
nize, but which, with reasonable enterprise in the establishment of a 
fleet of trawlers with cold storage, should prove not only a source of 
wealth but afford an abundant supply of fish at prices which would 
put that article of food once more within reach of the man of small 
means. 

The results of the Geological Survey deserve sjiecial mention, 
.as also do the entomological researches of Peringuey and Purcell, the 



;^6 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

work of Dr. Marloth in Bolan\ , the invaluable work of the Bacterio- 
logical Laboratory at Graham.stown, under Dr. Edington, Scully's 
work in ethnology and natural history, and the labours of many others 
besides. 

But the limits of time prevent entry" into so wide a field. 

Let me therefore in conclusion remind you of a great historical 
generalization which appears to point to the fact that the time is- 
ripe for the establishment of such an Association as this. 

History teaches that all national events which call for supreme- 
effort and self-sacrifice on part of a people and leave behind 
them, for a time, a legacy of untold suffering and miser)', have almost 
invariably in the end been followed by a period of intellectual progress- 
and development. 

We here in South Africa have pas.sed through such a crisis ; 
pray God that it may be followed by a like result; and may this 
Association be one of those means which will help towards such a 
consummation. 

Science knows no nationality, and forms a meeting-ground on 
which men of every race are brethren, working together for a common, 
end — and that end is truth. 



SECTION A. 



2.— PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 
Bv Professor P. D. Hahx. Ph.D.. M.A. 



The section of our Association of which I have the honour to be 
President, includes, besides Chemistry, also Astronomy, Mathematics, 
Meteorology and Physics. Since each of those Sciences comprises 
so extensive a subject that man's life is too short to penetrate into 
all branches of any one of those Sciences, it does not require further 
explanation on my part why I shall not and cannot attempt to give 
a review, however brief, of the progress of those Sciences. The 
programme of the papers of our section refers to all those Sciences, 
and subjects of the different branches of all those Sciences will be 
discussed during the present congress. I shall, therefore, limit my- 
self in this address to Chemistry, to the study and promotion of 
which I have devoted the best part of my life. 

It is customary that the President of a section includes in his 
address a review of the progress for the last year or years of the 
Science which he professes. At the outset I shall give you the 
reasons which have induced me to deviate from this custom. The 
professional scientist, who carefully peruses the scientific periodicals, 
is regularly kept informed of this progress, and the non-professional 
scientist finds in the excellent reports of the meetings of the British 
Association, and of similar organisations in other countries, ample 
information on this subject, namely, the progress of research and the 
results of investigations in the several departments of Science. That 
■excellent scientific publication, Nature, supplies its readers annually 
also with a general review of the progress of Chemistry. Here in 
South Africa are very few, if any, to be found, who have time, leisure, 
means and energy for carrying on original research, and we are 
therefore here greatly dependent upon the reports on the work done 
at the numerous seats of intense scientific activity of Europe. The 
professional scientist finds a detailed account of the progress of 
Chemistry in Richard Meyer's " Jahrbiicher der Chemie," an annual 
publication, which I warmly recommend to my colleagues, the Pro- 
fessors and Teachers of Chemistry. Instead of giving on this occa- 
sion a general review of the progress of Chemistry during the last 
years. I intend reporting on the present state of the studv of Chemistry 
in South Africa, and shall refer more in detail to a number of prob- 
lems which fall more particularly into the sphere of work and re- 
.search of those who have devoted themselves to the studv of Chemis- 
try and its application to metallurgy, agriculture and physiology. 
The present occasion appears to be particularly favourable for giving 



38 Report S.A.A. A--.vancement of Science. 

such a report, because it is now the first time in the his- 
tory of the intellectual development of South Africa that a 
scientific congress is held in obedience to the want gener- 
ally felt to work with comlnned forces for the promotion 
of interest in scientific work and for the advancement of 
Science in South Africa. The impetus to the movement to establish 
the South African Association for the Advanrement of Science, with, 
its annual congress, was given by my friend, Mr. Theodore Reunert, 
who has also taken a most active part in the organisation of our 
Association. Not only the members of our. Association, but all 
interested in the progress of South Africa, owe Mr. Reunert a debt 
of gratitude for his work in connection with this Association. Al- 
though mankind is not distinguished for its gratitude for favours re- 
ceived, I trust that the members of this Association will make an 
exception by always gratefully remembering Mr. Reunert as the 
father and founder of the South African Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

Let us now turn to our subject and examine the position which 
Chemistry holds in South Africa : its study in schools and colleges, 
its application to the industries, and to the development of cognate 
branches of science. 

In order to thoroughly understand and appreciate the condition 
under which Chemistry is studied in South Africa we must remember 
that the University of the Cape of Good Hope has only been in 
existence for nearly 28 years, and that the syllabus of the Matricula- 
tion Examination during this time {provided, and still provides, that 
the rising generation may also study a little Chemistry, if the rising 
generation chooses to do so, for Chemistry as well as all other 
branches of Science are " optional " subjects in the Matriculation 
Examination of our University. During all these years the Univer- 
sity authorities must have held the opinion that the study of Science 
is not an integral part of the education of a young man, and during 
these 28 years many a young South African has become an under- 
graduate and subsequently a graduate in the Uuiversity without even 
having acquired the remotest knowledge of any branch of Science. 

It is hardly credible, but nevertheless it is a fact, that the 
University regulations allow this neglect of the study of Science in 
this country, of which the future dejiends in the first place upon the 
development of its natural resources, which requires above all a 
thorough and comprehensive knowledge of Science, which should be 
part and parcel of the education of every South African. For many 
years past we have met in almost every issue of English scientific peri- 
odicals complaints about the neglect of scientific and technical educa- 
tion in the schools and colleges of England as compared with those of 
Germany and America. It is stated that during the past century 
the education of the youth in England has not kept pace with the 
enormous and rapid development of the Sciences and their applica 
tion to all branches of practical life. It has also been said that 
althongh many beautiful and stately buildings for educational pur- 
poses have been erected, the value of the scientific work done Avithin 



Address by Dr. Hahn. 39 

is in no proportion to the architectural grandeur. There are also 
those, and for my part 1 side with them, who attribute those short- 
comings to the prevailing examination system which pervades all 
education in England, and. I regret to say, also here. I shall not 
follow up this subject now, for I fear my words will be like a voice in 
the wilderness, because this examination system is the very foundation 
of our University, which is merely an examining body, and it is also- 
carefully nursed by the Education Department. 

With reference to the neglect of the study of Science in our 
schools, I believe our Association can do much towards altering the 
present unsatisfactory state of affairs. It is plainly stated in our 
constitution that one of the objects of our Association is " to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of pure and applied Science 
and the removal of any disadvantages of a public kind which may 
impede its progress." It is therefore the duty of our Association 
to take steps for the removal of the disadvantages under which the 
South African students at present prosecute their education, and to- 
take care that the study of Science is a sine qua non in the curriculum 
of every young South African. Our Association must point out to the 
University Council the necessity of introducing Science into the com- 
pulsory subjects of the Matriculation Examination. In the University 
of London two Science subjects are compulsory in the Matriculation 
Examination, viz.. Chemistry and Physics, but I think we should try 
to induce the University Council to have for the present only one 
Science subject amongst the compulsory subjects of the Matriculation 
Examination, viz., Chemistry, or Physics, or "Botany. The Matricula- 
tion Examination marks in our general course of education rather the 
end of the school education than the beginning of academic 
studies. In 1901 there were 732 candidates entered for this examina- 
tion, that is to say 732 young South Africans had at least for one year 
studied the several subjects prescribed for this examination. Of 
these 732 candidates, only 152, about one-fifth, presented themselves, 
the following year at the next higher, the Intermediate Examination, 
What has become of the other 580 candidates wh(j abso entered irt 
1 90 1 for the Matriculation Examination ? Thev are scattered all 
over South Africa. Some of them having passed the Matriculation- 
Examination have turned with most of those who failed into different 
walks of life. A few — very few — who failed, remained at school tO' 
try again the next year. If the regulations of the Matriculation 
Examination contained the condition that all candidates have to 
show a competent knowledge in at least one Science subject, all 
these young South Africans — 580 — -would be so many seeds for 
spreading the interest in Science. Of course, we cannot expect 
those, who during their school days never came into touch with any 
branch of Science, to interest themselves in later years in the spread 
and growth and promotion of the study of Science or of scientific 
pursuits. What I have stated for the year 1901 repeats itself ever\' 
year, only the number of candidates grows larger every vear. 

For these reasons I request all the members of the South African 
Association for the Advancement of Science to use their influence- 



40 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

with a view to securini^ to Science its proper jilace in the curriculum 
of the Matriculation Examination of the University. Considering 
the large number and the representative nature of the members of 
our Association, they have a claim to have their views on educational 
matters considered by the University Council. Having passed the 
Matriculation Examination, the young South African enters into prac- 
tical life, or he takes up a profession, joining an attorney's office, study- 
ing surveying, taking up the mining course, or proceeding to a College 
to prepare himself for a University Degree; the larger numljer of 
the undergraduates proceeti to a College. In order t(j get to the 
B.A. Examination, the student must first go through the Intermediate 
Examination. This examination could be passed before 1902 with- 
out the candidate taking up a Science subject, and nearly one-half 
of the candidates passing this Examination before 1902 did not take 
a Science subject. This defect has recently been remedied, inasmuch 
as at present a Science subject is included in the syllabus of this 
examination amongst the compulsory subjects, and in Chemistry the 
candidate has to pass even a practical examination. This is as it 
should be. The student who now^ passes the Intermediate Examina- 
tion and then proceeds to the literary side will have in later years 
a better understanding . of, and a better insight into, the great 
economic questions connected with the development of this country, 
which in the last instance are always connected with the one or the 
other branch of Science. The student who proceeds from the 
Intermediate to the Bachelor of Arts Degree in Science generally 
studies, besides Mathematics, also Physics or Chemistry, or both. 
According to my experience, the South African student possesses a 
considerable measure of ability for mastering the more difficult prob- 
lems in the Experimental Sciences, and particularly in Chemistry. 
Many students have done experimental and research work in our 
laboratory which would be creditable to advanced and experienced 
students in Continental Universities. 

In consequence of the inferior position allotted to Science in 
the education system throughout South Africa, these departments are, 
as a rule, inadequately equipped in Schools as well as Colleges. 
The teaching and study of the experimental Sciences require an 
•equipment of apparatus and material which are soon consumed and 
have to be renewed from time to time. It stands to reason that in 
the hands of beginners apparatus suffers more than when handled by 
•experienced men. Consequently, there is a greater expense con- 
nected with the efficient teaching of these subjects, for which provi- 
sion must be made. The fact should not be lost sight of that a 
knowledge of the Experimental Sciences is to the young South 
African, when the school years have passed, of greater use than most 
of the other subjects contained in the school curriculum. In making 
provision for the requirements of education, the principal object must 
always be to secure efficiency, and not the desire to illustrate how 
•cheap education can be. 

Thanks to the energy of the Council of the South African 
College, this institution is now equipped in such a manner that effi- 



Address by Dr. Hahn. 41 

cient teachiii}^ is supplied in the principal branches of Science. It 
is very gratit'ving to observe that these opportunities are made use ot. 
as is shown by the ever-increasing number of students who take up 
the study of two or more Science subjects. The Chemical Labora- 
tory, originally intended for 21 students, has become much too small, 
and an extension of the laboratory is now in course of construction. 
In other Colleges the number of students of Science subjects has 
also considerably increased. These institutions, following the ex- 
ample of the South African College, have also acquired Chemical 
and Physical Laboratories. Even in some schools provision has been 
made to do something towards teaching the rudiments of Science in 
Chemistrv. and it is very pleasing to me that some of my former 
pupils are now teaching Chemistry in these schools. More could Ije 
done in this direction if the teachers of the schools could have some 
simplest apparatus for demonstrating a scientific fact. The principal 
object of the lecture experiment is to illustrate an important reaction, 
or chemical or physical process, which is typical for a .series of 
similar reactions. In order to attain this object the experiment must 
be carefully prepared and tried beforehand, and when it comes off 
in the lecture it must be successful without fail, or else it deprives 
the student of all confidence in experimental demonstrations. To 
make experiments in connection with Science teaching is an art 
which must be taught, understood and practised ; it cannot be 
acquired by book cramming and subsequent examination, as is un- 
fortunately the case wiih most other subjects of the school curriculum. 
I cannot conclude this brief sketch of the present t^ondition of 
Science teaching in our Schools and Colleges without mentioning 
that already three South Africans who have taken the Science B.A. 
degree have subsequently passed successfully the Master of Arts 
Examination in Chemistn-, and that a fair number of South African 
B.A. students are now prosecuting their education in different 
branches of Science in Universities and Technical High Schools on 
the Continent. They have there, on the one hand, better labora- 
tories for study, and on the other, also, frequently an opportunity of 
visiting and examining large industrial establishments, in which they 
find the ocular demonstration of the application of scientific prin- 
ciples to practical purposes. To these young South Africans we 
must look as teachers of Science in our Schools and Colleges, and 
it is to be hoped that many will follow their example. Although the 
study of Chemistry and of the other branches of Science is still in the 
incipient state, there are indications which justify the hope that before 
long Science will have its proper place in the school curriculum, and 
that the experimental sciences will be taught in such a manner that 
they will not only prove of great practical use in after-life, but will 
develop the mental faculties more effectually than could be done 
by the prevailing system of teaching dead languages with the aid of 
a crib. I have already repeatedly referred to the practical use of 
training during vacation courses in the experimental side of the teach- 
ing of Chemistry and Physics. A teacher may be full of book- 
learning and at the same time unable to put up or to handle the 



42 Keport S.A.A. Advancemen'i of Science. 

scientific trainin^^ in after-lite, and during the time T have l)een at 
the South African College I have observed many cases which support 
lius statement. Since the opening of the Laboratory we have had 
always a large number of students who' studied, specially, practical 
Chemistry with a view to using the acquired knowledge for some 
practical purpose or profession. Some of these specialists havt,- 
become pharmaceutical chemists, others have become wine experts, 
others are now brewers, but the largest number of these speciaUsts 
took up assaying and metallurgical work. Since 1885 more than 
a hundred of these specialists have studied assaying, and the 
majority of these have found employment, and hold good positions 
m connection with the mining industry throughout South Africa. 
During the last years the number of these specialists had to be 
limited, because there was no room in the Laboratory for them, all 
available stands being taken up by the " full course " students. As 
soon as the extension of the Laboratory is complete, these specialists 
who make the study of Chemistry a profession, will be received again. 
In this Laboratory, as well as in Chemical Laboratories connected 
with the other Colleges, the principal work of the Professor and his 
assistants is teaching, and it will probably remain so for some time 
to come, however desirable it is that original research in the various 
branches of Chemistry and its application to the industries should 
have a home in the Laboratories of the country. During the first 
years after the opening of this La1)oratory a good deal of research 
work was done, more particularly in the application of Chemistry 
to Viticulture, Tobacco-growing, Chemistry of Fermentation, and 
Mineral Chemistry. But not long after the opening of the Laboratory 
the time of the Professor was completely absorbed by teach- 
ing, because, in addition to the teaching of Inorganic and 
Organic Chemistr}', also Agricultural Chemistr)-, Chemical 
Technology, Metallurgy and Assaying w^ere taken up, besides 
the ordinary Laboratory instruction. As these subjects are 
divided in Continental Colleges between three or four Professors, 
It is evident that one Professor cannot do full justice to all of them, 
and that he has no time for research work if he prepares himself 
conscientiously for the lectures of the several courses, and if he keep.s 
himself abreast of the progress of his Science. It is very singular 
that the subject of original research is constantly mentioned in con- 
nection with the Laboratories and the Science Chairs of the Colleges, 
and that this question is never asked with regard to the Chairs of 
Classics, Literature, History, Hebrew, and Modern Languages. It 
is only a few months ago that objections were raised in certain 
quarters to the establishment of a Chair of Botany, because it was 
held that the time of the Professor of Botany would not be fully 
occupied by teaching. If it is expected of a Professor to have his 
time fully occupied by teaching he cannot be expected to devote a 
portion of his time also to the prosecution of the numerous problems 
in his sphere of learning which call for investigation and research. 
There is no person better able to point out the subjects and problems 
which require investigation and research in that particular branch. 



Address by Dr. Hahn. 4;^ 

of Science which he professes. The farther he penetrates into this 
particular branch of Science the more he finds how little he knows 
of the subject himself, and how little is known, and how much is 
still awaiting investigation and research. It is therefore much to be 
regretted that under the present regime the Professors of the Colleges 
are so fully engaged in teaching that they cannot follow up original 
research into the many problems and subjects which present them- 
selves, particularly in a young country like South Africa, to the 
student of Science, and particularly to the student of Chemistry. 

May I now draw your attention to some of the problems and 
subjects which invite investigation and research from those students 
and disciples of Chemistrv. who, on the one hand possesses such a 
thorough training in theoretical and practical Chemistry as is required 
for such work, and on the other hand have also time and leisure to 
undertake research work, which absorbs more time and closer atten- 
tion than any other scientific occupation. Let us commence with 
Mineral Chemistry. There are minerals and groups of minerals 
here in South Africa which should be submitted to very close in- 
vestigation, the results of which would be of great scientific value, 
inasmuch as these investigations will throw light on the mode of 
formation of these minerals, and will also extend our knowledge of 
the paragenesis of these minerals. 

In Little Namaqualand there occur in connection with the 
copper ore deposits a large number of copper minerals which have 
been formed by the action of the oxygen, carbonic dioxide, and 
moisture of the atmosphere on the original sulphide of the ore 
deposit. All these minerals are basic products of oxidation of the 
original copper ores, and are distinguished bv a definite crystallo- 
graphical form, so that there can be no doubt about their indi- 
viduality as mineral species. Some of those minerals are known, 
some not. They contain various amounts of water of crystallization 
and constitution. Since they have been formed under the influence 
of the hot and dry climate of Little Namaqualand. it would be of 
great interest to know whether and how far a direct influence of the 
climatic conditions upon the formation and constitution of these 
minerals could be traced. 

Another interesting problem for research for the student of 
Mineral Chemistry is furnished at the tin ore deposits at Embabaan 
in Swaziland. Together with tin ore occur at this locality extra- 
ordinarily rare and most interesting minerals, such as Aischinite, 
Euxenite. Fergusonite, and Monazite. These minerals are not only 
interesting because they contain numerous rare metals, amongst them 
Thorium, which is now much in demand for the construction of 
certain incandescent lamps, but they are of special value since they 
contain the recently discovered noble gas Helium, which is at present 
mainly obtained from certain Scandinavian minerals, especially 
from Cleveite. Helium has been found also- in certain gases issuing 
from mineral springs in the Pyrenees. It would be a matter of great 
scientific interest to ascertain whether this element is also found ir> 
the gases issuing from some of our mineral springs. 



44 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

A large group of minerals, the Zeolites, hydrated Silicates, are 
well represented in South Africa. Of great beauty and variety are 
especially the Apophyllites, Natrolites and Mesotypes, Prehnites, 
from Kimberley, Jagersfontein, Beaufort West, and Cradock. They 
furnish splendid material also to the physicist, who investigates the 
optical properties of these minerals. They were specially valued by 
the famous Descloisaux, Professor of Mineralogy in Paris, who 
studied principally the physical properties of these Zeolites. But I 
know that there are found at some places, for example, near Hope- 
town, on the Orange River, Zeolites, that is to say, hydrated silicates 
of secondary formation, which are new, and not investigated yet. 
Beautiful specimens for the study of the paragenesis of Quartz and 
Prehnite are furnished by the Prehnites of Beaufort West and 
Cradock. These Zeolites are found and observed in the vicinity 
of the Dolerite, Uiorite, Melaphyre dykes and intrusions which 
traverse the geological formation of South Africa from Simon's 
Town to the Zambesi. A close and detailed study and investigations 
of these interesting and beautiful minerals here in South Africa will 
not only throw much light on the formation of these minerals, but 
will also lead to the discovery of new, hitherto unknown, represent- 
atives of this group of minerals. ' The effect of the climatic con- 
ditions upon the disintegration of minerals and rocks and the 
secondary products formed in this disintegration is also a subject of 
great scientific interest. In many localities in the Karroo are found 
pebbles of ferruginous clay, which are surrounded by a coating of 
Magnetic Oxide of Iron, which is undoubtedly formed under the 
influence of the hot and dry state of the air of the Karroo during a 
considerable part of the year. Another problem which calls for 
investigation are the products of the disentegration of Doleritic and 
Basaltic rocks. At some localities, for example, near Colesberg, the 
Dolerite hills are white, as if they had been whitewashed from the 
Carbonate of Lime formed in the decomposition of the rock ; at 
other localities the same rock has put on a protecting coat of Oxide 
of Iron, and at others it crumbles to a sandy powder, yielding a dark 
red-brown soil. Also the oil shales between Kimberley and Boshof 
are not investigated yet as to their nature and commercial value. 
Equally interesting for scientific investigations are the Quartz crystals 
found near Carnarvon, containing cavities partly filled with oil — 
rock oil ; also the rock in which these crystals occur contains rock 
oil. Now there is a great difference between Hydrocarbons making 
up the American rock oil and those of the oil from Baku on the 
Caspian. It would be of great scientific interest to know what the 
composition and constitution of the oil is which has been found at 
certain localities here in South Africa. 

There is one more subject I should like to draw your attention 
to, although many others could be mentioned. In some of the caves 
on the coast near Saldanha Bay is found a peculiar deposit 
of Phosphate of Lime, closely resembling the Phosphorites of Spain 
and the hard Sambrero guano. This is evidently formed of the 
guano of seal)irds. It is quite a unique formation, a fossilized guano. 



Address by Dr. Hahn. 45 

A somewhat analogous formation is observed in the numerous caves- 
found on that grand block of mountains between Worcester and the 
Bokkeveld. In nearly all these caves occurs Bat guano, and below 
the guano on the bed rock is generally found a stratum of white 
crystalline saline matter, composed of two or three compounds,, 
which can be separated by fractional solution and crystallization. 
j.iiey are Phosphates of Ammonia and Potash. Now, these phos- 
phatic deposits of the caves throughout South Africa also call for 
investigation are the products of the disintegration of Doleritic and 
under the heading of Mineral Chemistry. 

Closely connected with the analyses of minerals are those 
investigations which are directed to the composition of soils, and 
which are undertaken more with a view to a practical object. We 
cannot withhold our recognition from the work which has been under- 
taken and carried on in the Agricultural Department in connection 
with the investigation of soils of the Colony. They were first under- 
taken on the coast and grain districts of the Colony ; that is to say, of 
those districts in which the soil consists of the products of the dis- 
integration of metanidrphous slates, sandstones, and intrusive granite, 
Malmesbury, Paarl, Stellenbosch, Cape, and Caledon. The results 
of these investigations are, so far as they have gone, of eminent 
importance for the various branches of agriculture, and these results 
should now be turned to use. The mere analyses of the soils are 
of little immediate use. The value of these analyses depends upon 
their correct interpretation and upon their application to practice. 
The numerous results of these investigations most definitely prove 
that all the primary soils formed of the previously mentioned rocks, 
viz., metamorphous slate, sandstone, and granite are poor in all the 
essential constituents of plant food, more particularly in lime. The 
amount of Phosphoric Oxide is very low ; only Potash occurs in such 
quantity that crops requiring Potash may be cultivated with advan- 
tage, such as the vine, grain, and potatoes. The leguminous 
plants, clover and lucerne, and also tobacco, do not find in this 
soil sufticient plant food, especially lime, for a healthy and luxuriant 
growth. We know that lime is an indispensable constituent of plant 
food, that it is specially accumulated in old leaves, in bark, in wood, 
whilst potatoes, carrots, and also grain, and those young parts of 
plants in which the vital functions are most active, buds, young 
shoots, and young leaves do not contain or require a larger supply 
of lime. Whilst wheat (grain) takes of one hectare 1.04 kilograms of 
lime, and potatoes (tubers) 4.19 kilograms of lime, the same area 
loses through cultivation of clover 11 1.8 kilograms, and through 
tobacco 153.7 kilograms (Ehermeyer, Chemie der Pflanzen). These 
latter were already called by Liebig lime plants. This great 
scientist also recognized the fact that the specific physiological 
functions of one mineral constituent in this system of plants could 
not be performed by another, and that these lime-requiring crops 
do not thrive on soil poor in lime. Of still greater importance are 
these investigations into the soils of the Western Province for 
Forestry and Arboriculture. All kinds of trees grown in the forests 



46 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

of Europe are distinguished by containing a very large amount of 
lime, but a comparatively small amount of potash and phosphoric 
oxide. In one of the principal works which deal with the subject 
" The Chemistry of the Forests," the following statement is pro- 
minently put forward : " It is of the utmost importance for a rational 
system of forestry to remember that all kinds of trees require a ^ ery 
large amount of lime as compared with the agricultural crops. A 
large production of wood can only be expected where the soil sup- 
plies besides the other mineral constituents, also the large demand 
of trees for lime." I will only quote here from the same work, that 
the beech tree takes of one hectare annually 96.34 Kg. of lime, and 
the tir tree, which is extremely modest in all Its requirements, as 
much as 28.61 Kg. These quantities considerably exceed the 
amount of lime which is taken by the cultivation of wheat or potatoes 
from the same area. What is known about the requirements of the 
trees recommended here in South Africa for afforestation? Have 
any investigations already been iiiade in this direction? Have these 
important results obtained by the investigations into the composition 
of soils been turned lo use by the Forest Department or in fruit- 
growing? There have been very singular failures recorded in fruit- 
growing in the Western Province, where the primary soils are very 
poor in lime. It must be remembered that the apple and pear tree 
require more lime than other fruit trees, and these again more than 
the forest trees. Has any attention been paid to these vital questions 
by the Forest Department or by Fruit-growers' Associations? I am 
afraid it is not fair to ask such questions at a time when Forestry and 
Arboriculture have been in existence in South Africa for only a few 
years. The afforestation of South Africa, wherever it can be carried 
out, is of such eminent economic importance that our Association 
should take up a definite attitude with regard to this matter. The 
South African Association for the Advancement of Science should 
appeal to all the Governments of the South African States to com- 
bine in order to establish one common Forest Academy for South 
Africa. Such institutions exist in some of the Continental States, 
<i.nd there should be no difficulty in establishing one for South Africa. 
In this institution the young forester should be practically and 
scientifically trained for his profession with due regard to South 
African soil, climate, and forests. In this institution everybody 
should be able to obtain information and advice on tree-planting and 
fruit-growing. In such an institution those scientific investigations 
of soils, requirements of trees, and other matters should be carried 
out on which a rational system of forestry and arboriculture can 
only be based, and the nurseries, plantations, and forests connected 
with such an institution would soon yield sufficient value to make 
it self-.supporting. 

I now appeal to all the members of the South African Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science to give support to the move- 
ment to induce the several Governments of South Africa to establish 
one common Forestry Academy for the United States of South 
Africa. 



Address bv Dr. Hahn. 47 

1 cannot leave this suljject without once more drawing \our 
attention to the use and application of scientific investigations to 
practical purposes. I have already mentioned that forest trees take 
off a given area more lime than potatoes. Since the time of Liebig it 
has been known that of all our fruit trees the apple tree requires the 
largest amount of lime, and thrives best on calcareous soil. Who 
is not reminded of this fact when he sees the poor apple trees full 
of insects and fungi, grown on the soils poor in lime, and compares 
these with the healthy, large, well-developed apple trees grown in 
Worcester, Robertson, Montagu, and Ladysmith, \vhere the soils 
of the orchards contain a fair amount of lime. 

It is regrettable that there is also in arboriculture such an utter 
disregard of scientific principles. " Everything has to be practical ; 
evervthing has to be based on practice." A continuous repetition 
of this routine is merely an excuse for the ignorance of scientific 
principles. But I think it is the most " impractical ' procedure to 
disregard certain facts which are results of scientific investigations. 
To follow practice alone is as unreasonable as to work on theory 
only. No branch of human occupation has for its progress been more 
dependent upon a combination of theory and practice than agricul- 
ture in the widest sense of the word, including also fruit-culture, 
arboriculture and viticulture. The high development which the 
several branches of agriculture and agricultural industries have 
attained in Europe and America is in the first place due to a proper 
and systematic application of the results of scientific, more particu- 
larly chemical, investigation and research. This is the only road 
which leads to progress and success, and we in South Africa have to 
follow in order to emerge out of the present unsatisfactorv amateur 
stage, and to become true and real progressives. 

A most important branch of Agriculture in the Cape Colony is 
Viticulture. The \vork of the wine-farmer is partly of a purely agri- 
cultural nature, namely, the work in the vineyard, and partly of an 
industrial or technical nature, namely, the making of the wine and 
the distilling of brandy. It is well known that the Colonial wine- 
farmers take a keen interest in the work in the vinevard. and have 
shown in this part of their work an unusual aptitude, which mani- 
fested itself during the last ten years in the reconstruction of the 
vineyards destroyed by Phylloxera, by planting grafted American 
stocks. I have seen reconstructed vineyards in some parts of the 
■Colony which could not be surpassed in any \\ine-i)roducing country 
in the world. The cellar-work throughout the wine districts is, how- 
ever, not in a satisfactory state. In explanation of this it has been 
said that it is only natural that a man who is accustomed to open 
air work does not feel inclined to do work in close, confined cellars, 
and that for this reason the cellar-work is not attended to as it should 
be. I am not satisfied with this explanation at all. Wine-making 
is by no means a simple operation, which may be done in a haphazard 
way. In order to produce a sound wine, w'hich need not be Pasteur- 
ized, or fortified, or doctored in some way, it is indispensable 
to pay close attention to the principles of Chemistry. Even' wine- 



48 Report S.A.A. Advancemeni of Science. 

farmer should possess an accurate knowledge of the principles andl 
conditions of alcoholic fermentation and of the acetic acid fermenta- 
tion, to follow the one and to avoid the other. I know, however,, 
from experience, that there are very few wine farmers who posses.s- 
some knowledge of the rudiments of the Chemistry of I'ermentation^ 
and are able to apply its principles to practice. What is the use of 
spending labour, energy and treasure on growing and producing those 
splendid grapes for which the Cape is famous if at the same time care 
be not taken to produce at least a sound wine ? The attempts hithertO' 
made with a view to spreading amongst the wine-farmers a better 
understanding of the principles of fermentation and of wine-making 
have for some reason or other not been altogether a success, and 
much remains to be done in the future in this direction. 

Closely connected with wine-making is the distillation of brandy,, 
also a branch of Chemical Technolog}*. It is astonishing how large 
the losses are which the brandy-producers annually suffer from want 
of knowledge of the very rudiments of the principles of the Chemistry 
of Fermentation. In some of the wine districts nearly all the wine 
is used for making brandy, and since on most of these farms fustage 
is insufficient, distilling and pressing is going on at the same time, 
and the young wine, containing still 6 per cent, to 10 per cent, of 
sugar, is distilled, and the yet unfermented sugar is thrown away and 
lost. About 22 years ago I tried to ascertain, at least approximately, 
the amount of loss which the brandy industry suffered annually 
through this procedure. Assuming that the average of sugar in the 
juice was 20 per cent.. 1 found that the loss of brandy amounted to 
at least 33 per cent, of what was produced, because all the young 
wines submitted to distillization contained still over 5 per cent, of 
sugar, one-third of the amount which had undergone fermenation. 

I have treated this subject a little more fully to give an example 
which illustrates how the want of knowledge and the neglect of scien- 
tific principles directly affect the revenue of the people. I could give 
several other examples of the same type, but this may suffice. 

We can hardly speak in SoutTi ATrica at present of the applica- 
tion of Chemistry to technical and industrial purposes on a large 
scale, if we exclude the two large Dynamite Factories near Somerset 
West and Johannesburg, which have been called into existence through 
the development of the mining industry, and which are to serve the 
further development of this industry. The several small attempts 
which have been made in connection with the production of cement, 
of glass, of potter}", and of sulphuric acid have not been successful. 
Some of these industries soon disappeared again, and the others have 
not prospered as they should. 

It is worth while to approach the question whether the condi- 
tions for the development of extensive chemical industries exist in 
South Africa or not. These conditions are of a social and of a 
material nature. We .shall only review the latter, because they are 
more permanent than the ever-changing and fluctuating social condi- 
tions. The principal of the material conditions for the development 
of chemical industries is an ample supply of sources of energy. The- 



Address by Dr. Hahn. 49 

first, question is, therefore, are there sources of energy in Soulh Africa 
available for developing and for maintaining chemical industries? 
Tf we divide South Africa by the meridian of De Aar into two parts, 
we find, by comparing those two parts, in the Eastern part rich dia- 
mond mines, gold mines, and ore deposits of nearly all metals of 
technical importance — Silver, Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead and Iron. 
This part of South Africa is at the same time also distinguished by 
possessing large coal deposits at Indwe. Cyphergat and Molteno in 
the Colony, in the Transkei, in Natal, at Vereeniging in the Orange 
River Colony, at Brakpan, Middelburg and Wakkerstroom in the 
Transvaal, at Wankie and on the banks of the Zambesi in Rhodesia. 
At present, coal is still the prime motor power in chemical as in 
other industries. For example, it would be impossible to extract the 
gold at the Rand with a profit if, instead of using the cheap coal of 
Brakpan, near Johannesburg, the mining industry had to buy coal at 
the rate which now rules in Cape Town. In addition to the coal, 
we have in the Eastern part of South Africa a large supply of water- 
power, which can be transferred into mechanical and electrical energy. 
An approximate estimate of this water-power in the Transkei and 
Natal gave the result that the available water-power in the Transkei and 
Natal is equal to that of Germany and Switzerland combined. Whilst 
in Germany and Switzerland the employment of this water-power has 
given a powerful impetus to the further development of chemical 
industries, nothing whatever has been done as yet in South Africa 
as to the utilization of these sources of energy. At present enormous 
masses of water still run from the Drakens Bergen in numerous 
rivers, cataracts and waterfalls to the Indian Ocean, as it has been in 
the past, without yielding a unit of energy towards the industrial 
development of South Africa. 

The Eastern part of South Africa has been well provided by 
nature, possessing, besides rich ore deposits, fertile soil and favour- 
able climate, also the two principal factors required for the develop- 
ment and maintenance of chemical industries, coal and water-power, 
transferable into mechanical and electrical energy. There is no 
doubt that these favourable conditions will before long be turned to 
use for chemical industries, as one of them, the coal, is already 
employed for the mining industry. 

And what do we find in that part of South Africa to the west 
of the meridian of De Aar? At present there has been found 
nothing besides the Copper Ore in Tittle Namaqualand and the little 
Gold in the Knysna which justifies the hope of having also in this 
part of South Africa flourishing mining industries. In the Western 
part of South Africa no indication of coal has been as yet discovered, 
and the water-power transferable into energy is very poor. Here and 
there, for example at Jonkershoek, in Mitchell's Pass, in Southey's 
Pass and in the Knysna, are a few localities where water-power can 
be transferred into mechanical energy, but in most of these cases 
only during a portion of the year. A successful development of 
coal-consuming industries, or rather energy-consuming industries, is, in 
the Western Province, out of the question. 



jo Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

These considerations lead us to the conclusion that the chemical 
industries have a great future in the Eastern part of South Africa 
but not in the West, because in the East we have an abundance of all 
those material considerations upon which the development and 
growth of all technical industries, and principally chemical industries, 
depend, whilst the West will also remain in future more or less what 
it is now, a thinly-populated country, with a little agriculture and 
viticulture in some favourably-situated localities of the coast districts, 
and sheep and cattle-farming in the Karroo districts. 

But let us return from this contemplation of future prospects to 
the present time. One branch of Metallurgy, which is simply another 
name for Chemical Technology of Metals, has, in connection with the 
gold industry, been considerably advanced through the work and re- 
search of able and competent scientific workers. I refer to the 
development of the Cyanide Process, without which the Rand gold 
industry could not exist. I shall not enter into a discussion of this 
process, since we are going to have a paper on this subject by Mr. 
W. A. Caldecott, which I have no doubt will be highly valued by 
all who take an interest in the gold industry. 

It must be remembered that the study of the Metallurgy of Gold, 
as well as of every other metal, is based upon an accurate and exten- 
sive knowledge of Chemistry, and that in the school curriculum of 
the young metallurgist ample provision must be made for the training 
in theoretical and practical Chemistry. A mere superficial knowledge 
often proves in this subject disastrous, and teachers and students 
alike of Metallurgy must pay special attention to accuracy and 
exactitude of observation, because slightly altered conditions and 
circumstances are frequently accompanied in metallurgical operations 
by the gravest consequences. 

Finally, I mention a few points in connection with the Chemistry 
of Plants and Vegetable Physiology, which particularly deserve the 
attention of those who intend taking up original research in this direc- 
tion. Here in South Africa we have a flora as rich and varied as is 
found nowhere else in the world. The work of botanists has been 
chiefly confined to systematic botany, and very little — almost nothing 
— has been done in the chemical investigation of plants and plant- 
products. The alcaloids, glycosides, resins, oils, and aromatic com- 
pounds which exist in many South African plants still await discovery, 
scientific investigation and practical application. These investiga- 
tions are, however, by no means so simple; they require, in the first 
place, a thorough training in Chemistry, particularly in Organic 
Chemistry, then an equally thorough training in the analysis of organic 
compounds and an extensive knowledge of the various methods in 
use for the extraction of the active principles of plants, in short, the 
research chemist has to pass through a lengthy and diflicult pre- 
liminary training before he is competent to produce, in this branch, 
work of scientific value. Notwithstanding this, I should recommend 
this field of research particularly to South African students, because 
they find here better und more plentiful material for their investiga- 
tions than in Europe If it be true also for South Africa that it is 



Address by Dr. Hahn. 51 

the unexpected which happens, that, for example, a millionaire wer« 
to give a portion of his treasure to research work, a considerable part 
oi this should be devoted to lift the veil which still wraps in darkness 
this field of research. I expect from the investigations in this field 
results which will be as interesting as they will be important. 

Vegetable Physiology also presents in South Africa man) inter- 
esting problems to the student of Chemistry, of which I may be 
perrnitted briefly to mention a few. 

It is known that the composition of the mineral constituents of 
the leaves of plants vary considerably during the annual period of 
vegetation, although the different plants and trees exhibit a certain 
predilection for the one or the other of these mineral constituents. 
Whilst most of the forest trees of Europe contain in the leaves in 
spring principally Potash and Phosphoric Oxide, these constituents 
disappear almost completely in autumn, and the ashes of leaves 
consist then almost entirely of Silica and Carbonate of Lime. From 
a scientific point of view, it is of interest to know how these changes 
proceed under the climatic conditions of the Cape. One investiga- 
tion of leaves or other parts of plants during the annual period of 
vegetation is not sufficient, and of little value. To obtain a clear 
insight into the circulation of the mineral constituents within the 
plant, and intcj the requirements of plants, it is indispensable to have a 
series of investigations, methodically planned and systematically car- 
ried out, which should in the first place be directed to the crops we 
■cultivate, to the fruit trees, and to the forest trees. These investiga- 
tions require much time and perseverance, and should be carried 
out in the laboratories of agricultural stations or of a forest academy. 

Another problem of scientific interest and economic importance 
presents itself in the comparative nourishing value of the crops we 
grow. This depends upon the quantity of carbo-hydrates and 
albuminous compounds contained in these crops. It is known that 
the production of the albuminous compounds in sunny climates is 
much larger than in cold climates, with an ever-cloudy sky. It is a 
matter of importance to investigate this subject in connection with the 
leguminous plants, such as peas, beans, lucerne and clover. This ques- 
tion is also of importance for the cultivation of cereals, more particu- 
larly of barley used for brewing beer. There is no doubt that the 
barley grown in South Africa possesses a higher nourishing value than 
the English barley, because it contains a larger proportion of gluten, 
that is, albuminous substance, than the English barley. 
But this is the ^ery reason why the Cape barley is less suit- 
able for brewing beer than the English barley, because the presence 
of too much albuminous matter in the beer is not desirable for brew- 
ing. Similar obser\ations have been made in grapes grown on the 
hillside or on vlei-soil and in vineyards which are occasionally irri- 
gated. The grapes grown on a hillside contain less albuminous 
matter, they yield a better quality of wine, and the making and matur- 
ing of this wine presents no difficulty, whereas the grapes grown on 
vlei-ground or irrigated vineyards, contain more albuminous sub- 
stance, and the making and maturing does not proceed so smoothly. 



52 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

These and other similar subjects are of great importance for Agri- 
culture and Viticulture, and can only be solved by the application of 
Chemistry to these branches of Agriculture. Similar questions pre- 
!i«ent themselves in connection with the cultivation and preparation 
of tobacco, with the growth of sugar beetroot and other branches of 
agriculture. It would take too long to discuss on this occasion all 
the others. 

In conclusion, I take leave to point out once more that the 
object of the South African Association for the Advancement of 
Science is to promote the study of Science and its application to 
practice. I have, therefore, appealed to all the members of our Asso- 
ciation to use all their influence to induce the University Council to 
introduce one Science subject into the list of compulsory subjects 
at the Matriculation Examination. I have no doubt that the 
University Council will meet, as far as this can be done, the request 
of our Association. I also believe that our Association possesses- 
sufficient influence to induce the Governments of the several States 
of South Africa to combine with a view to the establishment of one 
common Forest Academy for South Africa. In each of the States of 
South Africa there should be established Agricultural Experimental 
Stations, supplying a home for scientific research bearing on agri- 
culture in all its branches. These institutions will assist South. 
African Agriculture, Viticulture and Arboriculture in emerging out 
of the present unsatisfactory condition of tentative dilettantism. 
Money is being spent to build Museums and to pay officers of the 
Museums, and much money has also been spent for Art Schools and 
for maintaining the same, and ample grants are now coming forward 
for the Agricultural School since it came under the present regime. 
This is as it should be. Why should we hesitate any longer to estab- 
lish these institutions — Forest Academy and Agricultural Stations - 
and to engage the best men for working these institutions, which are 
of such eminent economic importance for the development of the 
agricultural resources of South Africa on a sound basis, a basis con- 
sisting of a combination of theory and practice? There are many 
other subjects bearing on the promotion of the interest in Science- 
and its application to practice. We must not undertake too much 
at once. Our Association will have achieved much if we succeed in 
securing the co-operation of the University and of the Governments 
of the States of South Africa for carrying into effect the proposals 
which I have more fullv referred to in this address. 



3-— ON FERMENTS CAUSING " CASSE "' IN WINES. 

By Raymond Dubois, Diplome E.A.M., B.Sc, F.C.S., F.S.C.I. 
(Victoria), Government Viticultural Exi->ert. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Since the grafting of our wine varieties on American Phylloxer*- 
resistant stocks, wines seem often to suffer from a disease which 
presents the following characteristics. 

Wines which are bright in colour and seem perfectly sound 
suddenly modify their colour when exposed to the air. They become 
brown and turbid, their cloudy appearance rendering them unfit for 
sale. 

If the wine is contained in a glass jar, where it can be observed, 
it will be noticed that the discolouration starts from the surface 
exposed to the air in the form of a thin vale of colouring matter and 
little by little .sinks in the liquid forming a brown-black precipitate, 
which adheres to the sides of the jar. In a few days the wine com- 
pletely loses its original colour, assuming a very characteristic straw 
colour. 

Racking or decanting seems to increase the decomposition in- 
stead of checking it, as is the case with other wine diseases. This 
disease, known among French wine-makers under the name of 
" casse "—Break — on account of the sudden break in the colour, 
ma\ be frequently noticed in both red and white wines made from 
over-ripe grapes. So common has it become that it has been the 
subject of numerous studies by several distinguished oenochemists, 
as may be seen from the appended bibliography. 

Most of the authors who studied this disease found in the affected 
wines blackish matter, partly in solution, which, according to them, 
would be the cause of the alteration in the colour. They attribute 
to this matter, acting as an oxydase, the property of fixing the oxygen 
on the various constituents of the wine, of oxydising it, if we may use 
such an expression, this oxydisation causing the break in the colour. 

The present studies were undertaken with the object of ascertain- 
ing how the black matter was formed in the wine, its composition and 
mode of action, and the way of checking its formation. 

Five litres of affected wine were concentrated by evaporation 
at 60° C. The residuum treated with water and brought to boil- 
ing point was left to cool down. During the process of cooling down 
an abundant cloud of blackish matter precipitated at the bottom of 
the vessel. It was found to be composed mainly of albuminoid and 
pectic matters. This precipitate placed on a filter was washed 



54 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



several times with distilled water and mixtures of alcohol and ether 
to remove minaral and organic salts. 

Microscopic examination of the residuum did not reveal any 
micro-organisms other than those usually found in wine lees. 

Mixed with sound wmes it decomposed in the course of three 
or four days, and the wines showed all the characteristics of wines 
affected by " casse." 

This experiment was repeated with different types of wines, and 
it was noticed that the phenomenon did not take place with the same 
intensity with all wines. Some could be brought back to their normal 
strte by fining ; others could not. The former, when mixed again 
with black precipitate, would resume the characteristics of broken 
wine. 

APPARATUS USED. 

Several glass flasks of special shape (A. a) Fig. s. The lower 
extremity tapering to a capillary point hermetically sealed by fusion, 
the upper part provided with a neck and bulb, which may be closed 
with a plug of sterilized cotton wool (D). 

The apparatus G, shown in Fig. i, is composed of two similar 
parts E and F. Each part is com^wsed of a porcelain filter fitted in 
a brass ring (B, b) provided exteriorly with a thread, on to which is 
screwed a second ring (H, h) carrying a tin vessel provided at the 
bottom with a tube (O, o) and tap (P, p). A cap (K, k) surmounted 
by a tube (L, 1) carrying a bulb (N, n) and funnel (M, m) is screwed 
over the tin vessel. 

Tube O is fixed by an india-rubber coupling to a special wide- 
graduated tube (S). Tube O is fixed in the same manner to a 
bolLle (T) provided with three necks, the centre neck having a 
capillary constriction at (V). Tube (S) and bottle (T) are each 
provided with a horizontal tube narrowed at (e), and stopped with two 
plugs of cotton wool. A fine tube (X) joins the bottom of tube (S) 
to the top of the bottle (T). Bottle (T) bears a mark, indicating 
lOOO c.c. 

EXPERIMENT. 

150 grammes of affected wine (in which the proportion of black 
matter has been previously measured) are placed in flask (A) pre- 
viously sterilized at 150^0. The neck is plugged with sterilized 
of — i5°C. for 24 hours. 

One litre of sound wine is placed in flask (a), plugged and 
sterilized in the same manner. 

The whole apparatus G is also sterilized by keeping it at a 
temperature of i2o*-'C. for several hours. 

The required quantity of broken wine is introduced into tube 
(S) in the following manner. The capillary extremity of flask (A) is 
passed slowly through the cotton wool of funnel (M), and flamed at 
the same time with a Bunser burner until it reaches tap (R), which 
is left open. The cotton wool in funnel (M) soon ignites, and is 
replaced by new cotton wool to keep the flask in position. 



" Casse " IN Wine. 



55 





d 
"ft/ 



a 




ffg/. 



156 KePORI S.A.A. AUVAN'CEMEXI OF SCIENCE. 

Flask (a) containing the sound wine is passed in the same way 
through funnel (M). 

By slightly turnitig taps (R, r) the capillary tips are broken off, 
and the liquids fall into the porcelain filters, and through them in 
A'essels (Y, y). 

After a few moments, tap (P) is open, and the liquid adjusted 
to the zero of the graduation on tube (S). 

The required quantity of this liquid is then introduced into 
bottle (T) by blowing carefully through tube (W) and watching the 
graduation. 

Tap (p) of the second part of the apparatus is then open, and 
bottle (T) filled with sound sterlized wine up to the mark (i litre). 
The bottle is then separated from the apparatus by fusing the con- 
strictions (V, v) with the blow-pipe. The bottle is left in that state 
for a few days. 

RESULTS. 

From repeated experiments with this apparatus the following 
conclusions were arrived at : — 

r. All sterilized wines mixed with sterilized broken wine break 
after a few days. 

2. For a same wine, breakage is proportionate to the quantity 
of broken wine mixed with it up to a certain limit. 

3. For a same quantity of broken wine introduced into a given 
quantity of sound wine breakage is in inverse proportion to the 
intensity of the colour. 

It is evident that if the Black matter is the result of a chemical 
reaction between certain components of the wine, by mixing broken 
wine with sound wine, we introduce into the sound wine, elements 
capable of increasing the proportion of black matter. After four or 
five days, when the mixture had acquired all the characteristics of 
broken wine, the quantity of black matter in bottle (T) was measured 
and found in every case to be equal to that introduced with the 
broken wine. Hence we conclude : — - 

1. The black matter is not the result of a chemical reaction. 

2. The break is due to this black matter. 

3. The black matter is not formed at the expense of the colouring 
matter, but acts on it. 

HOW DUES THE BLACK MATTER ACT ON THE 
COLOURING MATTER? 

Wme contains three kinds of colouring matter. 

1. Red matter known under the name of Rhodoganeine. 

2. Blue matter known under the name of Cyanoganeine. 

3. Yellow matter known under the name of Pheoganeine. 

It is the blending of these three matters in various proportion? 
which gives the wine its " robe.' 



" Casse " IN Wine. 57 

Rhodoganeine and Cyanoganeine have often been confused 
under the name of CEnocyanine. According to Bouffard this matter 
has the property of turning red under the influence of acids, and 
blue under the influence of alkalis. This would seem erroneous in 
view of the fact that Jacquez wine, known for its blue colouration, 
often contains a greater proportion of acids than red wines. 

Pheoganeine is generally admitted by oenochemists — Bouffard, 
Roos, Martieu, etc. It is due to the absence of the two other colour- 
ing matters that very old wines owe their yellow straw colour. 

With the object of studying these three colouring matters, the 
three following wines were selected : — • 

1. Tinturier wine (Pontac) — Rhodoganeine predominating. 

2. Jacquez wine — Cyanoganeine predominating. 

3. And very old wine — Pheoganeine predominating. 

These wines were treated with tribasic acetate of lead. The 
precipitate placed on a filter was washed several times with distilled 
water, until the filtrate ceased giving a precipitate with ammonia. 
The pre(.:pitate was then heated with sulphuretted hydrogen, and 
again filtered. In the filtrate we had the colouring matter mixed with 
HoS, which was liberated bv reduction on a water bath at about 
40OC. 

The following are the reactions of acid, alkali, and oxygen on 
the three solutions : — 

Acid (weak sol.) intensifies the colour of Rhodoganeine, turns 
Cyanoganeine red, Avithout action on Pheoganeine. 

Alkali (weak sol.) turns Rhodoganeine blue, without action on 
Cyanoganeine and Pheoganeine. 

Oxygen turns Cyanoganeine yellow, Rhodoganeine slightly 
yellow, without action on Pheoganeine. 

These mav be condensed in the following table : — 



Coi-oiK. Acn)s. 



Alkalis. 



Rhodoganeine Intensifies Colour Turns Blue 

Cyanoganeine Turns Red 1 Without Action 

Pheoganeine Without Action [ Without Action 



Oxygen. 



Turns Yellow 

,, slight Yellow 
Without Action 



Pheoganeine is therefore the most stable. Concentrated acids 
and alkalis are without any action on it, while they turn the two other 
colours brown, and decompose them. The " mutage " (discolouring) 
of wines is based on this property. 

If 20c. c. of red wine are treated by loc.c of pure SOo H4 the 
reaction is very marked. The solution diluted with water and filtered 
will contain Pheoganeine in solution. 

This solution saturated with Carbonate of Baryte, filtered and 
concentrated in a vacuum, will give a pure solution of Pheoganeine. 

Yellow wines, such as those used in the manufacture of Ver- 
mouths, are unaffected by precipitating reagents, for they only 



^8 - Repoki S.A.A. Advancemkni oI' Science. 

contain Pheoganeine, the two other colouring matters being decom- 
posed by a slow reaction. 

Some old yellow wines contain a small quantity of Rhodoganeine. 
If acid is addetl- if they are mixed with soda water, for instance — the 
colour of Rhodoganeine is intensified, • and becomes apparent. If 
the acid is saturated by an alkali, the wine resumes its former colour. 

If we consider that " casse " does not modify the percentage of 
acidity (Lagatu) and if we admit that it is caused by the black matter, 
we must conclude that the black matter is without action on the 
Pheoganeine, but acts on the two other colouring matters. 

HOW IS J HE BLACK MATTER FORMED? 

From the above experiments we max consider two kinds of 
■" casse." 

(. "Casse ' produced in wines spontaneously, the cause being 
unknown. We shall call it natural. 

2. " Casse " produced by mixing broken sterilized wine in sound 
sterilized wine. We shall call it experimental. 

Numerous analyses of wines easily broken show that they are 
all deficient in tannin and rich in albumenoids. Both these results 
are explained one by the other, tannin having the property of precipi- 
tating albumen. " Casse " would, therefore, appear to be due to an 
•excess of albumenoid matters in the wine, in the first instance. This 
view seems confirmed by the fact that as " casse " increases the pro 
portion of black matter increa.ses. while the quantity of albumen 
■diminishes. 

We must conclude that the black matter Is formed at the expense 
■of the albumen. 

We saw how the black matter was measured. The decrease of 
albumen was ascertained in the following way : — 

Five litres of affected wine are evaporated in a vacuum. The 
residuum dissolved in pure hydrochloric acid. The solution reduced 
to I litre by evaporation. lo grammes are saturated with oxide of 
silver, filtered and tested with Millon's reagent. The intensity of 
the colour allows an approximate estimation of the proportion of 
albumen. 

We tried to produce natural break in a wine artificially albumin- 
ated. Introducing albumen in the wine was found useless, as it 
simply acted as a fining. We required the albumen in solution. 
This was obtained by adding to a must rich in glucose an albumen 
solution before fermentation. The resulting wine was rich in 
albumenoid matters, and broke very easily. When broken wine was 
added to it, it showed, after a few days, the phenomena of " casse " 
in an exaggerated form, with decrease of albumen and formation of 
black matter in greater quantity than that introduced with the affected 
wine. 

After our first experiment we concluded that the discolouration 
was not attributable to a chemical action alone. To further ascer- 
tain whether this was the correct view, we repeated our first experi- 



'■ Casse "' IX Wine. 



i9 



ment by replacing the sound wine b) albuminated wine. After a few 
days the quantity of black matter in bottle (T) was measured, with 
the re.sult that it was found to be equal to that introduced with the 
sterilized broken wine. We concluded that " casse " was caused by 
a ferment, which, acting on the albumen, produced a black matter 
decomposing rhodoganeine and cyanoganeine and turning them 
brown. 

FERMENT OF "CASSE.'' 

The next series of experiments was undertaken with the object 
of discovering that ferment. A solution of sterilized pure albumen 
was inoculated with broken wine kept for 24 hours at — i5°C. The 
sterilized solution of albumen in flask (A) was filtered through (F) 
in bottle (T) and the constriction sealed with the blow-pipe (Fig. 2). 




f^g.2 




r,j 3 



The solution was then inoculated with a capillary tube through neck 
(W). In every case putrid fermentation took place, the bacteria of 
butyric fermentation being able to resist a temperature of — i5°C. 

A device had to be found to prevent the butyric bacteria from 
developing. Apparatus (Fig. 3) was used, based on the facts that 



6o 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



butyric bacteria are anaerobic, while the " casse " bacterium is. 
aerobic (air being a necessary condition of the phenomenon of 
" casse "). 

A pure solution of sterilized albumen is introduced in bottle (T), 
as explained above, and constriction (V) sealed. After inoculation,, 
a current of sterilized air is constantly passed through the liquid. 

After a few days the solution becomes turbid, and a black pre- 
cipitate, similar in appearance to that formed in broken wine, settles 
at the bottom of the bottle. This deposit examined under a magni- 
fication of i,ooo to 2,000 diam. showed very long slender filaments, 
transparent, inarticulated, and free from incrustrations of colouring 
matter, mixed with a few bacteria, saccharomyces and specks of 
organic dust. 

These filaments, which do not seem to have been observed up to 
the present, would belong to the leptothrix group. They may be 
considered as the first cause of the disease. 

We may now condense the whole phenomenon in the follow- 
ing :— 

A bacterium (leptothrix) developing in wines rich in albumen 

acts on that albumen by fixing ox. and water, and produces 

a diastase which has the property of turning rhodoganeine and 

cyanoganeine brown. 

MEANS OF CHECKING THE DISEASE. 

Since this bacterium only develops in wines rich in albumenoid 
matters, one of the remedies consists in adding tannic acid to the 
wine directly after fermentation. But by far the most effective means 
of checking " casse " is Pasteurization by heat, which has given such 
reliable results with other wine diseases. 

With the object of ascertaining the effect of temperature on this- 
ferment, series of small sterilized test tubes were filled with recently- 
broken \.'ine, plugged with sterilized cotton wool, and placed in a 
water bath, the temperature of which was kept constant. Each series 
of six tubes Avas sterilized at a different temperature, the temperatures 
being 60°, 65°, 70°, 75'-* and 8o°C., each tube in each series being 
left in the water bath for varying lengths of time, i.e., \ min., ^ min., 
f min., I min., 2 min., and 3 min. 

The following table gives the results of this experiment : — 









Ti- 


MI'KKATrKP:s. 




Time of Immkk 


SIOX. 














60° 


65- 1 


70' 


75" 


86' 


\ minute 




1st day 


! 

1st dav 


3rd day 


T,\x\ dav 


»ii] 


1 




1st „ 


2nd „ 


3rcl „ 






a 




ist „ 


2nd ,, I 


4th „ 






1 ,, 




1st „ 


ist „ i 


3rcl „ 






2 ,, 




1st „ 


5tli „ I 


nil 






1 !• 




1st „ 


nil 


nil 







" Casse " IN Wine. 6i 

The above figures show the number of days which elapsed before 
the wine, which had started to settle before sterilization, showed any 
signs of recurring " casse." In the cases where " ist day " appears, 
it means that heating had no appreciable effect. In cases where the 
word " nil '"' appears, it indicates that after one month the wine had 
not shown any new sign of " casse," and in some cases had become 
bright, leaving at the bottom of the test-tube a brown deposit. 

It results from the above that a temperature of 75°C.. acting 
for at least ^-minute, is required to kill the ferment and its diastase. 
In practice, this temperature should prove sufficient, as in most 
modern wine Pasteurizers the wine remains in contact with the warm 
water for at least two minutes. 

Before ending this paper, we must draw attention to the fact 
that this temperature of 75°C. is much higher than that required to 
kill micoderma vini, micoderma aceti, tourne or amertume ferments. 
According to Gayon's experiments, these diseases may be effectually 
checked bv allowing the wine to remain for 2 min. at a temperature 
of 60OC. 

This means that greater care must be observed in excluding air 
■during the process of heating and cooling, or the wine would acquire 
a cooked taste. 

It would be interesting to ascertain whether the duration of 
effectual heating is function of the alcoholic strength and acid per- 
centage of the wine. 

The wine experimented upon contained io'6';'o of alcohol by 
volume and 5"! grammes total aciditv. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

A. Bouffard, La Casse des Vins, 1897. 

., Maladies Microbiennes de la Casse des Vins, 1897. 

„ La Casse des Vins, in Prog. Agric, Vol. 27, 1897; 

p. 175, pp. 209-214. 
„ Le Cassage de Vins, Communication a I'Acad. des Scs. 

Paris, 1894. 
Roos et Lagatu, Recherches sur la Cassedes Vins. 
Henri Alliot, Sur une nouvelle methode de traitement de la Casse, 

in Prog. Agric, Vol. 35, 1901, pp. 550-555. 
L. Degrulli, Traitement preventif de la Casse de Vins, in Prog. Agric, 
Vol. 30, 1898, pp. 1 21-125. 
,, La Casse et les ventes de vins, in Prog. Agric, Vol. 29, 

1898, pp. 321-324. 
„ Traitement des vins blancs qui cassent, in Prog. Agric, 

Vol. 27, 1897, p. 91. 
„ La Casse des vins a la Societe des Agriculteurs de 

France, in Prog. Agric, Vol. 27, 1897, pp. 531-533. 
., Theorie nouvelle sur la Casse des Vins, in Prog. Agric, 

Vol. 27. 1897. p. 734. 



62 Report vS.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

L. Degrulli, Le Coup de la Casse, in Prog. Agri., Vol. 19, 1893, pp, 
318, 341,- 389^ 496- 
„ Casse. Collage et Acide taitrique. in Prog. Agri.,. Vol. 

19, 1893, p. 434. 
„ Precede propose pour guerir la Casse des vins, in Prog. 

Agric. Vol. 19, 1893, p. 505. 
G. Guirand, Sur la presence dime diastase dans les vins casses. 
Comptes Rendus de I'Acad. des Sciences, Avril,. 

A. Gouin, I,a Casse des vins blancs, in Prog. Agric, \ol. 29, 1898,. 
pp. 279-281. 

Bertrand, Comptes rendus. Vol. (^\X1V., pp. 1032, 1897. 

A. Lirache. Note presentee a T.Acad. des Sciences, 14 Juin. 1897, in- 
Prog. Agric, Vol. 28, 1897, pp. 195-J97. 

L. Roos. La Casse des Ains et son traitement. in Prog. Agric. Voi. 
27, 1897. pp. 93-96. 

L. Rougier. Raisins jiourris et Casse des vins. in Prog. Agric, VoL 
-7. 1897, pp. 278-281. 

V. Martinand, L oxydation de la Casse des vins. Communication a 
I'Acad. des Sciences. 1897. 

P. Cazeneuve. Sur quelques proprietes du ferment de la Casse des 
vins. Ciimptes Rendus de I'Acad. des Sciences,- 
5 Avril. 1897. 

E. Chaurd. T/emploi de la premiere lie pour traiter la Cas.se et 
I'amertume in Traitement des vins. Chronique 
du Canton de Vaud. 25 .\vri], 1897. 

H. Lagatu. Note Sur la Casse des Vins. interpretation nouvelle 
basee sur le role du fer. Communication a 
lAcad. des Sciences, 21 Juin, 1897. 

Lagatu et Roos. Recherches sur la Casse des vins. in Prog. Agri.^ 
Vol. 27. 1897. pp. 667-669. 



-METEOROLOCiY IN SOUTH AFRICA— A RETROSPECT 
AND PROSPECT. 

Bv Chaklks M. Stewart, B.Sc. 



As this is the first meeting of our Association, which has for its 
main object the encouragement and development of all branches of 
scientific inquiry in South Africa, it seems not only suitable but abso- 
lutely essential for us to be placed in possession of a plain statement 
of the facilities given for the study of each particular branch of 
Science, as well as of the amount of work actually carried out, so 
that we may be in a position to see clearly its strong, and more 
especially its weak points, and consequently be able to indicate along 
what lines development ought to proceed. 

It is, accordingly, with this object that I venture to lay before 
you the following remarks on the rise and progress of Meteorology 
in South Africa. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Although occasional notes on the state of the weather prevailing 
at Table Bay appear in the Journals of the early Dutch Governors 
of the Cape, the first regularly-kept record of meteorological pheno- 
mena seems to have been that of the Abbe de la Caille, from ist 
July, 1 75 1, to 30th June, 1752. The results of his observations are 
contained in his memoir to the Academy of Sciences of Paris, which 
was communicated in the year 1755- These observations were, in all 
probability, taken at his residence in what is now called " Strand 
Street," the particular spot being marked by a tablet recently erected 
by the " South African Philosoj)hical Society " to the memory of 
this pioneer of science in the Cape. A perusal of this most interest- 
ing paper shows him to have been a keen and accurate observer of 
nature, while the observations themselves prove that, so far as the 
Summer '' South-Easter '" and the Winter " North-Westers " are con- 
cerned no change whatever has taken place in our climate up to the 
present time. 

The first systematic attempt to investigate the climate of the 
Cape Colony as a whole was made in the year i860, when a Meteoro- 
logical Committee was appointed by Government Notice, No. 363, 
dated the 26th October of that year, which ran as follows : — " His 
Excellency the Governor. Sir George Grey, being desirous of 
establishing simultaneous and systematic meteorological observations 
at eligible iX)sitions in the Colony, in order to obtain data on which 
to found measures of practical utility, has been pleased to appoint a 
committee of the under-mentioned gentlemen to undertake the charge 
and distribution on loan of the instnmients purchased by Govern- 
ment for the purpose. 

" The set of instruments for an observing position consists of a 
standard barometer, of a dry bulb, wet bulb, maximum, minimum. 
and solar radiation thermometer, and a rain gauge. 



-64 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

" Parties wishing to aid the Government by undertaking to make 
observations are requested to send in their names, address, and such 
information as to locality of dwelling and southern aspect of dwell- 
ing, as will guide the committee in selecting the individuals between 
whom the limited number of sets of instruments should be distributed. 
. . . . A skeleton journal, ruled and headed, also directions and 
tables, will be furnished with each set of instruments. 

" The times for reading the instruments have not yet been fixed, 
but it is probable that they will be 9 oclock a.m., i o'clock and 7 
o'clock p.m. 

" Members of the Meteorological Committee : — 

" The Honourable Richard Southey, Esq., Acting Colonial 
Secretary, Chairman. 
Sir Thomas Maclear, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 
Charles Bell, Esq., Surveyor-General. 
John Scott Tucker, Esq., Colonial Engineer. 
Rev. J. C. Adamson, D.D." 

The first report of this committee was published in July, 1862, 
and contained the following introductory remarks : — " Nearly half a 
century ago the Colonial Government showed some interest in the 
Meteorology of this Colony. Instnictions were given to their officers 
in the country districts to make observations and to transmit their 
registers to the metropolis. Some of their returns were occasionally 
published. But want of attention to the individual character of the 
instruments and of their localities, and the consequent impossibility 
of applying the requisite corrections, along with the desultory 
character of the observations, combined to render these returns of 
little value to Science. In 1831, at the establishment of the South 
African Institution, the subject was resumed more systematically. 
Matters of some permanent interest are to be found in Reports issued 
by a committee of that body from 1831 to 1837. 

" The returns of observations which were then procured by them 
partook of the character already noticed, so that conclusions drawn 
from them would not correspond to the present state or present aims 
of the Science. Their Reports, however, contain notices which have 
led to important consequences ; and they indicate, in certain instances, 
modes of attaining results which it may be useful not to lose sight of." 

The instruments mentioned above, with the exception of the 
Solar Radiation Thermometer, compose the equipment now supplied 
to all our Second Order Stations. There is, however, the very 
serious omission of a proper shelter for the thermometers, so that in 
all probability these instruments were exposed on the verandah or 
stoep on the south side of the house, at best a very faulty substitute 
for a properly-constructed screen. 

A very good beginning was made by distributing instruments to 
the following ten stations, which are fairly typical of the whole 
Colony : Clanwilliam, Simon's Town, Somerset West, Mossel Bay, 
Graaff-Reinet, Colesberg, Graham's Town, and Queen's Town. 

Soon afterwards was initiated the excellent plan of supplementing 
the data obtained from these stations by records of maximum and 



Meteorology in South Africa. 65 

-minimum temperatures from what would now be termed Third Order 
■or CHmatological Stations, while the necessity for a wider distribution 
of rain-gauges was also realised and apparently acted upon. It will 
thus be seen that even at this early date there was a division of sta- 
tions into the same three classes that obtain at present. 

Unfortunately, in spite of this excellent start of a proper plan of 
campaign for investigating the climates of the Cape Colony, the 
enthusiasm with which the work was originally undertaken seems to 
have gradually declined, with the result that observations were only 
carried on to the year 1868, when they were dropped altogether. 

In 1875 the Meteorological Committee, under its present title 
of the " Meteorological Commission," was resuscitated, or reorganised, 
under the direction of the Honourable C. Abercrombie Smith,* who 
continues to hold the position of chairman ; while the results of the 
observations which had formerly been included in the Blue-books 
for the Colony, were published separately, and have been presented 
yearly to Parliament ever since. 

Shortly after the re-formation, the Commission began to realise 
the necessity for providing proper shelters for the exposure of ther- 
mometers, and the original small pattern of " Stevenson Screen " was 
adopted, with greatly improved results. In 1879, with the appoint- 
ment of Mr. — now Sir David — Gill as a member of the Commission, 
the very important step of providing for the inspection of stations 
was taken, and the results showed that such a proceeding was abso- 
lutely necessary. At some stations a most ludicrous state of 
ignorance regarding the proper use of the various instruments was 
found to exist. Rain-gauges were kept inside the house, and were 
only put out when it was likely to rain. In one case the same instru- 
ment had been converted into a target for rifle practice ; ther- 
mometers were found hung up in rooms instead of being exposed in 
the open air, etc. It also became evident in the course of the 
energetic inspections of the Secretary — first of Mr. Ellerton Fry and 
subsequently of Staff-Commander May, R.X. (recently deceased) — 
that the Siphon Barometers in use were very unsatisfactory, with the 
result £hat Sir David Gill recommended the substitution of the 
" Kew " pattern of Marine Barometer, with a " ^^ernier '"' scale read- 
ing to o'oo2 in. 

On the writer's taking up the duties of Secretary in 1897 as 
successor to Mr. Roland Pillans, it soon became painfully evident 
that, in spite of the verbal instruction given during inspection visits, 
the proper method of handling and reading the various instruments 
was but imperfectly understood by many observers, while others 
seemed to have no idea of how to remedy the defects to which their 
instruments are liable. A comparison of the barometer readings 
inter se also showed the presence of faulty instiuments or inadequately 
trained and incapable observers. Accordingly a set of instructions 
for the use of '"Marine Barometers " was prepared and sent to each 
observer. This was followed by the issue of a Meteorological Note- 
Book and " Register." To the latter were prefixed instructions deal- 

'■ Now the Honourable Sir Charles Abercrombie Smith. 



66 Report .S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

ing full) with the other instruments, their defects and the means o[ 
remedying the same, and an attempt was made to encourage the 
study of clouds by inserting the letterjjress given in the " Internationai 
Cloud Atlas." As the readings of the Hygrometer were absolutely 
worthless in many cases, owing to incrustations of salts on the Wet 
Bulb the policy was adopted of supplying each observer with wick 
and muslin sufficient for one year. 

Attention was next turned to the exposure of thermometers, as- 
the pattern of " StCAenson Screen '" then in use seemed to admit of 
the various thermometers being affected by both .solar and terrestrial 
radiation. After careful consideration the improved and enlarged 
pattern of " Stevenson Screen,'' designed by Mr. Wragge, the Govern- 
ment Meteorologist of Queensland, was adopted. Seeing that our 
rain-gauges, although intended to be exposed at an elevation of four 
feet aliOAe ground, were fixed at different heights at different stations, 
plans were drawn up for the construction of a 3-foot pillar, into which 
the rain-gauge is inserted to such a depth that the rim or knife-edge 
is one foot higher. This was so designed as to admit of the rain- 
gauge being easily withdrawn either for examination or replacement,, 
and has been adopted as the standard pattern. The process of with- 
drawing the old Sii)hon Barometers has been continued, with the 
result that the much superior Marine Barometer is now in universal 
use at all our Second Order .Stations. 

At the instigation of Dr. J. D. F. Gilchrist. Marine Biologist to 
the Cape Colony, a series of observatii)ns of Temperature and State 
of the Sea. together with investigations of the Littoral Currents by 
means of Drift Bottles has been entered upon, and the results for cer- 
tain years have already be^n pul;l!shed. In this matter we hav? 
been indebted to the Union-Castle Steamship Company for valuable 
assistance, the bottles with the necessary post-cards enclosed being 
entrusted to the care of the captains of their mail boats going round 
the coast, to be set adrift at fourteen different points. 

In fact, all our energies have been devoted during the last six 
years to improving the existing organisation so as to render it more 
efficient, and at the same time to bring it into line with international 
usage. To carry this still further, the form in which our results have 
been published has been gradually altered, and various additions 
made, until now the whole style of publication has been altered from 
what it was in 1896. One of the most important additions to our 
yearly report is the inclusion of returns from the De Beers First 
Order Station, the only one of its kind in all Africa, at Kenihvorth, 
near Kimberle\ . This station is under the very able management of 
that enthusiastic meteorologist. Mr. J. R. Sutton, whose valuable 
constributions to the " South African Philosophical Society " have 
thrown a great deal of light on some of the many problems of plateau 
meteorology, and have at the same time removed a number of 
erroneous impressions derived from the discussion of previous 
observations. 

The sum total of these labours is that there are now in opera- 
tion : (a) T First Order Station at Kenilworth (Kimberley) ; (b) i 



Metf:orology in South Africa. 67 

Sulisidian First Order Station at the Royal Observatory in the Cape 
Peninsula, Avhere eye observations are taken three times daily, while 
a Beckly Anemometer enables a continuous record of wind direction 
and velocity to be kept; (c) 58' Barometric Stations taking one 
observation per day at 8.30 a.m. (Mean Time of 30° E.) ; (d) 27 
Thermometric Station.s ; (e) 418 purel\ Rainfall Stations (or 500 Rain- 
gauge Stations in all). 

In addition to these, there are nine stations where the amount 
of Evaporation is measured, and three equipped with Sunshine 
Recorders, while a fourth will shortly be started in Rhodesia. 

In spite of the untoward conditions prevailing in South .\frica 
during the three years" war. it is satisfactory to be able to state that 
we have now the largest l)attery of stations since the starting of the 
INIeteorological Commission. 

It savs a great deal for the enthusiasm and disinterestedness of 
the observers that (excejjt.in the rase of (Government officials) their 
services are purelv voluntarv, and carried out, on the whole, fairly 
well, without any remuneration other than a gift of the in.struments in 
their possession at the conchision of a series of five \ears" satisfactory 
observations.- 

Fl NANCES. 

'I'hc amount voteil for Meteorologv in the Cape Colon\ was. 
J:^-^o m 1875; '^his was increa.sed in 1880 to ^^500 to provide for 
Inspection: about 1890 the amount voted was raise«l to ^^600. 

Although the annual grant was further increased to ^^800 in 
1899. this was only done in order tO' provide for the rental of office 
and store. The Meteorological Commission was housed till the end of 
1892 in the Royal Observatory, and. as far as can be ascertained, no 
payment was made for the accommodation. It was then removed 
to the Chamber of Commerce, and subsequently to an office in town, 
where j£6o per annum was paid in rental, and store accr)mmodation 
was given free by the Public Works Department. 

In 1898 office and store were removed elsewhere, when ^90 per 
annum was paid, and since the middle of 1902 the sum of ^is 
per month (i.e., ;£i8o a year) has been repaid to Government for 
rental. It will thus be seen that while the amount of the grant has 
been increased by ;£2oo above that voted in 1890, the actual increase 
available for meteorological purposes is the trulv magnificent f)ne of 
£20'. 

We are, therefore, practically in the same position as regards 
finances as we were 13 years ago, although the number of stations to 
be maintained has increased by about forty per cent. (40'^,',) since 
then. 



' At four of these, however, ohservations are also made at 8-30 p.m. 

-The wisdom of such an arrangement is open to criticism, it would be prefer 
able to present each observer with a new set of instruments at the end of 
the period and retain the old instruments, whose corrections are known, ;it the 
same place, rather than run the risk of the new instruments getting out of order 
during transit, with the possibility ol their being in use some time before the 
defect can be detected and remedied 



«68 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



Ill order that we may thoroughly realise how we stand when 
compared with other countries, I have extracted from the " Quarterly 
Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society" for 1899 the following 
table, drawn up by Mr. Campbell Bayard for use in his Presidential 
Address to that Society. Although the sum opposite the Cape Colony 
has been altered from jQ(>oo to ;^8oo, and a few additions made, 
the table remains the same in other respects. 



Area, Population and Grant for 


Meteoroloii'v. 




Country. 


Area. 


Population. 


Grant. 


Europe — 


Square Miles. 




£ 


Austro-Hungary 


261,649 


44,901,036 


5000 


Belgium 


11,373 


6.586,593 


2,000 


British Isles 


120, U)0 


37,880,792 


15,300 


Denmark 


i4,7«9 


2,185,335 


4,300 


France 


204,146 


38,517,975 


7,300 


German Empire 


211,1 6.S 


52,246,58c) 




Greece 


24,977 


2,433,806 


380 


Italy 


110,623 


31,479,217 


— 


Netherlands 


12,582 


4,859,451 


3,833 


Portugal 


35,^43 


4,708,178 


1.783 


Roumania 


46,314 


5,500,500 


400 


Russia 


<s,45o,oS 1 


129,211,113 


44,922 


Spain 


'96,173 


17,550,216 





Sweden and Norway ' ... 


299,377 


7,044,568 


3,900 


Switzerland 


'5,469 


2,933,334 


2,200 


Servia 


18,050 


2,162,759 


1,200 


Asia— 

Hong-Kong 


30i 


248,710 


1,500 


India and Ceylon 


1. 5^5,525 


290,521,773 


22,100 


Japan 


•62,655 


42,270,628 


7,623 


Java 


718,000 


34,273,561 


3,000 


Australasia — 








New South Wales 


310,700 


1 ,335,800 


2,240 


New Zealand 


104,471 


743,214 




Queensland 


668,497 


484,700 


1,625 


South Australia 


<)03,6(/) 


358,224 


— 


Tasmania 


26,215 


166,113 


325 


Victoria 


87,884 


1,169,484 


2,300 


Western Australia 


975,920 


171,021 


3,068 


Africa — 








Cape Colony 


277,151 


1,875,960 


800 


Mauritius 


705 


377,856 


1,300 


Natal 


20,851 


630,817 


200 


Orange River CohMiy 


48,326 


208.000 


200 


Transvaal 


1 19.200 


870.000 


6,000 


America — 








Canada 


3,315,649 


5,250,000 


12,936 


Mexico ... 


751,177 


10,447,974 


8,600 


United States 


3.025,600 


62,630,250 


195,000 


Argentine Republic 


1.212,000 


4.093,000 


3,365 


Brazil 


3.218,166 


1 7,000,000 




Jamaica ... 


4-193 


634-491 


200 



Meteorology in South Africa. 6^ 

The largest sum devoted to Meteorology in any country is that 
of ^195,000 granted by the United States Government, next in 
order being Russia with ^£44,^2 2, followed by India with ;^2 2,ioo, 
the British Isles with ;^i 5,300, and Canada with ;^i 2,936. Although- 
no details are given regarding the German Empire as a whole, Prussia 
alone spends ;^io,75o per annum on its Meteorological Institute. 

However, passing over these Great Powers, and looking at the 
smaller territories, we find Hong-Kong, with an area of 30^ square 
miles, spending ^^^3,000; Mauritius, with an area i-40oth that of 
the Cape Colony, devoting ^1,300 to this work, while even Servia, 
with an area of about i-i5th of ours, spends ^£1,2^0. 

Turning now to what is being done in South Africa, we find 
that Xatal, with its area of jo, 850 square miles, is relatively better 
off with its ^200 than we are with our ;£8oo to meteorologically 
explore an area of 277,151 square miles, although meteorology in 
Natal cannot be considered to be in a satisfactory condition. In the 
Orange River Colony the sum of ;^2oo was voted last vear to estab- 
lish six Second Order Stations under the superintendence of Mr.. 
J. Tyle, of the Grey College, Bloemfontein. 

Although no sum has been specially voted for meteorological 
purposes in Rhodesia, there seems to be no obstacle put in the way 
of obtaining whatever instruments may be required. It may here be 
stated that this study in Rhodesia is developing rapidlv under the- 
fostering care of the Government Statist, Mr. Duthie, and of the 
Meteorological Committee of the Rhodesia Scientific Association. 
The lead in this subject, as in many others, is, however, being taken 
by the Transvaal Government, which has voted ;^6,ooo for meteoro- 
logical purposes, ^2,000 of which are to be spent in establishing the- 
usual Second and Third Order and Rainfall Stations, while the re- 
maining ;^4,ooo is to be spent on a First Order Station, equipped 
with continuous self-recording apparatus for the accommodation of 
the Director of the Meteorological Department. There is also a 
strong possibility of the original vote of ;^6,ooo being increased to- 
^,{^10.000. 

It will be noticed that while all the other South African States 
are progressing rapidly, the Cape Colony is standing still, no provision- 
even having been made for the re-establishment of the many stations 
destroyed during the late war. 

Whatever outside criticism may be offered regarding this 
Department, it can safely be asserted that no one will venture to state 
that it is run on extravagant lines, especially when we consider that 
this is one of the most expensive British possessions to live in. 



GENERAL REMARKS AND SUGGESTIONS. 

It may seem to many that an unnecessarily long portion of this 
paper has been devoted to the historical aspect of the subject, and 
a large number of drv details mentioned which might have been 



^o Repori' S.A.A. AnvANCEMEXi or Science. 

-omitted. Iml the olijt-ct that has lieen steadily kept in \ iew throughout 
has been to demonstrate that the stud\ ot" the chmatology of the 
Cape Colony has been of no " mushroom " growth, but has undergone 
a .slow {very slow, indeed) process of evolution. 

It seems to me to be a standing reproach that in order to obtain 
anything approaching a satisfactory series of hourly observations for 
any place in South Africa we are compelled to depend, firstly, on 
the private enterprise of the much-abused De Beers Company and 
one of its employes ; and, secondly, on the Royal Observatory, an 
institution maintained solely and entirely at the cost of the Imperial 
authorities, as represented by the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. Has the time not yet arrived when this Colon\ ought 
to be provided with at least one Fir.st Order Station of its own. which 
■could be used at the same time as a Central Office for the collection 
and dissemination of meteorological data, and might, in addition, be 
equipped with self-recording in.strtmnents for the continuous study 
of Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, .so ably 
initiated by Professor Morrison and Dr. Beattie? That there is 
nothing new or revolutionary in this idea may be gathered from the 
following quotation from the Presidential Address of Sir David Gill 
to the South African Philosophical Society on July 29th. 1881 : — 
" I hope to see the time when twc) or three standard observing 
stations, with .self-recording instruments, will be created and main- 
tained, at least for several years, for the purpose oi ascertaining the 
laws of the diurnal change of temperature, moisture, and pressure 
in various parts of the Colony." Again, the late Mr. J. G. Gamble, 
in his address to the same Society in the following year, states : — 

"We want self-registering instruments Profes.sor Wild 

says that two years' observations of self-registering instruments at 
Berne Observatory had given more information than the previous 
twenty years' ordinary observations. It is as much as we can do 
to get two observations a day from unpaid observers, but we want 
readings much more frequently than that." Then, after announcing 
the establishment of a self-recording anemometer at the Royal 
Observatory, and the proposed establishment of two others at East 
London and Port Elizabeth, he adds : " But we want besides some 
self-recording barometers and thermometers, and should have at least 
six sets distributed throughout South Africa." More than twenty 
years have passed since these words were spoken, and Ave are still 
in the same condition as we were then. 

The need for some such Station, or at least for .some eprmanent 
■office, has been very forcibly brought to my attention by the fact 
that during my six years' secretaryship the office of the Meteoro- 
logical Commission has been situated in no less than four different 
places ; the consequent result as regards the arrangement or rather 
disarrangement, of about thirty years' records can be left to your 
imagination, and as far as my present information goes, the time 
is not far distant when this office will be moved once more ! As it 
frequentlx happens that past records are required as evidence in 



Meteoroj.ogv IX SiiriH Africa. 71 

various lawsuits, and copies of tweiitv or more \ ears' observations 
are often asked for by other countries, etc.. it is an aljsolute necessity 
that these should be housed so as tcj be available at any moment ; 
while, if they are not ready to hand, their absence may not only be 
the indirect cause of an erroneous decision, but certainly does pre- 
sent a stumbling-block to the ])rogress of many important researches 
undertaken by the meteorological ser^'ices of other countries. 

It is perhaps unnet^essary to more than indicate some of the 
practical uses to which meteorological observations are capable of 
being, or have been, applied, for a just appreciation of the importance 
of a proper system to be realised. Among these may be mentioned 
Navigation, Weather Forecasts and Storm Warnings, Agriculture and 
Forestr}- — especially with regard to the possible acclimatisation of 
plants, trees, etc. — the study of Animal and Plant Life, particularly 
insect-pests, and fungoid diseases. Medical Climatology, Engineer- 
ing, Irrigation, Water Supply, etc. Apart from the practical aspect, 
knowledge of climate is of importance to the student of national life 
and character, to the j^hilologist. and even to the artist. 

There is unfortunately a very common idea that the pursuit of 
meteorology consists of the mere accumulation of facts and figures, 
■especially figures, so that it seems necessary to emphasise that these 
are only the means to an end, that end being the deduction of the 
laws governing the various phenomena and their cau.ses. This, how- 
ever, can only be attained by means of properlv conducted investiga- 
tions, which frequently require a considerable amount of time and 
involve a large amount of labour. Many of these may seem to be 
of purely theoretic^al interest, but it must be borne in mind that 
theor) and practice are of mutual assistance, and the more correct 
the theory the more nearly perfect the practive becomes. 

It is a matter for regret that the would-be investigator of the 
climates, etc.. of the Cape Colony would meet with many annoying 
gaps and breaks in the records as well as an entire ab.sence of records 
from many w'ide and important areas. It ought, therefore, to be 
our main object to see that the distribution of our stations is as 
uniform and as representative of the country as possible. To attain 
this end. a liberal policy in the distribution of rain-gauges to farmers 
and others ought to be pursued, especially in view^ of the important 
part that irrigation is likely to play in the future development of our 
countr\ : man\ gaps in the records could be avoided bv the use of 
the cheaper forms of self-recording instruments. Barographs, Ther- 
mographs, etc.. from which the missing data could be interpolated 
with a reasonable degree of accuracy. A suitable distribution of the 
more expensive self-recording rain-gauges . and anemometers ought 
to be carried out : these rain-gauges enable engineers to from a correct 
idea as to the intensity of rainfall and the probable proportion avail- 
able for storage, while the anemometers would decide whether or not 
it were possible to employ wind as a motive force, as well as affording 
important information as to the direction of rnofion of the various 
storms which A'isit us. 



72 Report S.A..\. Advancement of Science. 

It must be admitted as a rather humiliating fact that in spite of 
the labours of men like the 4ate Mr. Gamble, Mr. Howard, Mr. 
Hutchins, and more especially of Mr. Sutton, we are compelled to go 
to the publications of other countries, such as Germany, England, and 
America, if we wish to obtain a general idea of our own climate. In 
fact, the best work on the Climate of Cape Colony known to me is Dr. 
Karl Dove's " Das Klima der Aussertropischen Stidafrika," published 
many years ago, but which has unfortunately never been translated 
into English as far as I am aware. There is perhaps no country in 
the world where it is so important for the investigator to be 
thoroughly acquainted with the physiographical features of the 
country, to enable him to eliminate local peculiarities before proceed- 
ing to generalise. In this connection I may mention here that an in- 
vestigation of the tri-daily observations taken at the Royal Observa- 
tory during the years 1 896-1 900 has led me to very different con- 
clusions as to the prevalent winds than those given by Dr. Buchan 
in the " Challenger Report." 



Percentage Frequency Wind-rose constructed from Observations 
taken at the Royal Observatory at 8h. Noon and 2oh. Local 
Mean Time, during the Years 1 896-1900. 



Month. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


Calm. 


Jan. ... 


-' '.^ 
J '5 
2-8 
C-9 

9-4 
14-3 

10-3 

5-8 
4-6 

3 "2 

I-/ 


0-3 

0'2 

0-6 

0-9 
0-9 
0-8 
1-4 
0-3 

0-4 


o-i 

0-5 
0-4 
0-6 
0-3 
0'3 

0'2 
0-2 

0-3 

0-4 
0-3 


II-5 
8-9 
10-4 
13' I 
12-5 
13-6 
13-1 
II-7 
12-3 
10-9 
lo-o 
15-3 


52-9 


6-7 

3 '4 
3 '5 
3*3 
3 "4 
3"0 
2 "5 
2-5 
3 '3 
5-6 
5" I 
5'7 


4-0 
3-7 
4-4 
y6 

5-x 

6-7 

6-5 
6-1 

IO"I 

12-6 

7-3 
5'5 


19-8 
206 

24-8 

22-8 
31-5 

31-6 


32 


Feb. ... 


67-8 


3-6 


Mar. ... 


48-4 


6-2 


Apr. ... 


44'9 


8-4r 


May ... 


32-1 


Tl 


June ... 


26-3 

17-8 
27-0 
34-4 


8-2' 


July ... 


40-8 


4-5 


Aug. ... 


34-3 


<J-5 


Sept.... 


24-9 
23-1 
25-6 
i6-6 


8-4 


Oct. ... 


.39- J 


4T 


Noy. ... 


44-3 


3-8- 


Dec. ... 


52 '5 


2-4 








Year ... 


5'3 


0-5 


0-3 


12-0 


39-9 


4'2 


6-3 


26 • 3 


.S-4 









Meteorology in South Africa. 



73 



Percentage Frequency of Winds, calculated from the "Challenger" 
data. Hours various. i8 years, 1842-55, 62-65.'" 



:\IUXTH. 


X. 




X.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 

6-4 


x.vv. 


Calm. 


Jan. ... 




2 


O'O 


CO 


6-4 


67 8 


3 ' - 


12-9 


— • 


Feb. ... 


3 


6 


0-0 


0-0 


7-1 


64-3 


3'f> 


7-i 


14-3 


— 


Mar. ... 


.:; 


-' 


0-0 


3-2 


6-4 


54 ''^ 


J'-' 


9-7 


19-3 


— 


Apr. ... 


6 


7 


o-o 


00 


10-0 


46 -7 


6-7 


lo-o 


20 'O 


— 


May ... 


9 


7 


o-o 


0-0 


6-4 


41 -g 


1 ■ 2 


9-7 


29-3 


— 


.Tune ... 


16 
16 


7 
I 


00 
O-Q 


o-o 
o-o 


.1 .1 
3- 


_^0'0 


10-0 
6-4 


13 '3 
12-9 


26-7 

22-6 


~ 


July ... 


3»-7 


— 


Aug. ... 


9 


7 


0"0 


o-o 


6-4 


^5 ' 5 


6-4 


16-1 


25-8 


— 


Sept. ... 


6 


7 


Q-O 


o-o 


<'-7 


40-0 


6-7 


16-7 


23-3 


— 


Oct. ... 


6 


4 


Q-O 


0-0 


3 - 


45-2 


6-4 


19-4 


19-4 


— 


Nov. ... 


6 


7 


0-0 


0-0 


6-7 


5(r7 


,1 3 


lO'O 


16-7 


— 


Dec. ... 


3 


2 


0-0 


0-0 


9-7 


64-5 


3-' 


()'7 


M'J 


— 


Year ... 






■ 1 


*'' ?> 


48-8 


5 - 


1 1 -s 


20-O 















In both Tables the figures in heavy type indicate the ma.ximum Irequency and 
those in italics the minimum frequency of each wind-direction ; the figures 
underlined show the prevailing wind-direction during each month. 

A comparison of the accompanying two tables, giving the per- 
centage frequency of the winds from the eight principal points of the 
compass shows that while the " Challenger " results indicate that 
south is the prevailing wind direction in every month of the year, 
the other table shows decided indications of a " monsoon " influence, 
in that during the winter months of June-August the prevaihng 
direction is North-Westerly, while it is Southerly during the rest of 
the year. These latter results accord much more with my experience 
of the Cape, but a full discussion of the anemometer records would 
be necessary before the question could be considered satisfactorily 
settled. I hope, however, to develop this subject more fully at a 
later date elsewhere. 

If any progress is to be maJe in solving the many problems 
associated with the Meteorology of South Afiica, some addition to 
the staff of the Meteorological Commission is absolutely necessary, 



* Physics and Chemistry of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger : Part V., Report 
on Atmospheric Circulation. — By Alexander Buchan, LL.D. 



74 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

as the work of collection, correction, tabulation, distribution of 
instruments, correspondence, etc., has increased to such an extent 
that it is jDractically impossible for myself and my assistant to over- 
take our daily duties, while the work of inspection has to be carried 
out at long intervals. I would here draw attention to the need for 
much more frequent inspection than can be carried out at present. 
It must be borne in mind that the finest instruments in the hands of 
unskilled and untrained observers are of far less use than inferior 
instruments in the hands of properly-trained men ; the country is 
large and our stations are frequently very far apart, while the facilities 
for travelling are few, so that more time ought to be devoted to 
inspection than can possibly be the case at present. 

If in the course of this address I may have seemed to speak 
strongly, and at times even bitterly, it is because I feel strongly the 
neglect to which this important subject of Meteorology has been 
subjected in the past. What is to be the position of the Cape 
Colony in regard to this subject in the future ? Is it to assume 
the leading part that its geographical position and extent, as well 
as the fact of its being, so to speak, the " mother " of Meteorology 
in South Africa, entitles it to ? Time will tell. Past experience 
has rendered me sceptical, but the united voice of this Association 
may have some effect, and "Hope springs eternal in the human 
breast." 



-METEOROLOGICAL RECORDS OF THE TRANSVAAL. 
By Wm. Ci llex. 



(ABSTRACT.) 

L'p to the present there have been very few pubhshed records 
of the Meteorology of the Transvaal, and those which I am putting 
before you now have been taken at the station attached to the 
Dynamite Factory, Modderfontein. The Factory itself is situated 
about rr miles due north of Johannesburg, and the station adjoins 
the Central Research Laboratory. It would be very tedious to 
detail all the records, therefore only general comments will be made 
in the few remarks which are to follow. In order to put them in 
a form which can be easily grasped, a series of graphic representa- 
tions have been prepared. The actual records embrace the follow- 
ing :— 

1. Rainfall. 

2. Barometric pressure. 

3. Maximum temperature in the sun. 

4. Maximum and Minimum temperature in the shade. 

5. Actual temperature in the shade. 

6. Atmospheric moisture at 6 a.m. and 12 noon, absolute. 

7. Wind direction. 

With regard to the first, rainfall, two graphic diagrams are 
ii.ppended. No. I. shows the rainfall month by month for the years 
1898-1902, also for a few^ months of the year 1897. No. II. shows 
graphically, on the other hand, the number of rainy days per month 
over the same period. Now there is no factor so important to the 
agricultural community of South Africa as rainfall, and, as you see. 
it has an extraordinary variation up and down. The following are 
the records for the years 1898-1902, inclusive: — 
For 1898 it was 20' 10 inches. 

„ 1899 ., 2088 

., 1900 ,, 26'5o 

,, 1901 ,, 3o'6o 

„ 1902 „ 27-63 



25" 14 Average. 



taking the calendar year as the unit. 

Of course, we know that a rain-gauge situated half a mile away 
might give quite different results, but over the year the figures are 
pretty wsell averaged. Speaking generally, the last three years were 
very much wetter than the previous two, and the diagram confirms 
the fact that the soldiers must have had a terriblv bad time of it 
in the year 1901. 



76 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

The diagrams are capable of many interpretations, and a care- 
ful examination of that for 1902 will show why the mealie crop is- 
a comparative failure this year, and from a Boer point of view why 
horse sickness in the Transvaal has been so rampant. 

Coming next to barometric pressure, we find that it is almost 
impossible to present records graphically, as the changes, even in the 
thunderstorm months, only amount to a few millimetres. In the 
year 1901, for instance, the highest record we have is 642 m/m 
and the lowest 626 m/m. The maximum is generally recorded in 
June. Our records are taken twice daily, -i.e., 6 a.m. and 12 noon,, 
from the barometer itself, but in addition to these direct readings,. 
we have been in the habit of taking weekly diagrams of the baro- 
meter pressure from the barograph. Naturally, the line is fiat, or 
near]\ so, but one most curious fact is brought out, i.e., that the 
highest points are always about 10 to 11 a.m. and p.m., and the 
lowest about 4 a.m. and p.m. Perhaps someone who has made these 
records a special study can throw some light on this point. 

The diagram Xo. III. which is apjjended shows the maximum 
and minimum barometric pressure for the years 1 900-1 902, inclusive. 

The next series of observations for which we have records are- 
those of temperature, and graphic diagrams in explanation are ap- 
pended. They embrace the following : — 

1 . The average and the actual maximum temperature in^ 
the sun. The " actual " maximum temperature naturally 
occupies the top position. 

2. The middle curves represent the average and actual 
maximum temperatures in the shade, and here again the actual 
line takes top position. 

3. The lower curves indicate the actual and average mmi- 
mum temperature, but here the " actual "" temperature takes the 
lower position, as a moments reflection will show. 

It should be stated that all the readings are in Centigrade. 
They are recorded in rather an unusual manner. Every point 
plotted out on the diagram represents an actual reading, and, in order 
to simi)lify matters, the month was s])lit up into weeks, each of six 
davs. When there was one day over or under, it was simply in- 
cluded in the last week. For instance, the " actual ' maximum 
temperature plotted out was the highest for the week, but the 
" average '' maximum was the average of the six maximum tempera- 
tures recorded — one on each day— for the week. 

Diagrams IV.. IV. a, IV.b, IV.c. illustrate these records very 
graphically. 

Needless to say, the general formation is much the same from 
vear to year, but even a casual glance will shoAv large differences. 
Taking things in their order, the greatest differences are naturally 
shnwn bv the maximum temperature in the sun. In 1901, for 
instance, there was a sudden drop from 48° C. to 28° C, in the 
month of March. The lines naturally droop in the winter months, 
but in the year 1901 the average sun temperature rose about the- 
same right through the year. 



Meteorological Records. 



77 



Another set of records, illustrated by diagrams V. and V.a, 
show the average temperature in the shade, and it will be observed 
that the readings have been taken at 6 a.m. and 12 noon. 

The next set of records are those which give the absolute 
amount of moisture present in the atmosphere, given on the basis 
of grammes per cubic metre. The records were also taken twice a 
day, i.e.. 6 a.m. and 12 noon. It is difficult to say more than that 
during the dry season the amount in grammes is only about one-half 
of what it is in the wet season. The readings, as recorded by the 
instruments, give the moisture existing in the atmosphere at the time 
in percentage of possible moisture, i.e.. for each temperature and 
pressure there is a possible maximum vapour tension. During the 
earl\- morning the figures are generally higher than later on in the 
day, and at 12 o'clock the possible is never reached except during 
rain. 

AVERAGE MOISTURE IN THE AIR IX GRAMMES PER 
CUBIC METRE. 





KjOO. 


1 


yoi. 




1 


;02. 




Ci a.m. 12 


IKKJIl. 


6 a.m. 


12 


noon.; 


6 a.m. 


12 noon. 


January ... 






10 C) 




12-4 


1 1 -s 


12 


-, 


Febiuarv... 






11-4 




12-2 


1 1 • [ 


12 


1 


March " 






10-6 




11 -6 


103 


11 


I 


April 






'I'.S 




')5 


7-8 


8 


8 


May 






f)() 




59 


6y 


7 


3 


Juile 


41 


."> - 


Oi 




5-6 


4-8 


5 


4 


Jiilv 


.S4 


5f> 


4-2 




4-1 


5'3 


6 





August 


4 3 


4-0 


5 A 




t' 1 


3'4 


: 6 


2 


Septeml-cr 


5 .■> 


rv6 


6-7 




'••4 


()•(, 


7 


8 


Oct(jber 


-■^^ 


S-3 


79 




7'^ 


7-8 


'' I) 


1 


Xovember 


"•4 


10- S 


99 




110 


g-r. 


10 


2 


December 


' ' ■ .> 


1 1 ■<> 


1 1 2 




1 1 ■') 


10-7 


12-6 



These records are merely the average of the weeklv averages, 
which are obtained in the same manner as already described. 

It is most interesting to compare these records with the rainfall, 
and. going still further, to observe the effect of rainfall on the 
temperature, for there is always a sudden drop in temperature after 
a rainfall, and these drops are brought out very graphically by the 
thermograph diagram. Naturally, it is impossible to have all these 
records mentally before one, therefore a few diagrams are attached 
illustrating the point. Generally speaking, the amount stated in 
grammes per cubic metre is about 4'6 grammes in the dry season 
and double this amount in the wet .season, and a glance through 
the average figures month by month and year bv \ear gives a fair 
indication of the season with regard to the rainfall. 



78 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



The amounts for the months of June. July and August of 1902 
come to 55 grammes, and for December, 105 grammes. In January 
of the same year we had a maximum percentage of moisture on two 
days only, at 6 a.m. and noon, and on both of these days we had 
heavy rains. Speaking generally, the records taken at 6 a.m. show 
that the atmosphere contains about 75% of its possible moisture, 
while at noon it is only about 50%. 

Some interesting facts are brought out by examination of the 
following summary of the records of wind direction, but in explana- 
tion it ought to be stated that the records for 1897 only embrace 
the last three months of the year. Further, that as two readings 
were taken daily, the total readings for the year or month are Just 
exactlv double the number of clays in the year or month. 





X. 


X.E. 


x\v . 


E. 


W. 


S. 


S.E. 


S.W. 


1897 










Total 

Average (per month)... 


1 1 


59 
19-6 


67 

22 '3 


5 
1-7 


7' 


2 
•6 


I 
'3 


2 
7 


1898 


















Total 

Avera.i,'e 


1 1 ■() 


1^1 
15' > 


72 

6 


105 


24 


60 

5 


7H 
6-5 


63 

5 '2 


1899 


















Total 

Avera.^e 


130 

10-8 


25.T 
21-1 


7'^ 
^'•5 


122 

10'2 


1-8 


20 
i'7 


60 

5 


43 

3-f> 


1900 








^ 










Total 

Avera.ge 


82 


27" 
22-6 


147 

i2'2 


% 


9 
■7 


11 
■9 


74 
6-2 


90 

7 "5 


1901- 


















Total 

Averai^e 


3''> 


2iS2 

-?< ' 5 


140 

1 1 -s 


14 
1 2 


13 
1 ■ 1 


4 
•3 


140 

1-2 


75 
6 


1902 


















Total 

Aveia.i;e 


»7 
7'^ 


270 

22-5 


1 1 1 
9"2 


}0 

^'5 


20 

'■7 

95 


■7 


^3 
■7 


10^) 

8-S 


Grand Total 


51 ' 


1318 


f.15 


?'^^ 


'05 


436 


379 


Grand .\\eraiie... 


7-1 


20-9 


9-8 


5"i 


1 "5 


1-7 


7-1 


6-0 



East. 



As will be seen, the prevailing winds are all from the Xorlh or 



Meteorological Records. 79 

In explanation of the diagram, it should be said that the figures 
in the different columns represent readings, and as there are always 
two for each day, the total for the month will be twice the number of 
days. There is nothing particular to be said with regard to wind 
velocities, but the records will be published later on, and will be 
available for those who care to study them. Indeed, the same re- 
mark applies to all the detailed records, and when they are carefully 
studied with other and known data, they will repay the trouble. 

DIAGRAMS. 

Diagram I. — Rainfall from October, 1897, to December, 1902. 
Diagram II. — Number of rainy days from October, 1897, to 

December, 1902. 
Diagram III. — Maximum and minimum barometric readings for 

1900, 1 90 1 and 1902. 
Diagram IV. — Temperature records for 1899. (Maximum and 

Minimum.) 
Diagram IVa. — Temperature records for 1900. (Maximum and 

Minimum.) 
Diagram IVb. — Temperature records for 1901. (Maximum and 

Minimum.) 
Diagram IVc. — Temperature records for 1902. (Maximum and 

Minimum.) 
Diagram V. — Average temperature in the shade for 1901. 
Diagram Va. — Average temperature in the shade for 1902. 



8o 



l^EPORT S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



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6.— NITRO-GLYCERINE EXPLOSIVES : THEIR INFLU- 
ENCE ON INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. 

By \Vm. Cullex. 



The field of explosives, at least to those who are actively con- 
cerned in their manufacture, is a very wide one, and for this reason^ 
anong others, I have limited myself to some remarks on the nitro- 
glyceritie class of explosives. In one sense only is it a limitation, 
as all the important developments in the explosives world have been 
intimately concerned wiih nitro-glycerine. Perhaps the most im- 
portant reason of all for the limitation referred to is the fact that 
here in South Africa we hardly ever hear of anything else, and there 
is nowhere in the whole world where such an industrial transforma- 
tion has been effected, indirectly, through explosives ; but without 
them, all the same, there could have been no such development. 

In the remarks which are to follow, I intend, in the first 
instance, to say a little about the historical part of the subject^ 
pointing out the principal steps which have led up to the develop- 
ment of the explosives, as we know them now. Next, I shall briefly 
outline the manufacture, illustrating it by a few magic-lantem views, 
and lastly, but only briefly, I shall deal with the industrial aspect of 
the question, with special reference to South Africa. 

Nitro-glvcerine has only been known for a comparatively short 
time, a young Italian, named Sobrero. having discovered it in 1846.- 
Some time elapsed before we hear of it in any other application- 
than that of medicine, and even to this day it is prescribed for a cer- 
tain heart affection. Indeed, no advantage was taken of its explo- 
sive properties till the Swedish Chemist. Alfred Nobel, commenced' 
his investigations in the year 1863, and he was not long in discover- 
ing its tremendous potentialities. In a few years, we hear of 
factories being established all over Europe and America, and, as \n 
the case of every new invention, the appliances used at first were- 
extrerriely primitive. Some of these primitive appliances survived' 
until comparatively recent times, and it will suffice for our present 
purpose if I say that, for the most part, the manufacture, if manu- 
facture it could be called, was carried on in much the same manner 
as we would carry it on nowadays in the Laboratory. In the days 
of which I speak people were content to convert one or two pounds 
of glycerine into nitro-glycerine ; nowadays, we start with half a ton 
of glycerine, and from it produce over a ton of nitro-glycerine. 

It seemed that there was a great future for nitro-glycerine, for 
it was universally used for blasting, as liquid nitro-glycerine, all over 
Europe and America, but in a very short time there came a rude 
awakening. Nowadays, one is frequently surprised at the careless 
manner in which explosives of all kinds are handled by people who> 



90 Kepori' S.A.A. Advancement or Science. 

■ought to know belter, and even with regulations of the very strictest 
order governing both manufacture and use, serious accidents are not 
infrequent. Forty years ago these regulations were practically a 
dead letter, and people were ignorant of what nitro-glycerine was 
capable of doing. As I have just said, there came a rude awaken- 
ing, and a series of most disastrous accidents followed one another 
in rapid succession. I cannot do belter ihan quote from " Chemistry. 
as Applied to the Arts and Manufactures," Div. VI., pp. 435-6 : — 

" The highly-favourable reports on the explosive value of 
nitro-glycerine were soon followed b\ statements of its being one 
of the most dangerous of known blasting agents. In 1 866. a 
West India Mail Packet was blown up. a wharf torn down, a 
number of adjacent ships were injured, and many lives lost at 
Colon through an explosion of nitro-glycerine. Not long after 
that, a fearful accident happened at San Francisco, by the 
dropping of a box containing the same material. Later on. 
a Newcastle Magistrate and .several other persons fell victims 
to an accident with this same explosive body. In 1 868. a 
factory at Stockholm, where nitro-glycerine is manufactured, 
was blown up, and a number of men killed, and not long after 
that an explosion, attended with fearful loss of life, occurred in 
Belgium. This last-named accident led to the authorities 
altogether prohibiting the use of this explosive compound in 
that kingdom.'' 

In view of all these disasters, it appeared that nitro-glycerine 
was doomed as an explosive, and in 1874 a Select Committee, which 
had been appointed to investigate the matter, issued its report, and 
the conclusion at which it arrived was very pithily put by Sir 
Frederick Abel, in a letter addressed to Sir John Hay, who, if I 
am not mistaken, was Chairman of the Commission. He writes : — 
" In reply to \our enquiries respecting nitro-glycerine. the pro- 
duction and properties of which have been made the sul)ject of care- 
ful study and extensive experiments by me, I have to express mv 
firm conviction that such appalling accidents as that which occurred 
recently in Wales cannot be guarded against by the enforcement 
of any means short of an absolute prohibition of the importation, 
transport and storage of nitro-glycerine. or of any prejoaration of 
that material. The explosion near Carnarvon was but a repelilion 
of catastrophes of a similar nature which have occurred within the 
last few years in other countries, and are ascribable to the readiness 
with which nitro-glycerine explodes, when subjected to concussion 
or friction, especially if it is undergoing s[)ontaneous change, to which 
it is ver}' prone, however perfect the system of manufacture.'" 

The recommendation made by Sir Frederick was drastic enough 
in all conscience, but it was the only possible one. and it was 
adopted, so the transportation, storage and use of nitro-glycerine. 
as such, were entirely prohibited in the United Kingdom. 

I may say that it had been the custom to send it about in 
ordinar}- tins, which, of course, could not stand much knocking 
about, and many of the accidents occurred through the breakage 



Nitro-Glycerine Explosives. 9^ 

of these tins. In America an ingenious scheme was ailopted to get 
•over some of these difficulties, viz.. the transitort of the nitro- 
glycerine in frozen blocks — for at about i 2°C. it freezes into a solid 
mass, which can hardly be distinguished from ice. However, as 
several of you who are sitting here know well, frozen nitroglycerine 
is not one of the most pleasant things in the explosive line to 
handle, and this expedient had likewise to be abandoned. I under- 
stand that until quite recently nitroglycerine as such was used 
rather extensively in railway work in America, and il was quite 
common for the men who were skilled in hand making nitro- 
glycerine to follow up a contractor, making the nitro-glycerine as he 
went along, and natural I\ it was consumed on the premises, the 
waste acids being simpl\ thrown awa\. .Xow.adays, we have to be 
a little more economical. 

One would have thought that the experiences just related would 
have been sufficient to daunt the most intrepid, but Xobel never 
really abandoned his experiments. One of the expedients which 
he tried to make nitro-glvcerine safe for transport met with a fair 
amount of success at the time, but it in turn had to be abandoned. 
It was to mix the nitro-glvcerine with methyl alcohol, and transport 
it as a mixture. When it was required for u.se the methvl alcohol 
was simply washed out by water. 

Time does not permit of my following Xol)el through all his 
• experiment.s. suffice it to sa\ that his attenti(jn was next directed 
to finding some porous bod\ in which the nitro-glycerine might be 
absorbed. After hundreds of experiments, he finally fixed on 
Kieselguhr. and in the \ ear 1867 this explosive was intrcjduced 
under the name of Dynamite, which name it bears to this day. 

Although many peo])]e tried to circumvent this invention by the 
use of other absorbents, no one has ever succeeded in improving on 
the Dynamite of 1867. which is identical with the Dvnamite of 
1903. I do not u.se the name in its general sense, as we all do in 
South Africa, but as the name of a certain explosive. This discovery 
marked, perhaps, the most important i)oint in the development of 
uiitro-glycerine explosives. 

About this same time an English chemist, attached to the War 
Office, had been experimenting with fulminate of mercurx. with 
the object of finding out whether a cap could not be devLsed for 
setting off explosives in much the same way as caps had been u.sed 
up to that time for the muzzle-loading guns, the onlv kind then in 
use. Fulminate itself was actually discovered in 1799. and the 
first caps were made by an English gunmaker 16 vears later. The 
only explosive used until the discovery of nitro-glvcerine. and .subse- 
quently of Dynamite, was the well-known Black Powder, which was 
then, and is still, ignited l)y means of the ordinary fuse, which everv 
one knows so well. This fuse, however, was not so suitable for the 
newer kind of explosives, but the chemist referred to just now was 
successful in devising what was nothing more nor less than a large 
cap, which when used in conjunction with the ordinarv fuse im- 
rparted quite a different effect to Dynamite, so that it (the D\ namite) 



92 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

rap'ully came iiiLo universal use ; it would never have done so wilb' 
out detonators. 

The introduction of detonators undoubtedly marks another veiy 
important advance in the development of explosives. 

We can safely assert that about this time, i.e., the year 1870. 
only two kinds of explosives were known, viz., Black Powder anJ 
Dynamite, and even to this day nothing has superseded these 
explosives for certain classes of work. Dynamite was considered 
a safe, a reliable, and a powerful explosive, and so it is, 
but Nobel was quick to recognise that it had its Aveak 
points. One of these was that as an explosive it was Vjallasted 
with about 25 per cent, of an absolutely inert body, and another, 
and perhaps the most important in his mind, was the fact that it 
was not very well suited for wet workings. As a matter of fact. 
Dynamite, when steeped in water, parts with its nitro-glycerine, and' 
to a more limited extent the same thing takes place when it becomes 
moist. This phenomenon we generally call exudation. 

Nobel's name is again associated with the next important 
advance in the technologv of explosives, and it is a testimony to 
the man's genius, to his far-sightedness, that after 27 years' exper- 
ence, the explosives made and u.sed in the South African Gold 
Fields are with paltry exceptions according to his original patent 
specifications. 

The point he desired to attain, and the point he did attain, in 
his Blasting Gelatine .specification of 1875 ^^''^^ ^^^ make the entire 
compound explosive, and not only a part of it as in the case of 
Dynamite. The purpose of his invention is set out in the following 
extract from the patent itself : — " The purpose of the invention is 
to convert liquid explosive substances, such as nitro-glycertne, or 
nitrates of methyl, elthyl and amyl, and nitro-l)enzine into a viscid' 
or pa.sty state." Later on he says : — " In carrving out the invention, 
these liquid explosive sul)stances are incorporated with another 
substance, which is capable of gelatinising or thickening them, and' 
for this purpose a substance is chosen which will detract little or 
nothing from the explosive power." 

As an example of this he instances nitrated cotton, which is- 
known as Collodion Gun-Cotton. 

This body dissolves in nitro-glycerine with more or less 
readiness, and produces a doughy mass, of which more anon. 

From this point T must leave the domain of historv. Indeed, 
no important discoven- has been made within the past fifteen years, 
excepting the extraordinary developments in modern smokeless 
powders, and strangely again. Nobel's name is also associated with 
that discovery. Later on T .shall refer very brieflly to this important 
discover}'. 

It is necessary now to say something about the body, nitro- 
glvcerine, itself, but fortunately this need not detain us very long. 
1 have prepared a few magic lantern views to illustrate the pro- 
cesses of manufacture, but think it better to defer them to the end 
of the paper, adding a few explanatory words as each view is put 
'Ml the screen. Nitro-glycerine is not reallv a nitro bodv in the- 



Nitro-Glycerine Explosives. 93 

-chemical sense of the term, but a nitrate being formed through the 
•nitration of gl\cerine, a tri-atomic alcohol bv nitric acid, so 
CyH^Os + 3HXO3 = C3H5 (O XO,)3 + ;3H.o. 
In fact, the formation of nitro-glycerine takes place by means of a 
very simple, straightforward chemical equation, and the elementary 
. analysis of the product agrees perfectly with the above formula. 
The preparation of nitro-glycerine is really a most simple operation 
— when everything goes right — but like ever)' other simple operation 
there is a right and a wrong way of doing it. The knowledge of 
how to do it the right way constitutes a man an expert. From 
the equation, which 1 have just shown you, it would appear that all 
one has to do is to mix glycerine with nitric acid, and chemistry, 
that very vague thing, does the rest. 

But long before the stage just referred to has been reached, 
many things have to be done, and many chemical equation.s would 
require to be put on the black board to explain them. First of 
all, we must have very pure anhydrous glycerine, and the manu- 
ifacture of this article involves some highly complicated processes, 
and the use of some of the most beautiful machinery which can be 
seen in any branch of applied chemistry. Few manufacturers make 
their own glycerine, but many buy it in the crude state, and then 
refine it. It is in the main a bye-product from soap and candle 
making, and manufacturers of explosives as a rule find the)' have 
-quite enough to do without meddling with other industries. Then 
we must have our nitric and our sulphuric acid, both as strong and 
as pure as it is possible to make them. I have already said that 
there are tricks connected with every manufacture. Sulphuric acid 
■did not figure in the equation which I have just given you, yet for 
-.reasons which I shall explain, its presence is absolutely necessary. 

The manufacture of sulphuric acid, although one of the oldest 
•of our chemical industries, is still a very complicated one, but I 
take it that most people have a fair idea of how it is done. At 
"the Modderfontein Factory, with which I am connected, we are at 
present using the old process commonly called the chamber process, 
but we hope soon to have the modern or contact process installed. 
It is unfortunate that up to now we have discovered nothing in the 
whole of South Africa which can take the place of the Sicilian 
sulphur which we burn in our ovens; but the new process will, we 
trust, allow us to work the low grade pyrites which is so abundant 
•on the Rand. As will be seen from the views which will presendy 
appear on the screen, our plant is a very large one, indeed, among 
the largest in the world; but the addition of the contact plant will 
make it almost the largest. 

I cannot pass this part of the paper without commenting on 
the fact that the process to which I have just referred has been 
known since ever books on chemistry were written, and vet onlv 
within the past few years, and principally by the aid of engineering 
as applied to chemistry, it has come to the front, and will com- 
pletely revolutionise our oldest and most important chemical in- 
•dustry. The same remark applies to many other processes, until 



94 



J\.KPoRi S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



some une whose eyes are not blinded by routine comes along, sees- 
the practical application, and applies it accordmgl). A parallel 
case is that of the extraction of gold by means of c\anide. an ex- 
periment which thousands have carried out \ears and years ago. 
MrArthur was far-seeing, and applied it in a \va\ which has been of 
incalculable benefit to South Africa, liut not much good to himself. 

The chamber process for making sul])huric acid is roughly as- 
follows : — Suljjhur or i:)yrites is burned in o\cns, and SC)^ is produced. 
This gas is carried into large lead chambeis. together with some 
oxides of nitrogen. Water is also injected as steam. The nitrogen 
oxide being what we call an oxidising body hands ov(.:r part of its 
oxygen to the SO2, producing SO3, which in turn coml)incs with the 
water present, forming sulphuric acid, of a diluted kijid. called 
chamber acid. This has to be concentrated u[) till it contains 
96% H2SO4. and, among other things, 1 may mention that our 
platinum stills for this purpose represent a value of __;^i 00,000. 
The contact process aims at producing stro)ig acid right away, thus- 
saving all the cost of concentration. Sulphur or pyrites, as in the 
chamber process, is burned in ovens, and the SO2 produced, 
together with atmospheric oxygen, is passed over a catal\tic agent 
— generallv finely divided platinum — which causes (hem to combine, 
forming SO3. The neces.sary amount of water can be added in. 
many ways, but in any case strong acid is produced right off. 

This also sounds simple, Init the working out of the process- 
to its present state of perfection has involved )ears of most patient 
research, and it is perhaps the best example extant of the mutual 
inter-dependence of the engineer and the chemist. 

I have started with sulphuric acid, for it is required in order tO' 
make nitric acid, which is also a simple o])eralion, chemically speak- 
ing, but which in recent years has become entirely revolutionised 
by modern imj)rovements. Nitric acid, as \ou know, is made by 
distilling a mixture of nitrate of sorlu and sul|)Iiuric acid. It is. 
unfortunate that up to now the onl) deposit of nitrate of soda of 
any commercial imjiortance is the world rcnowiunl one in Chili, 
from which all manufacturers of e.\i)lo.-,i\cs have to draw their 
supplies. 

Now that we have seen to our raw materials, we can start awav 
on the manufacture of nitro-glycerine. Sulj)htijic and nitric acids- 
are first of all mixed roughly in the proportion of two of the former 
to one of the latter, and when this is done, gbccrine is dropped or 
sprayed into the mixture. A large amount of heat is evolved, and' 
in order to keep down the temperature, cold water is constantlv 
kept circulating through coils in the body of the apparatus. I 
have already said that the acids must be as strong as possible, and' 
the sulphuric acid is pre.sent only to take up the water formed in 
the reaction. Not so very long ago the amount of glycerine used 
in each charge or operation was comparativeb small. 'but nowadays- 
about a long ton of nitro-gl)cerine is made at one charge. About 
220 parts of nitroglycerine are obtained from e\ery'ioo parts- 
of glycerine. I need not take you through all the side processes, as 



Niiro-Glvcerime Explosives. 95 

I shall reter lo them in some detail when the views are on the 
screen, but now I need only say that these processes involve : — 

1. The separation of the nitro-glycerine from the acids. 

2. The separation of the acids from the nitroglycerine. 

3. The purification of the nitro-glycerine. 

4. The recoverv of the waste acids, and many others of lesser 
importance. 

Nitro-gl\cerine is a heavy oil} liquid tjf r6 S.G.. having as a 
rule a straw yellow colour, but when made from perfectly bleached 
glvcerine and nitric acid, it is almost water white. It freezes about 
i2°C., and the sp.gr. of the frozen body rises to i"735 (Guttmann). 
This peculiaritv of freezing has led to more accidents in Europe 
than all other causes combined. Ff)rlunalely. we do not often see 
frozen nitro-glycerine explosives in South Africa. It has a slight 
vapour tension, and a peculiar smell, \obel informed me some 
years agi> before his death, that he had at one time distilled 1 cwt. 
of nitro-glycerine under reduced pressure, which merely illustrates- 
the fearlessness of the man. If perfectly purified and freed from 
acids it .vill keep for an indefinite period, and I have seen samples- 
20 years old. On the other hand, it sometimes takes it into its head 
to decompose for no apparent cause, but I am convinced that in 
every case this is the result of faulty manufacture. It is not neces- 
sary to say anything about its sensitiveness to shock, as in general 
terms this fact is fairly well known. 

When decomposed in a confined space it is resolved into- 
carbonic acid, water, nitrogen, and oxygen, according to the follow- 
ing equation : — 

2 C,,H, (XO.jsO, = 6C0, + 5H2O + bX + O. 
so that it has in itself more than sufficient oxygen to burn up all the 
elementary constituents. This is a most important point. Every 
litre of nitro-glycerine equivalent to i"6 kilos by weight produce 
1,141 litres of gas, a truly enormous quantity, the volume being 
reckoned at 0°C and 760 m. pressure. The water is akso calculated 
as in the gaseous state. The theoretical temperature at explosion 
is 698o°C., and as the mechanical work is the function of the gas 
volume by the temperature, one can readily realise how it is that 
nothing else approaches it in power. The pressure exerted at the 
theoretical temperature is 20,000 kilos per sq. centimetre, or,, 
roughly, about 1,300 tons per .sq. inch. Taking equivalent volumes^ 
of black powder and nitro-glycerine, the latter produces an explosion,, 
a pres.sure 10 to 12 times as great as ordinary black ])owder, and 
the actual work calculated weight for weight is roughU as three 
to one. 

I have said quite enough about nitro-glvcerine to show vou — - 
as indeed requires no demonstration— the enormous pote.itial 
energy it possesses. I am almost tempted at this point to discuss 
some matters which relate more to the domain of theory and 
scientific research, but time does not permit, and I shall therefore 
continue to look at the subject from its everydav practical aspect. 

I have referred incidentally to two nitro-glycerine explosives 



9^ Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

•already, viz., Dynamite and Blasting Gelatine, and it so ha[4jens 
that these are the best known types of two widely differing classes. 
Dynamite, that is Kieselguhr Dynamite, the explosive almost ex- 
■clusively used in the Diamond Fields at Kimberley, is the best 
known example of a class, the chief aim of which is to absorb the 
nitro-glycerine in some absorbent or semi-absorbent body. There 
are endless varieties of this class, but in Europe they are not manu- 
factured to any extent. It is, however, otherwise in America, where 
the nitro-glycerine explosives are almost entirely of this type. Most 
■of them are mixtures of nitro-glycerine with wood-meal or. pulp, 
nitrate of soda, and one of several other ingredients, the presence 
•of which is sometimes rather difficult to explain. 

The nitrate is, of course, added for the purpose of oxidising 
the organic absorbent, but it is quite evident that in every one there 
is bound to be a large amount of mineral matter, which i.s utterly 
xiseless as an explosive; not only so, but a proportion of the heat 
■developed is lost in heating up this mineral matter, and in the case 
•of Kieselguhr Dynamite, which has 25% of an absolutely inactive 
■body, the loss of heat must be and actually is very considerable. 
Nearly all the explosives of this class are powdery or semi-powdery, 
but Dynamite is semi-plastic. 

The second class includes all the gelatinous explosives, and 
Tiere they go by the familiar names of Blasting Gelatine, Gelatine 
Dynamite, and so on. They (the latter) are. however, all only 
lower grades of Blasting Gelatine. 

It does not come within the province of this paper to discuss 
the relative merits of what I might call the American type, as 
against the gelations type, and there is plenty to be said on both 
sides of the question, and no doubt there are certain classes of 
work for which each is in its way best suited. Rather would I take 
these two types, and say a few words about their manufacture and 
properties, illustrating later on by means of the lantern how the 
actual working is carried on. 

Dynamite is now going sadly out of fashion, as can be seen 
from the returns, imports and exports, published by our various 
■Colonies. In the Transvaal, which is the largest market for explosives 
in the world, the sales only form a little over 1% of the total. Its 
manufacture is extremely simple. Kieselguhr, the absorbent body, 
is found in many parts of the world, and is simply a conglomeration 
of most minute shells of tiny animalculae (Diatome). Under the 
microscope they are seen to have a very delicate structure, but there 
is no evidence of this to the eye in the earth as found. Chemically, 
it is almost pure silica, and the reddish colour which it generally 
has, and which is more marked when made into Dynamite, comes 
from traces of oxide of iron. It is necessary to free it from organic 
matter and moisture, a simple kiln roasting generally sufficing for 
this purpose. It is next ground to an impalpable powder, and 
naturally gritty matter has to be most carefully removed. When 
this stage is reached the nitro-glycerine is simplv mixed with it bv 
hand, and then sifted several times to ensure thorough mixin"-. 



Xitro-Glycerinf. Explosives. 97 

Some qualities of Kieselguhr will absorb as much as 80';^ nitro- 
glycerine, but about 75% is the average, and this is the proiX)rtion 
in which it is generally manufactured. 

Nitro-glycerine, as I have already mentioned, freezes at about 
i2°C., and all explosives containing it are affected the same way. 
When Dynamite freezes it is converted into a hard stony mass, and 
to get the .same explosive effect, as from unfrozen, a detonator three 
rimes as strong as the usual must be used. It is very dangerous 
to ram frozen Dynamite into a bore-hole, and it should always be 
thawed before use, but many accidents happen through the care- 
less performance of this simple operation. At Parma, in 1878. a 
cavalry lieutenant killed and wounded 80 people l)y neglecting 
■ordinary precautions in thawing a little over 2 lbs. of Dynamite. 
I have already referred to its one great drawback, viz.. the dis- 
placement of the nitro-glycerine when it comes into contact with 
water, and this as much as anything has led to its gradual extinction. 
In its favour, however, it must be stated that it requires a much 
more violent shock than nitro-glycerine to explode it, and it is not 
nearly so shattering, the explanation being that a part of the initial 
heat of combustion is absorbed in heating up the Kieselguhr, thus 
reducing the initial pressure. 

So much then for Dynamite, and now I shall say a few words 
about Blasting Gelatine, which is from the scientific as well as from 
the technical point of view, a much more interesting body in every 
way. I have already outlined how Nobel first came to think of 
substituting the Kieselguhr of Dynamite by a body actually explo- 
sive in itself. The result was the most powerful explosive which 
has ever yet been made or ever is likely to be made. Xitro-cellulose 
had been know-n and used for various purposes long before Nobel 
brought out his Blasting Gelatine, and about i860 the Austrian 
Government actually went to the length of deciding to adopt one 
form of it called Gun Cotton for small arms and field guns. Terrible 
accidents in Austria, as also in England, however, put a complete 
stop to these projects, but, as I have already remarked, it took a 
good deal of danger to daunt Nobel. Another form of nitro- 
• cellulose, generally known as Collodion Cotton, has come into great 
use, in photography principally, in the production of wet plates. 
Nobel found that this Collodion Cotton was soluble in nitro- 
glycerine, which in consequence became thickened or gelatinous. 
The method of producing a nitro-cellulose suitable for the manu- 
facture of a good Blasting Gelatine is a secret very jealously guarded 
by manufacturers, and although it is now 25 years since Nobel tiled 
his patent, there is still something to learn. The chemistry of nitro- 
cellulose belongs to that branch which we call obscure, but the 
point which all manufacturers seek to arrive at in practice is to use 
as little nitrocellulose as possible in their Blasting Gelatine. It 
would serve no useful purpose to inquire into the reasons for this, 
but I would only say that the health of the miner and immunity from 
accidents depend to a great extent on a -f 2% of nitro-cellulose, 
and that the gelatinous explosive which has the minimum of nitro- 



98 Report vS.A.A. Advanxement of Science. 

cellulose is alwavs the l)esl, other thini^s being satisfactory. We 
shall, therefore, start by assuming that \ve have an excellent nitro- 
cellulose, the test of its excellence being its capacity to convert nitro- 
glycerine into a doughy mass with the minimum quantity. The 
manufacture of this nitro-cellulose is a most ticklish matter, the 
ultimate quality depending on so man\ different things, among 
Avhich I ma\' cite the source of the raw cotton, the extent to which 
it has been washed or bleached, i.e., converted into oxycellulose, or 
other quasi-cellulose. the strength of the acids, the temperature <jf 
nitration, the method of washing, and a host of other details. How- 
ever, it is possible to ])roduce a good nitro-cellulose which is entirely 
soluble in nitroglycerine. Other nitro-celluloses higher in the scale 
of nitration, such as gun cotton, are almost completely insoluble in 
nitro-glvcerine. and some of them much lower are equally insoluble. 
When nitrocellulose in the shape of pulji is mixed with nitro-glycerine- 
in the heat, it dissolves ver\ rapidh. and if the jjrocess of solution 
be tiuther continued in a mai'hine something like a i)read-kneading 
machine, what we call ihe maximum gelatinising effect is jiroduced. 
and ihe rrsull is a plasti*- dough which has onlv to be jjressed through 
a sausage machine in order to make cartridges. It does not 
take much imagination to understand how different sizes of nozzles 
or dies will ])roduce different diameters of cartridges, and this is 
reall\ how the different sizes are produced. A good Blasting 
Gelatine ought not to contain more than 8"J5",, niiro-celiulose, and 
as will be seen from the dummy specimen exhibited, it is a pliable,. 
rubber\ mass, having generally a yellowish milk\ while appearance. 
The milkiness comes from small globules of air imprisoned ihrough- 
f)ut the mass, but after a few months' storage thesi' disajipear. and the 
Ijody l)ecomes amber-coloured and quite transparent. 

Thi.s plasticity makes Blasting Gelatine one of the safest ex- 
plosives to handle, and if statistics be carefully examined, ihev will 
reveal the fact that in the hands of the experienced peo})le who 
manufacttire it. an accident is a very rare occurrence. i''or this 
same reason it is calculatecl that the initial shock necessar} to ex- 
])lode Blasting Gelatine is six times as great as that for Dvnamite. 
Blasting (jelatine is. therefore, comparatively insensiti\e to e\])losion 
by influence, and some years ago. when the ambition of every 
artillerist was to throw the biggest projectile the longest distance 
with the greatest effect, the now. forgotten Zulinskv Gun, the inven- 
tion ot a very clever American, made its ai)pearan(e. It did do all. 
or nearl\ all. that its inventor claimed for it. and threw- a large pro- 
jectile with an equally large charge of Blasting Gelatine very long 
distances, but for reasons which we need not discuss the idea has 
now been fmally abandoned. Another excellent property of Blast- 
ing Gelatine is the fact that i( suffers practically no deterioration 
from contact with water. In fact, it can be u.sed in wet and dry 
holes with eqtial facilitx. and it can l)e stored under water for an 
indefinite period. 

The theoretical pressure developed on explosion is much the 
same as in nitro-glycerine. One might fairly expect it to be higher.. 



Nitro-Glyckrixe Explosives. 99 

as the volume of yases is slightly higher, but the temperature, oa 
the other hand, slightly lower. Nitro-glycerine, it will be remem- 
bered, contains slightly' more oxygen than is necessary for its com- 
plete combustion, but' nitro-cellulose. on the other hand, contains 
a great deal too little. It so happens, however, that the proportions 
in which these two generally occur in Blasting Gelatine are com- 
plementary, and the result is a complete combustion into carbonic 
acid, water and nitrogen, three very innocuous gases. 

The proportions in which they are formed by weight are roughly 
as follows : — • 

Carixmic Acid 6i'7% 

Water ^o'3% 

Nitrogen ]8"o'','', 

The volume produced from one kilo calculated al the average 
temperature and depth of mine working, viz.. 25°C. and 200 metre 
are as follows : — 

J 92 Litres Nitrogen J7"48% vol. 

422 Litres Carboiiic Acid ■j2'^2% vol. 

This is on the assumption, of course, that all the water is condensed. 

As already remarked, the other gelatinous exjjlosives used on 
the South African l'"ields are on the main only modifications of 
Blasting Gelatine, but of a lower grade. The l)est known is 
"Gelignite," which generally consists of 60", of Blasting Gelatine,' 
and 40"^J of a mixture of nitrates with some organic matter such as 
wood pulp. The result is a gelatinous explosive of much the same 
density as Blasting Gelatine, but about 20% weaker. 

I have ])erhai)s now said enough aljout the exiilosives used on 
these tie]<ls. but I cannot leave the subject altogether without 
referring to what is perhaps the most interesting and instrticti\e part 
which nitro-glycerine plays in the world's economy. 

Forty years ago. the idea of being able to tame nilro-gKcerine 
to such an extent that it could l)e capaijle of being used as an instru- 
ment tor industrial develo])ment was believed in b\ few. if anv. 
We have seen. an<l we know now how" all this came about, but even 
15 years ago, no one would have believed it ])f)ssil)le to further tame 
it that it could be used as a i)ropellant. Yet this has taken place, 
and we have in Cordite, perhaps the most powerful propellant ever 
known, and at the same time the one most easilv tamed and most 
amenable to the requirements of the artillerist. Nitro-glycerine is. 
of course, the principal ingredient of Cordite, and we have the 
strange anomaly of its (N.G.) being at one and the same time the 
most powerful blasting and propelling agent as also the mildest and 
best mannered of explosives. 

To Nobel we are again indebted for this idea, and though his 
original specification has not l)een followed in everv case. mc>st of 
the great European Powers have adopted a propellant containing 
greater or less proportions of nitroglycerine. The phenomenon 
of a powder being, at the same time a blasting and a propelling 
agent is not, of course, unknown, and for hundreds of vears out- 
old friend black poAvder had to act in this capacit\. and it is reallv 



3CD Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

marvellous how it has been tamed b\ a mere alteration in its 
physical state. It is, as you know, used for all kinds of blasting- 
even now, and at the same time can be fired from the veriest i)op- 
gun, as well as a 12" breech-loader. All the same, there is a vast 
difference between propulsion and disruption, and of modern explo- 
sives few can be persuaded to act in this dual capacity. 1 have 
already said that in the Sixties the Austrian Government thought 
they had tamed Gun Cotton, but they found out their mistake, and 
■even nowadays, with all our knowledge and all our experience, Gun 
Cotton is still intractable. It is true that we have been successful, 
and ver}' successful, in .some directions, but that is brought about by 
first dissolving Gun Cotton in acetone, or some similar solvent, 
Tcneading it into dough very much like Blasting Gelatine, and press- 
ing or rolling this dough into any desired shape while it is still plastic 
through the presence of the solvent. When this is evaporated off, 
it is left as hard as a stone, with a surface as compact, and this is 
really the secret of the taming — the hardening of the surface and 
the more gradual combustion. Fulminate and numerous other 
■explosives have never been tamed, and never will be tamed ; that is, 
they are disruptive agents, pure and simple. But even in the case 
of fulminate, if it is compressed sufficiently it loses its effectiveness 
as fulminate, and it is no use even as an ordinary explosive. All 
this, however, is a digression, and really apart from our subject; but 
I have thought it to be not out of place to point out this final triumph 
■of nitro-glycerine. I have called Cordite a well-behaved explosive, 
and the unhappy war which has just ended, and ended with both 
sides employing the same ammunition, was the most crucial test 
■of the merits of any powder. Cordite came out of the ordeal well, 
and, in spite of its tremendous latent power, it gives a lower breech 
power than any other propellant so far devised. 

I am afraid that this, the first and the principal division of mv 
paper, has been treated in rather a sketchy manner, but, in any case, 
little time need be spent on the concluding portion, i.e., the influence 
■of nitro-glycerine explosives on industrial development. This can, 
of course, be considered from two points of view, viz., the industrial 
undertaking of explosive manufacture and the greater, but more in- 
direct, " influence " exerted on industry by this increased use of 
explosives. As an example of the importance and growth of the 
industry itself, I may mention that at the factory with which I am 
•connected we employed about 750 whites and 3,000 natives prior to 
the war in order to supply the requirements of the Transvaal alone. 
For getting raw materials, machinery, etc., up from the coast, we 
paid the various railway .systems over ^£200,000 in one year. There 
are, of course, no other Rands in the world that we know of as yet, 
but still the amount of explosives consumed all over the world is 
■enormous. In Great Britain alone I estimate that 20,000 tons Df 
High Explosives must be produced annually, but a great part of this 
is. naturally, exported. One may say with perfect certainty that 
indu.strial progress would have been several decades behind what it 
is at present without nitro-glycerine explosives. This is a tall 



Nitroglycerin l: Explosive:?. io.? 

slatemfnt to make, lnii consider for one niumeni what has been done 
throtigh their agency. Railways have been made through places- 
formerly thought impassable and impossible; tunnels have beeu 
bored; harbours made safe for the entry of ships; docks have been 
blasted; and we all know what tremendous influences are exerted 
by the railway and b\ the steamboat. People who ought to know 
say that the wealth of France and its recuperative powers are almost 
entirelv due to the splendid s\stem of roads inaugurated by 
Napoleon, but no system of roads could ever do for France, or for 
anv other country, what the railways are doing now all over the 
world. Could South Africa be what it is to-day without railways, 
and can it progress industriallv or cc^mmercially without them ? 
Speaking of South African Railways in particular, however, reminds 
me that from the point of view of the explosive manufacturer their 
development does not appear to ha\e in\olved the use of very much 
explosive, becau.se. wherever there is a difficulty in the way, the 
engineer, instead of calling in the mighty aid of explosives, has gone 
several miles round the corner to avoid it. This by the way. 

Of course, nitro-glycerine explosives are employed for mining 
purpo.ses more than for anything else, and in South Africa we can 
safely say that no other kind has ever been used to any extent. The 
Rand could never have been what it is now without nitro-glycerine. 
During the twelve months prior to the war, 1.3-15 million tons 
of gold-bearing rock were mined simplv to put through the batteries, 
but it is impossible to estimate how many more millions were blasted 
in such work as shaft-sinking, development and prospecting. Gold 
has l»een the making of South Africa, and it will yet make it one of 
the wealthiest and most wonderful countries of the world. Who 
is there among us here who can foretell what this country will be 20 
years hence? It is the few who are pessimists. Why, we have 
millions upon millions of tons of coal, iron and limestone lying side 
by side, and if it were not for that bugbear, labour, we who are 
optimists could look forward to the day when the High Veld would 
rival Pitt.sburg. Swansea. Durham and Cardiff — when we have the 
railways. We live in a white man's countr}\ and must dream white 
man's dreams. There is nothing impossible, and long after the 
present Rand is worked out. there will be plenty of scope for the 
ambitious in other directions. What benefits the Rand, benefits the 
whole of South Africa. I look forward to the day when industries 
of all kinds will spring up. They cannot help doing so, but the 
backbone of the whole must always be gold. I am not speaking of it 
in the sordid but in the industrial sense, and I say now, with all 
seriousness, that the progress of South Africa will go hand in hand 
with the increased use of the subject-matter of this paper. 



7.— A PRELIMINARY NOTE ON SOME OBSERVATIONS 
ON ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY IN CAPE 
TOWN AND BLOEMFONTEIN. 

By Dr. ]. C. Beattik, F.R.S.E., W. H. Logkmax, B.A., and 
J. Lyi.e, M.A. 



Till recently, work on atmospheric electricity embraced obser- 
vations on thunderstorms and allied phenomena and measurements 
of the potential at a point in the air. In 1899. Elster and Geitel, 
following up the work of Linss, proved the presence of gaseous 
ions in ordinary atmospheric air. This discovery added new 
interest to the subject, and when one of us came to reside in Bloem- 
fontein, Dr. Beattie suggested that the study (jf atmospheric elec- 
tricity might, with great advantage, be carried on simultaneously in 
Cape Town and Hloemfontein. 

The stations are equipped with a Kelvin portable electrometer 
and an Elster and Geitel " Zerstreuungs Ap^jaratus."' The former 
requires no description ; the latter is simply a very sensitive aluminium 
leaf electroscope, having, in place of the usual disc, a cylinder of 
blackened brass, radius 2*5 cms., length to cms., which is insulated 
inside of a larger earthed cylinder, radius 9 cms., length 14 cms. 
The insulation is of such an excellent character that no allowance 
need be made for loss of charge due to bad insulation. The method 
of using the instrument is as follows: — The distributor, as the inner 
cylinder is called, is charged to a potential which can be known from 
the divergence of the leaves. It is usually 150 to 200 volts. The 
instrument is then exposed freely in the open air. but out of the 
direct rays of the sun. A reading is taken in about fifteen minutes, 
and the instrument, charged oppositely now. is set to leak again. 

From the voltage difference it is easy to calculate a number 
which is proportional to the quantity of electricitv which leaked in 
one minute from the inner cxlinder to the outer. This number, 
hereafter referred to as "n". mav be taken as a measure of the 
conductivity of the air. 

Readings have been taken morning and afternoon, and in 
Bloemfontein several all-day readings have been obtained. 

In Cape Town the instruments are in the charge of Mr. Loge- 
man. The Elster and Geitel is exposed under the balconv in the 
south front of the Physics Laboratory. 

The potential readings are made at a point seven feet above 
the ground, in the centre of the College Quadrangle. 

In Table T. will be found the mean monthly values of ''n" for 
this station. 



Atmospheric Electricity. ;o3 

Mr. Logeman has not been .able to find any connection between 
ihe conductivity of the air and any of the usual meteorological 
elements, or even the potential. They are. therefore, not included 
in the table. 

The few potential readings obtained are quite normal in 
character. They are almost invariably positive, but are subjeci to 
great fluctuations. Extremes occurred on iith Se})tember. 190J, 
when 520 volts i)()sitive were registered, and on 9th Februarv, 1903. 
when a negative reading of 245 volts was obtained. 

On neither occasion did anything remarkaljle occur. 

In BloemConlein the instruments are at Cirey College, in charge 
of Mr. Lyle. 

The Elsler and Geitel is freel\ exposed in the open air, with no 
roof over it as in Cape Town. Jt is shielded from the direct ra\s 
■of the sun. 

The poi table electrometer is .set up in the middle ot an open 
space, and at a height of four feet from the ground. Unfortunately, 
this instrument suffered in transit from England, and it is only 
recently that potential readings have been taken. Table II. con- 
tains the mean monthly values of "a" for the Bloemfontein station, 
as well as the usual meteorological elements in so far as our equi|> 
ment permitted their observation. 

A discussion of the readings at the present stage would be 
somewhat out of place, but we may draw attention to the following 
points : — 

In the morning the mean negative leak exceeds the [lositive in 
almost every case ; in the afternoon the mean positi\e somewhat 
■exceeds the mean negative, l)ut in both stations the afternoon leak 
is erratic, due jnobably to the presence of products of combustion 
in the air. 

The afternoon leak is jjrettv generally greater than the forenoon 
leak. 

Making allowance for various experimental errors, we ma\ state 
that at any instant the number of positive ions in the air is the same 
as the numljer of negative ions, but that the number varies greatly 
from time to time. Tables I. and If. would seem to point to an 
annual variation in the number of the ions. The leak is greatest in 
the summer months. This may point to an insulation effect, which 
would also explain why the leak is greater in Bloemfontein than in 
"Cape Tow'U, and greater in the afternoon than in the forenoon. 

It has Ijeen noticed in Bloemfontein that if the leak shows signs 
■of one sidedness. a break in the weather mav be expected. 

The negative ions are usually first affected. It is kncjwn that 
they most readily form nuclei for the condensation of aqueous 
vapour, and. their mass lieing thereby increased, they move more 
slow'ly in an electric field, and so the positive leak is lessene<l. In 
dust-storms the leak is somewhat variable, but this ma\ well be due 
to the convective action of charged dust particles. 

There is a decided daily variation. The maximum is reached 
in the afternoon, just when the temperature is highest and the rela- 



I ©4 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of vScience. 



tive humidity is lowest. This will be borne out by a referenece tO' 
Table III., which shows hourly values of "a" for loth February, 
1903. By far the most interesting daily variation occurs just before 
sunset. 

The relative humidity has been known to double itself in a 
litJe over an hour, and in the same time the leak has fallen off from 
quite a high value down to zero. The negative ions are most sensi- 
tive. After sunset the air rapidly regains its conductivity, and values 
of "«" have been got greatly in excess of the usual values. This 
effect mav take place quite apart from any approach to saturation. 

Contrary to expectations, great disturbances, such as violent 
hail; rain and thunderstorms, which are fairly frequent in Bloem- 
fontein, have not, so far, been found to have any great effect on 
the conductivity of the air. The few potential readings taken in 
Bloemfontein are of quite the normal kind, positive and steady in 
fair weather, high " wobblv " readings, usually negative, before and 
during broken w'eather. 

In dust-storms, the potentials are negative, and so high that 
the instrument is unable to measure them. If a storm strikes 
Bloemfontein, the potential is negative and the barometer rises ; if 
the storm passes on one side, the potential is positive and the baro- 
meter falls. It seems also that a low potential accompanies good 
conductivity and a high potential poor conductivity. 

Mr. Logeman has designed and is making an instrument to obtain 
a continuous record of the conductivity of the air, and with it we 
hope to push our inquiries further, and so verify or amend several 
conjectural relations between "a" and the other meteorological 
phenomena. 



TABLE I.— MEAN MONTHLY VALUES OF 
CAPE TOWN. 



FOR 





MOKNING. 


AFTKRN'OON. 


Datf. 








+ « 


— a 


+ n 


— 


1902. 








June 


•0067 


■0070 


•0116 


•0107 


July 


•0086 


•0091 


■0154 


■0155 


August 


•oof) I 


•0073 


■OIK) 


•oiig 


September ... 


•0086 


•007S 


■0I20 


•0I0() 


October 


■ 0093 


■ 0096 


•0104 


•0097 


November 


•0I2'2 


•0134 


•0126 


•0144 


December ... 


•oioS 


•O! 16 


•0064 


•0071 


IfJOV 










January 










February 


• 0080 


■ ooi )4 


... 





Atmospheric Electricity. ic 

TABLE II.— MEAN MONTHLY VALUES OF "a" FOR 
BLOEMFONTEIN. 









MOKXING. 








AFTERNOON". 




Date. 


g 


X 




+ a 


— a 


g 


g 


^ 


+ 


— a 


1902— 

Sept. 


57 


61 


_ 


•0114 


•ori6 


67 


43 


— 


•0133 


■0153 


Oct. 


63 


53 


— 


•0126 


•0137 


70 


39 


— 


•0133 


•0127 


Nov. 


64 


74 


_^_ 


•0152 


•0x68 


71 


54 


— 


•0144 


•0137 


Dec. 


77 


63 


— 


•0138 


•0151 


88 


46 


— 


•OI71 


•0182 


1903— 
Jan. 


71 


52 


25-551 


•0152 


•0162 


86 


28 


— 


•0207 


•0204 


Feb. 


69 


62 


25-681 


•0151 


•0164 


77 


48 


— 


•0184 


•0167 



TABLE III.— MEAN HOURLY VALUES OF "o" AT BLOEM- 
FONTEIN ON lOTH FEBRUARY, 1903. 



Hour. 

7-8 

8-0 

9-10 
lo-ir 
11-12 
12-1 

1-2 



Value. 



■0145 

•016 

•0225 

•0270 

■0135 



Hour. 



Value. 



2-3 


•0240 


3-4 


•0228 


4-5 


•0180 


5-6 


— 


6-7 


■0070 


9^10 


•0330 


— 


— 



8.— A GEODESIC ON A SPHEROID AND AN ASSOCIATED 

ELLIPSE. 

By Lawrence Crawford. M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 



1. In this paper the length of the arc of a geodesic drawn 
from a given point on a spheroid in a given direction is found as 
the length of an arc of an ellipse, and the difference of the longitude 
of any point on the geodesic and the given point is expressed as an 
elliptic function of an angle connected with the corresponding 
points on the same ellipse. An expression is then found for the 
change in longitude on return along the geodesic to the same 
latitude. 

2. The equation of the spheriod is' — ni^+"'^=i 

a'" c- 

and a geodesic is given bv /'- sin-^' / = constant, where ^ 

(Is 

is colatitude, measured from OZ and f is longitude. 

Also </5- = </(T- + ;'^ sin"9(/^-, where da- is element of arc of 
meridian ellipse, and the co-ordinates of the point in the plane of 
the meridian may be written {n cos //, c sin //) where a cos /.' = /'sin H, 
( sin //=:;- cos B. 

By substitution for ila-- in terms of liti-, and for H in terms of //, 
we find equation of geodesic becomes 

a- cos- // ( -„ cos- // — i) d<t>^=a- ii—c'^ cos^ //) dir 

where in is the constant of the geodesic and r- = i — %. 

a- 

Also by the same substitutions we find 

ds^= cos^ // (i—c- cos'^ //) dii^K ^ ^ cos- // — I ). 
Ill'' I \ III- / 

3. If \p be the angle at which the geodesic crosses the 
meridian, /- sin 6 d(f)=ds sin \p, 

and r- sin^ 6 -^=^m becomes r sin 9 sin \L^iii, 
as 

i.e., a cos // sin ■dy=iii, 

or a cos //q sin « = /;/, 

where Hq is eccentric angle of starting point and a the angle 
geodesic makes with meridian at //,> 

H. ,9 rt- cos- // (i — f- cos- //) , .7 
ence we get ds- = ^ ^ — ^ .— s— <^" • 

cos- 7;— cos-^ Uo sm- a 



A Geodesic on a Spheroid. 107 



Write in this sin //=sin y V i— cos- //y sin- «=/) sin i-, 
then cos- it — cos- //,( sin- a = i — si n- // — ( i — />-) 

=/- cos- »' 
. • . ils-=a- dv- (I — ('- + ^'" /- sin- c) 



.s :=\ a^/ i—c- + c^ p^ sin^ y dv 



.-. s = a Vi-g--ht-y Jy^i- ^_J^"^,2^o cos2 „ j„. 

Draw then an clhpse, semi-major axis a ^ i—e^ + c-J>-, that is 

ep 



a^/ 1—6'- cos- //q sin- a, eccentricity , that is 

• ^i—c- + c-p- 

yi — cos- ;/o sin- a 
1—6'- cos- II (j sin- a 

then arc of geodesic from point, eccentric angle //u to point, 

eccentric angle //, where tan (colatitnde) = - cot (eccentric angle), 

is arc of this ellipse from point, eccentric angle r^ to point, eccentric 

angle c, 

where sin // = sin r^i — cos- //,j sin- a- 

Note the semi-minor axis of this ellipse 



r. . — / ^'' (I- 

= <?v/i — t- COS- //osm- a X ^ I — y _ .3 



— COS"* ;/o sm- a) 



cos- //(, sm- o 
= a Vi— t'"^ 

= (', semi-minor axis of spheroid. 

4. The relation between (p and // is 

d<f- COS- // i*—^ cos- //— I ) = (l— c'-COS- //) dll-. 

Take the above ellipse and let .v be the angle made with the major 
axis by the perpendicnlar on the tangent at the point whose 
•eccentric angle is r, 

then tan i- =— tan .v, where a^ is semi-major axis of ellipse. 
"1 
Turn the relation between and // into one between <!> and .v, and, 
after some reduction, we tind 

1, '^ - a- (i-p-) {i-c^) dx^ 

a{' {i — k- sin^ .v) (i ^ siii^ -i')^ 



, , . i^ • -.^ ,- 11- • / I — cos- //a sm- a „ , 

vhere k is eccentricity ot ellipse, i.e., e / . 5-^^ — r-^— ,ancl 

V I— 6'- cos- //o sm^a 



Ov^^os 



:<^ 0° 



Q^, :J^ 



io8 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

modulus of elliptic functious connected with the length- of an arc of 
the ellipse and the length hence of an arc of the geodesic. 

. cos Uq sin a (i—c-) cix 

. ' . urn- — 



y I -.- cos2 //o sin2 « (I _^^ gjj^2 ^^.) ^i-A2sin2.r 

To put this into Jacobi's form for the 3rd Elliptic Ijitegral, in 
which the factor in the denominator is i — k- sn- A sn- ii\ take 

sn A =— which lies between i and-, that is take .4 = K + //}. 

Also take (,' -=w, i.c.,x=uw {ic, k), and remembering 

, -= IV + j-5 — . IT {iv, A) 

' « (I + // sin^.r) V I -yt2 sin-' .v ^^^ ^ ^n A 

where // = —k- sn- A, we get 

cos II sin a (i— f-) 

^ — 00= — X 

V I — 1'2 cos- //o sin- o 

L en (K + //3) dn (K + 1/3) * * J 



but sn (K + //3)=- . • . en (K + 7/3) = ' ^ ^ ''' , dn (K + 2/3)= ^A"Lj^'' ; 
I' c c 

substituting these and putting in the value of k, we get 

y/i—c- cos^ II sin^ a 

5. From the relation between f and // we must have 

— -COS-// — r positive 
III- 

i.e., a- cos- II — a- cos- //^ sin- a positive 

. • . /'- — sin- II positive 

and greatest values of // are +sin~^/>, but sin 77=/' sin r 

. • . greatest values of r are + ^, 
'~ — 2 

. • . as we go round geodesic, the corresponding point on ellipse 
moves completely round it. 

The whole length of ellipse then is equal to the length of the 
geodesic from a value of 77 back to the same value. 

What is the difference between the original value of ^ and its 
value on return to the same value of 11 ? 



A Geodesic on a Spheroid. 



As y goes through the series of vahies from o to jtt, so does .r, 
or we take .r goes from .v„ to 2- + .\\,, and in this increase in ic = 



2-+.\\ 



-I'o >/ I — ^-sin-'v. 



d-^ 



\/ I — /:-sin--k!/ 



= 4K 

and II (ii\ K + //3) taken between the hmits 
= JI CcC' + 4K, K + //3) - [[(ic. K+ij]) 



/'ic' + 4k 



4K 

r4K 



41^ 



I k- sn (K + //3) en (K + //3) dn (K + ip) sn- \ii\ \ 



i 



^ — k-sn-(K + i|3}sn^\ 



k- sn (K + //3) en (K 4- i^) dn (K 4- /"/3) sn- \J\ 
T — ^- sn2 (K + //3) sn-\ 

= 411 (K, K + //3) ; 

, , , I • ^ 4 cos //osin 0(1— i^2) -. , TT/i- 1- , • •>\ 
.-. total change m ^ = 3 — , ^ ^ ^ K + 4/ IT (k, K + //3). 

s/ 1 — 6'-cos- //,| sin- o 

II(//. A) — iiE(A) = IICI, n) — AE(ii), 

and II(K + //3. K) = 

.-. II(K, K + //3) = k£(K + //3) — (K4-//3)£. 

Applv the addition theorem for /:(// + <■) to /:(K4-'/3), and turn 
£(//3) into terms of £(/3, ^ ), 

and we tind II(K. K + //3) = //3(K-£) + '^^ ^l^:::^^}i^^^l^ - /K£(p\ k). 

c 

. • . total cliange in ^ 



4cos//osina(l— t--) r iKs/'(i—e^){c-- — k-) .-c-/^aa 

VI — c'-cos-//|,sm-« I e 



and 



cos //,, sm a 



v/ 1 — t'^ cos^ //,) sin- a c V 1—^2 
. • . total change in f 



=4)K£(/5.-t')-/3(K-£)} 
where /3 is given by sn (K + //3) = or dn (/3. k) = i\ 



c,._A CONSIDERATION OF CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS 
IN RELATION TO LIGHT VARIATION. 

By Alex. \V. Robekis, D.Sc, F.R.A.S.. P\R.S.E. 



If two stars revolve round one another in such a manner that at 
e\ery revolution each component comes between its companion star 
and the earth, it is evident that the total light which comes from 
the system will undergo periodic and regular variation. 

This phenomenon of stellar variation, of a well-defined type,, 
is exceedingly interesting, not only because it affords a striking" 
manifestation of celestial movement, but also because it yields data 
which may be of service in investigating some of the most important 
problems of modern Astronomy, for it will be plain that the 
character of the periodic eclipse due to orbital movement will be 
determined to a considerable extent by the relative size and bright- 
ness of the two stars forming the system ; or. to put the matter the 
other way, light variation of a certain well-defined character will be 
no untrustworthy indication of the dimension and brightness of the 
stars producing the variation. From the form and dimensions of 
any stellar orbit to the weight and densitv of the stars circling in 
this given orbit is but a step. 

Thus the obscuration of the light of any star by a revolving 
companion is an occurrence of far more significance than at first 
sight appears. It is this intimate relation of stellar variation to 
celestial mechanics that has during the past ten years raised the 
study of variable stars from being a pastime to a science. 

It is no doubt unnecessary to point out here that all light 
variation is not due to eclipse ; it is only variation of a certain 
definite type that is caused by the revolution of one star round 
another. Further, all f)inary stars do not exhibit light eclipse. It 
is onl\- when they move in such an orbit tTiat at every revolution one 
or other of the two stars comes into the line of sight that eclipse 
takes place. When, however, any star revolves round another in 
an orbit whose plane is coincident, or nearly so. with the plane 
of sight, eclipse will occur ; and this eclipse will, as we have said, be 
of a certain definite type, of a character so marked that there will be 
no chance of mistaking the light changes for variation of a different 
type, and due to totally different causes. 

A moment's thought will indicate what the prominent features 
of this type of variation — called Algol variation from the remarkable 
close binary Algol — are : — 

(i) First, Ave will have great regularity f)f light changes. One 
cycle of variation will be exactly like another cycle. 

(2) The full cycle of light changes will be completed in a. 

few days, sometimes in a few hours. 

(3) The ascending and descending periods of variation will 

be, approximately, equal in duration. 



Close Binary Systems. iii 

Although, however, all variable stars of the Algol type, that is, 
close binar)- stars revolving in an orbit coincident, or nearly so, with 
the plane of sight, will conform to a general type of variation, there 
will be individual differences in the character and magnitude of the 
light changes of each star, marking it out unmistakably from its 
fellows. The two stars forming a system may be equal in bright- 
ness, or thev may be \er\ unequal : they may be equal in size, or 
the disparity may be very great: they may move round one another 
in contact, or two or three diameters apart : they may circle exactly 
in a plane coincident with the plane of sight or at an appreciable 
inclination to it : their orbit may be circular or elliptical. Thus, 
while the general type of variation is due to the common fact of 
revolution, the individual distinctive features of each system are due 
to the relative size, brightness and movements of the component 
stars. 

Each Algol variable, therefore, will have a separate light curve of 
its own. possessing certainly the general family features of all Algol 
stars, but, also, at the same time possessing individual characteristics 
which mark it out distinctly from all other variable stars of the same 
class. 

Perhaps this common family likeness, and yet individual dis- 
tinctive difference, will be best illustrated by exhibiting the light 
curves of five tvpical southern Algol variable stars. These five 
typical stars are : — 



Star, 



K.A. 1900. 



1. S Velorum 

2. K Arae 

3. CPD— 414511 

4. X Carinae 

5. KK Cctitauri .. 



H. M. S. 

9—29—27 

16—31—26 

10 — 17—48 
S— 29— 7 

14- 9^55 



Dfx. 




-44- 


-4.S- 


9 


56- 


-47' 


6 


: 41- 


-45' 


3 


58- 


-53' 


'2 


— ,■>/- 


-23' 


'3 



An exhaustive examination of even the minutest details of these 
five typical light curves. Fig. r. would prove of no ordinary interest. 
It is beyond the province, however, of this paper to enter upon 
such an investigation. I would confine myself rather to a consider- 
ation of the outstanding features of each type, and will endeavour 
to exhibit the principal conditions of matter and motion which lie 
behind these features. 

It will be observed that in the first two light curves that of the 
binary systems .S Velonmi and R Arae. there is only one depression. 
That is, in the case of S Velorum, R Arae, and all stars of this tvpe 
of variation, there is only one eclipse every revolution. These 
binary systems are composed of two stars, one bright, the other quite 
dark. When the dark star gets in front of the bright one we have 
the observed eclipse : when the bright star gets in front of the dark 
one there is of course no change in the brightness of the svstem. 



KiiPORr S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



FIG. I. 




J^ A ro^ 






« ■ 



C ^ D - f/ cs 




X. Cc/f/not: 



fer-to^ ' / / £9 



7B 


■---. 




""^ 




,.-- 


-- 


e 


\ 


* 


\ 




,' 




X. 


\ 








• 




4 


\ 


/ 




^ / 






6 


\ 


/ 




\ / 






■ e 


\ 


J 




V 






s c 















/? /? Ce u tac 



Per,.d o'. ^^*' 3?^ 




Close Binary Systems. 113 

In the third light curve, that of CPD— 41° 4511 ^^^^^ }^ ^ 
double depression, one being very slight. In this case the fainter 
star is sufficiently bright to manifest a secondary eclipse when the 
i Tighter companion gets in front of it. The primary eclipse takes 
place when the faint component obscures the light of the bright one. 
It may be mentioned here that in the case of CPD — 41° 45 11 the 
brighter star is six times more lustrous than the fainter star, although 
it is of the same size. 

In the fourth and fifth light curves we have represented a re- 
markable class of binary stars. Both X Carinae and RR Centauri 
exhibit two almost equal eclipses each revolution. The interpreta- 
tion of this is that these systems are composed of two stars almost 
equal in size and brightness. 

Thus in the five light curves exhibited in Fig. i we have testi- 
mony to at least three stages of double star evolution : — 

(i) First, when both stars of a binary system are equal in 
brightness. This is in all probability the lirst stage. 
X Carinae and RR Centauri may be taken as types of 
this sub-division. As a rule these stars circle round one 
another in a very short period, usually a few hours. 

(2) Second, when one star is distinctly fainter than the other. 

For some reason or another one of the components has 
cooled down : it has reached the second stage in its 
development. 

(3) Third, when one of the twain is quite dark. This is the 

third stage. What stages still lie before the chilled mass 
we cannot tell. It may become a fertile jilanet or a 
sterile satellite. 

These are the three outstanding facts which we can deduce 
from the five light curves under consideration. But when we carry 
our inspection one step further we find important differences between 
each one of the five curves. 

Thus we observe that the eclipse of S Velorum (ist light curve) 
remains at its minimum phase for six hours. In the case of R 
Arae (2nd light curve) there is no halting when the light changes 
have reached their ebb : flow follows ebb without a halt in the varia- 
tion of this star. 

The only sufficient explanation of the constant minimum phase 
of S Velorum is this, that the dark companion of this binarv svstem 
is many times larger than its bright companion. This seems such 
a strange reversion of the natural order of things — a small central 
sun and a large dark satellite that at first sight one is inclined to set 
this explanation aside. Yet no other has been offered. And I 
take it the explanation is a rational one. as I hope to indicate later 
on. 

It will be observed also that the light curves of X Carinae or 
RR Centauri, Avhile alike in essential feature, are different in one or 
two not unimportant particulars. Thus the light curve of RR 
Centauri has no constant phase at all, however short. Its light curve 



I 14 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



is a succession of waves. That is the two stars which make up this, 
system circle round one another in contact. 

In the case of X Carinae separation has taken place. The 
component stars are nearly half the diameter of either of them 
apart. 

It would be entirely out of place to present the s)stem of 
equations which connect the light changes of any Algol binary 
system, as exemplified by its light curve, with the orbital movements 
and rragnitudes which produce them. 

FIG. 2. 



y^ 




\ 



\ \ 
\ 



/■ 



/' 



' V ^ \ 







It will be more pertinent to the present line of inquiry to con- 
sider one or two of the problems which have arisen out of the 
foregoing statement of our present knowledge of close binary systems. 
These problems I take it are of considerable interest and import- 
ance. Some of them have already been indicated. 

(A.) It may be demonstrated, as already stated, that the varia- 
tion of such stars as S Velorum — there is another exactly similar. 



Close Binary Systems. 115 

RR Puppis, in the Southern Hemisphere, and both stars were dis- 
covered at the Royal Observatory, Cape Town — is due to the 
rotation of a large dark body round a small bright companion. 

We have said that at first sight this seems a strange and con- 
tradictory state of things ; yet I venture to offer a rational and simple 
explanation. 

Let us consider a mass of tenuous matter rotating on its axis. 
It is not unreasonable to suppose that the nucleus of such a system 
might be nearer one side than the other : and that in eccentric layers 
the whole mass condensed round this nucleus. That is, we would 
have a body such as is imperfectly represented in Fig. 2. 

It is evident that such an unstable condition of mechanical 
adjustment would favour bipartition : whereas a sphere-shaj^^ed 
body, perfectly symmetrical and uniform in structure, would present 
no line along which cleavage might take j)lace. 

Now, constriction setting in along the line AH (Fig. 2), and 
this leading, after the lapse of countless ages, to bipartition, there 
would result two bodies, one dark, large, light : the other bright^ 
small, dense. 

We would have the very condition of things which exists in 
stars of the type of S Velorum. In process of time the larger body 
might still further divide and sub-divide — the irregular density of the 
mass would favour such disruption. 

Is it possible that in a star like S Velorum we have the first 
beginnings of another solar system? 

(B.) The question of the density of close Binary stars is intimately 
connected with the preceding inquiry, and, therefore, with all pro- 
blems dealing with the evolution of stellar systems. Indeed, the 
density of an Algol Binary is a question of fundamental importance in 
Astrophysics. 

It is fortunate that this inquiry admits of rigorous treatment. 
The equations of orbital movements and dimensions can be related 
directly to the density of occulting binary stars. The investigation 
premises great refinement of observations, as all cosmical problems 
do. but granted this accuracy of data, the deductions are incontro- 
vertible. 

It is found that the densit\ of all close binary systems is, with- 
out exception, many times lighter than that of the sun. For 
example, it is found that the mean density of eight southern Algol 
stars comes out as one-eighth that of the sun. 

This is a remarkable result : and none the less remarkable from 
the fact that it is the state of things we would expect to find in a 
binar) system that just have been evolved from some irregular ga,seous 
mass. The result proves that at their genesis close l)inarv stars are 
composed of matter "light as air." 

(C.) We have stated that the light curve of RR Centauri, and 
of four other Algol stars, indicate that the light changes of this class 
of binary stars are caused by the revolution of two bodies in 
contact. 



ii6 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

One of the problems that presented itself to the writer several 
years ago, when the first star of this type was discovered, was : is it 
possible to ascertain the shape of the stars continually eclipsing one 
another ? 

A first investigation proved that to deal with this problem with 
any hope of even partial success, necessitated observations of great 
refinement. A new telescope was, therefore constructed with the 
sole purpose of obtaining measurements as accurate as human skill 
could .secure. 

Lately, also, there has been added to this telescopic equipment 
the photometers used by Professor Prichard at Oxford. England. 

But even with the most favourable conditions of seeing and 
measuring, I question whether we will be able, with our present 
limitations, to secure observations refined enough to respond to the 
exacting demands of the problem. 

For to deal with the whole problem fully would mean our being 
able not only to distinguish but to measure the change in the amount 
of light given out by a candle at loo feet distant, as compared with 
the same candle at loi feet. It is unnecessary to say that the eye 
can with difficultv distinguish differences soi minute as this. 

But although the problem does not admit of an ab.solute 
solution, it admits of a solution so nearly absolute that it is of im- 
portance to indicate what has been accomplished in this direction. 

If two stars revolve round one another in contact the stress 
and strain of their mutual attraction will produce considerable 
deformation in both stars. They Avill no longer be spherical in 
figure, but will be egg-shaped masses with their narrower ends in 
contact. 

For the exact figure of equilibrium which rotating masses of 
fluid would take under the combined influence of attraction, tidal 
action and rotation, the curious are referred to Professor Darwin's 
classical investigations. (Phil. Trans., Vol. 178, Plates 12. 23.) 

We have already indicated that it is impossible to secure 
observation refined enough to enable us to determine rigorously the 
exact form which a close binary star, say RR Centauri, assumes 
just when separation has taken or is taking place. The furthest 
we can go without the risk of making our equations indeterminate 
is to assume a spheroidal figure for the twin stars. That is, we 
postulate tivo unequal axes for each star. 

Interpreting the light changes of RR Centauri into orbital 
movement, with this limitation, we find that the system is composed 
of two stars, spheroidal in figure, with their major axes lying along 
the line joining their centres. A sectional representation of the 
system is given in Fig. 3. 

In Fig. 4 are given the figures of equilibrium which two rotating 
masses of fluid would assume when nearly in contact. The figures 
are copied from Professor Darwin's masterly work. 

The similarity between the figures determined from pure obser- 
vation alone, and the theoretical figures derived from a consideration 



Close Binary Systems. 



117 



of the Laws of Attraction, is sufficient to warrant the belief that if 
at any future time the limitations now hampering the rigorous treat- 
ment of the problem were removed, theory and observation would 
be in complete harmony. 



Figure of Equilihkium of R. K. Cfntauri cis obtaiiifd Jroiii 

obscivatioiis. 



fig. 




Figurf:s of Equilibrium of Two Rot.\tin-g M.\sses of Fluid 
ALMOST i\ coxiwCT. {Dnrii'iii ... Pliil. Trans., To/. 178, p. 429.) 

fig. 4. 




Pcipciidicithir Section. 



HoAv wide binar>- systems such as « Centauri, Sirius, and 
Castor are evolved from close binary systems like RR Centauri 
belongs to the region of confident speculation. We know that 
tidal action would tend to make all binary systems circle in ever- 
widening orbits, forming infinite spirals. But as the security of our 



ii8 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

belief in such a development is founded on the operations of la\^ 
rather than on the evidences of our vision, I may not enter further 
into the question. 

As no unimportant part of the New Astromony will be the 
study of close binary systems, I trust that what has been written 
will be of interest to members of the Association. 



lo.— THE DETERMINATION OF MEAN RESULTS FROM 
METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT 
SECOND-ORDER STATIONS ON THE TABLE- 
LAND OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

Bv J. R. SuTTOX. M.A.Cantab. 



For the purposes of this paper a daily " mean result " is under- 
stood to be the average of twenty-four hourly observations. It 
differs little from the true mean obtained by a planimeter from an 
automatic continuous record. 

The ordinary time of the observations made by voluntary 
observers for the Meteorological Commission is at present VIII. 
Cape Colony mean time for the meridian of 22^° E., but there 
are occasional registers where other hours have been used. It will 
be found that it is not possible to compare together the climates of 
two stations when different hours of observation are used at each, 
until the departure from the true mean is determined. The station 
using the later morning hour of the two will, on account of the 
.single observation, indicate a climate hotter and drier than the other. 
There is a further point, that even where many stations use the same 
hour (VIII. C.C.M.T., say), the eastern stations shew hotter and 
drier than the western, because of the difference between civil and 
apparent time. Thus, e.g., there is a difference of apparent time 
between Port Nolloth and Umtata of upwards of three-quarters of an 
hour; and it happens, consequently, that the VIII. observations at 
the former place are not far from 7.40 a.m.. and the latter not far 
from 8.30 a.m., local time. Since both temperature and humidity 
are var)ing most rapidly on the table-land between these times, 
it follows that the results from each are not comparable until some 
allowance has been made for the variation. Of course, in di.scussing 
the question of mean results, the registrations of maximum and 
minimum temperatures, which are, in a way, independent of time, 
get over one aspect of the difificulty of comparison so far as the 
temperature alone is concerned. The dew-points, humidity-ratios, 
and barometric-pressures, howe^•er, are not so relieved. The object 
of this communication is to give material for reducing these, as 
well as the temperatures, to a common standard of reference. It 
must be understood as dealing with the central table-land of 
South Africa, including such stations as Aliwal North, Philippolis, 
Bloemfontein, Hanover; and generally with all such as shew an 
approach to equality in the ratios o ^ : «„, of the amplitudes of the 
first harmonic terms in the formulae for the daily maximum and 
minimum temperatures. Umtata. Queenstown. Worcester, etc.. are 
rather outside its scope, although it will be applical)le to some 
Eastern Province stations also in a limited degree. Stone, when 
H.M. Astronomer at the Ca})e. collected some materials which he 



I20 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

used for the purpose of reducing the coast observations, but with 
how much success is not known. From observations made during 
the six years 1841-6 he determined a series of corrections to be 
appUed to observations made at the Royal Observatory at any hour 
to obtain the true mean. These have been published in some of 
the earlier Annual Reports of the Meteorological Commission. He 
further deduced the formula to the second harmonic term : — 

d = 40-58 sin (i5h + 580- •43')+i°-3o sin (3oh + 62°- -29'), 
where d is the deviation from the mean temperature, and h the number 
of hours from Cape mean noon. This is of historic interest, as 
being the only result ever evolved by a Cape Observatory official 
from the mountainous piles of routine meteorological observations 
accumulated there. 

No suitable material exists for the reduction of cloud, although 
it is not improbable that the observations at VIII. may 
give a very fair approximation to the mean. And, finally, it is 
opportune to mention, though the matter is somewhat outside the 
limits of this paper, that observations of wind-direction at VIII. 
may only be used in comparing one month with another ; they give 
otherwise no information of any value. There is a very strong 
diurnal variation in the surface wind-movement over the table-land, 
and pretty well every item of infallible weather-wisdom, involving a 
wind factor, in circulation, is fundamentally unsound through not 
taking it into account. 

In Table i will be found the annual values of Pressure, Tem- 
perature, Dew-point, and Humidity, derived from observations made 
hourly during the five years 1898- 1902. The dew-points and 
humidity-ratios are determined by means of the Greenwich factors, 
and are therefore liable, particularly in the dry hours about mid-day, 
to whatever inaccuracy Glaisher may be supposed to have introduced. 
They are also in error to a certain extent, because thev are derived 
from the indications of a wet bulb in ordinar)- air, which is known 
to read higher on the whole than when it is placed in a forced 
draught. It is important to observe that the dew-points and 
humidity-ratios are computed for each observation, and not, as is 
sometimes done, by applying the factors to the monthly means of 
dry and wet bulbs : the latter process makes the dew-point a little, 
and the humidity-ratios a great deal too small. The hours of ob- 
servation are reckoned in the old hours of Cape Colony civil time 
(22-^°E.), from midnight to XXIII. Kimberley being some 2°. 10' 
to the east of this, each consecutive mean value properlv belongs 

to the local times oh. 9m.. ih. 9m., 2h. 9m " This is 

important \n appl)ing the results to stations in different longitudes. 

When we compare the mean values at VIII. with the means 
for the (lay, we see at once how wide of the mark our appreciation 
of the climate is likely to be if we take onlv the results of second- 
order stations to define it. The pressure is 0-4 inch, or nearlv one- 
half Its whole daily range in excess ; the temperature is 4° too low • 
the dew-point is nearlv a degree, and the humiditv nearlv seven per 
cent. tr,o high. Also the mean of the registered maximum and 



Meteorological Observations. 121 

minimum shade temperatures — usually represented by -^ (M + m)-— 
is rather more than a degree above the mean. Readings at XX. 
would give much closer approximations to the true means. In 
fact really excellent normals might be obtained thus by dropping 
the third decimal place in the pressure, taking the temperature 
equal to -^ (M + m + t ,1), the dew-point and humidity not requiring- 
alteration. 

For single daily observations at a fixed hour, to give the annual 
means, we have the following : — 

Pressure II.. <ir XXI. 

Temperature 8.45 a.m., or 7.30 p.m. 

Dew-point VII.. XVI.. or XX. 

Humidity 8.45 a.m.. or XX. 

If we resolve the annual normal curve of pressure into its har- 
monic constituents, we may represent it by the following formula: — 

P = p + -o276 sin (ni5° + 357°-5) 
+ •0245 sin (n3oO-f 1580-7) 
+ •0017 sin (n450 + 357°-i) 
-r '0002 sin (n6o° + 330°'o) 



Here the term of second order vanishes for the epochs 
oh. 43., a.m. and p.m. Also for any pair of homonymous hours the 
sum of the terms of first and third (in fact any odd) constituent 
will annul each other, so that the mean of the observations at 
either pair of hours will be equal to the mean of the day, plus the 
value of the fourth constituent. This last, being '0002 inch at 
most, at any hour, and, in fact, only .oooo4inch for the times in 
question, may be neglected. So that for two obsen-ations per diem, 
these will give a true annual mean. The night hour, however, would 
not be convenient enough to all(;w the pair to which it belongs to 
come into general use. 

Again, the term of third order vanishes at oh. 4m.. 4h. 401., 
8h. 4m., a.m. and p.m. Also for any triplet of hours eight hours 
apart, it is easy tO' prove that the sum uf the terms of the first, 
second and fourth order annul each other ; and, therefore, the mean 
of the three observations at either (oh. 4m., 8h. 4m., i6h. 4m.) or 
(4h. 4m., i2h. 4m.. 2oh. 4m.) will be equal to the mean of the dav. 
It will be sufficient to outline the proof for the first — and most 
important — constituent ; those for the others being constructed upon 
similar, though simpler, lines : — 

Let t be any hour : Then 

sin [Vi^(t+i6) i50] + sin [V, +(t + 8) 15O] . 

==2 sin [Vj H-(t+i2) 15O] cos6o° 
= sin [V] +(t+i2) 15O] 
= — sin (V + t -150) 

Again, the fourth component vanishes eight times a dav, at 
oh. 30m., 3h. 30m.. 6h. 30m., gh. 30m.. a.m. and p.m. Also for 
any four hours, six hours apart, the sum of the terms of first, 

K 



122 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

second and third order annul each other, and therefore the mean 
of the four observations from either set, six hours apart, will be 
equal to the mean of the day. Since, however, the fourth component 
is practically zero at any hour, the mean of any four observations 
equi-distant at six hour intervals will give the true mean. 

The annual normal curve of temperature is repre.sented by the 
formula : — 

T = t+ 12-247 sin (ni50 + 23iO-o) 
+ 3-068 sin (n3oO + 6iO-8) 
+ •741 sin (n450 + 230-9) 
+ •803 sin (n6o° + 2260-2) 



Following the same line of reasoning here as we did for the 
pressure, we see that the second component vanishes at 3h. 56m., 
and gh. 56m., a.m. and p.m. Hence, since for either homonymous 
pair the value of the fourth constituent is approximately 0^-8, it 
follows that the mean of the temperatures of either pair will exceed 
the true annual mean by about three-quarters of a degree. 

The term of third order vanishes for the epoch 3h. 28m., 7h. 
28m., iih. 28m., a.m. and p.m.; and, therefore, we may consider 
the mean of the obser^'ations at (3h. 30m., iih. 30m., iph. 30m.), 
or (7h. 30m., i5h. 30m., 23h. 30m), as giving the mean temperature 
of the year. 

The fourth component vanishes at 2h. 4m.. 5h. 4m., 8h. 4m., 
iih. 4m., a.m. and p.m.; and, therefore, the observations at 
(II., VIII., XIV., XX.), or (V., XL, XVII., XXIII.). may be con- 
sidered the equivalent of the true normal mean. 

The annual normal curve of dew-point is given by the formula : 

D = d-i- 1-223 sin (ni5° + 25i°-2) 
+ ■554 sin 01300+1580-9) 
+ O439 sin (n450+ 6O-2) 
+ -068 sin (n6oO + 3420- j ) 



In the same way as before, the second component of dew-point 
vanishes for the epoch oh. 42m., 6h. 42m.. a.m. and p.m. And at 
these times the fourth constituent is barely 00-03 in magnitude. The 
mean of either pair of homonymous times will, therefore, give a 
fairly true annual mean. 

The term of third order vanishes for the epoch 3h. 52m.. 7h. 
52m., I ih. 52m., a.m. and p.m. ; and, therefore, we may regard the 
observations at (IV.. Noon. XX.) or (VTll.. XVI.. Midnight) as 
turnishing the equivalent of the normal mean. 

The term of fourth order vanishes at oh. 18m., 3h. 18m., 6h. 
]8m., 9h. 18m., a.m. and p.m. With sufficient exactness, then, the 
mean of the observations at (Midnight, VI., X'oon. XVIII.). or (III.. 
IX., XV.. XXL), may be called the true mean. 



Meteorologic\l Observations. 123 

The annual normal curve of relative humidity is given by the 
f'^rmula : 

H = h+i8-]j8 sin (ni50 + 470-5) 
+ 4'87o sin {n^o° + 24^°'^) 
+ i'i8o sin (n45° -f i97°"2) 
+ i"569 sin (n6o° + 44°'i) 
+ 

In the same way as before, the second component vanishes 
foi the epoch ^h. 40m., gh. 40m., a.m. and p.m. And at these times 
the value of the fourth component is -1.5% very nearly. The mean 
humidity for either pair of hours, therefore, will fall short of the 
annual mean by about one and a half per cent. 

The term of third order vanishes at ^h. 37m., 7h. 37m., iih. 
37m., a.m. and p.m. Whence we may consider the observations 
made at (3h. 30m., iih. 30m., i9h. 30m.) or (7h. 30m., i5h. 30m., 
23h. 30m.) as giving the mean humidity of the year. 

The fourth term vanishes at 2h. i6m., 5h. 16m.. 8h. i6m., 
iih. i6m., a.m. and p.m.; and, therefore, the observations of dry 
and wet bulb at (II., VIII., XIV., XX.) or (V., XL, XVII., XXIII.) 
will give the mean annual relative humidity with reasonable accuracy. 

The epochs of humidity agree so closely with those of tem- 
perature, in each harmonic term, because the humidity curve is 
practically an inverted curve of temperature. The angular differ- 
ences would, indeed, be exactly 180°, in each case, if the quantity 
of moisture in the air were constant, the departure from this angle 
arising out of the diurnal variation in the dew-point curve. The 
clear relationship between the corresponding harmonic terms of 
barometric pressure and dew-point has been mentioned elsewhere.* 

We may here conveniently summarise the best hours of obser- 
vation indicated by theory : 

1. For a single observation per diem, XX. ; the temperature 
being combined with the maximum and minimum of the day, and 
the pressure increased bv 'or inch — unless the barometer be read 
at XXI. 

2. For two observations at homonymous hours : 

Pressure I.. Xlli., or VII.. XIX. 

Temperature IV., XVI.. or X., XXII. 

Dew-point I., XIII., or VII., XIX. 

Humidity IV., XVI., or X., XXII. 

3. For three observations at intervals of eight hours : 

Pressure O, VIII., XVI., or IV., 

XII.. XX. 
Temperature J3h. 30m.. 7h. 30m.. 1 5h. 

30m.: or 3h. 30m., rih. 30m.. iph. 30m. 
Dew-point O, VIII., XVI., or IV.. XII., 

XX. 
Humidity 23h. 30m.. 7h. 30m.. i^h. 

30m., or 3h. 30m., iih. 30m., i9h. 30m. 

*" Elementary Svnopsis. &c." Trans, of the S.A. Phil. Soc. Vol. XIV. Part :. 

K 2 



124 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

But by using temperature and humidity results for half an hour 
later in each case, so as to agree with the pressure and dew-pomt 
hours, we get mean annual temperatures within o°'5, and humidity 
percentages within °'T% 

4. For four observations i^r diem, equidistant at six hours 
apart : 

Pressure Any four equidistant hours. 

Temperature II., VIII., XIV., XX., or 

v., XL, XVII., XXIII. 

Dew-point III., IX., XV., XXL, or 

VI., XIL, XVIIL, XXIV. 

Humidity As temperature. 

The s€t of hours, IL, VIIL, XIV., XX., is evidently of much 
importance. If we make the dew-point set an hour earlier, for 
agreement sake, the deduced annual mean would only then be 
o°'2 in error — a quantity probably well within the limits for the 
wet bulb. These hours for the barometer are of special con- 
venience, because, although any four equidistant hours in twenty- 
four would do, it happens that the mean at IL is nearly equal to 
the annual mean, and consequently the mean of the obser\'ations 
made at VIIL, XIV., and XX., must also be equal to the same 
thing. It is only necessary, then, to read the barometer at VIIL, 
XIV., and XX. These are the very convenient hours used at 
Kenilworth for observation of the standard barometer, made for 
the control of the photobarograph. As for the temperature, direct 
readings of dry and wet bulbs may be made at VIIL, XIV., and 
XX., and a registration of the values at IL easily effected by a pair 
of reversing thermometers. * 

The annual normals of pressure in Table i are obtained from 
the continuous record of a photobarograph. For the whole diurnal 
period between VIIL and Midnight nearly all the readings of dry and 
wet bulbs are made by eye observations of a standard. From I. 
to VII., however, most of the readings are taken from the registra- 
tions of reversing thermometers. And it becomes pretty clear, 
in tabulating the results, and from such occasional tests as have been 
practicable, that two at least of these reversing thermometers read a 
trifle too low. The IL dry bulb, e.g., would seem to require a plus 
correction of nearly o°'i5 throughout its scale, and the IV. wet bulb 
almost exactly the same. The effect is to increase the ratio of 
humidity at II. by about o"6%. and to decrease that at IV. bv nearlv 
an equal amount. Observers acquainted with instnmients of this 
class will understand their lapses in respect of the displacement of 



*Hann is discuss 


ing th 


le Kenilworth obser\ 


•ations for 


1898—1900 (Met. Zcit- 


Sill rift., Feb., J 903), 


gives 


the f 


ollowing mon 


thlv 


values 


of the difference, in 


centigrade degrees. 


True 


mean 


minus ] (7 -(- 1 


> + 


I4 + -' 


1): 


fan. -I- 0.2 






May + 04 






Sept. 4- 0.5 


Feb. + 0.3 






fune 4- 0.3 






Oct. 0.0 


Mar. -f 0.3 






July + 0.4 






Nov. — 0.2 


.■\pr. -\- 0.3 






Au.U. + 0.4 






Dec. 0.0 
Year 4-02 



See also the same physicist's classical '' Handbook of Climat(jl(>gy," chap. 1. 



Meteorological Observations. 125 

the zero point, and the difficulty of ascertaining its amount. Now, 
while the annual normals of Table i have not been corrected for 
this source of error in any way, chiefly on account of the importance 
of introducing no mental bias into the harmonic formulae, it seemed 
advisable to allow for it in the monthly and annual corrections of 
Tables 3, 4, 5 ; also an occasional libera manii correction has been 
inserted where it seemed wanted. Nevertheless, there still remains 
some little outstanding uncertainty in the corrections proper to dew- 
point and humidity, particularly during the hours before dawn in 
the winter. The three Tables in question, together with Table 2, 
give the corrections to be applied to the mean monthly or annual 
values of the respective elements of temperature of the air, tem- 
perature of the dew-point, ratio of humidity, and barometric pres- 
sure, for any hour in order to obtain the mean. A few examples 
will make their use clear. 

At Philippolis the mean pressure at VIII. for the month of 
Februarv, as deduced from observations made during a number of 
years, was found to be 25-537 inches; the correction to be applied 
to Februarv observations at VIII.. in order to obtain the mean 
hourlv pressure of the month, is given in Table 2, as - '045 inch ; 

•■• 25-537 — ■o45 = -5'49- inches, 
is the mean pressure required. 

At Kimberlev the mean pressure at XX. for the month of 
October, for certain years, was determined according to the register 
of the late G. J. Lee, to be 26'o55 inches; the correction to be 
applied to October observations at XX.. in order to obtain the mean 
of the month, is given in Table 2 as 4- '005 inch. 
.'. 25*055 -i- '005 = 26'o6o inches, 

is the mean pressure required. 

At Aliwal North the mean temperature of the air at VIII. for 
the month of November, as determined by five years' obser^-ations, 
is 64°' I : Table 3 gives the correction to be applied to November 
obser\ations at VIII.. in order to obtain the mean of the month, as 
+ o°-9; 

.-. 64°-i+oO-9 = 650-o. 

is the mean temperature required for the period in question. 

At Benaauwdheidsfontein the dew-point at XIV. for the year 
was found to be 44°'4 (Glaisher's Tables being used). Our Table 4 
gives the correction to the temperature of the dew-point at XIV., in 
order to obtain the mean dew-point of the year, as — o°"7 ; 
.'. 44°.4 ■ — o°'7 = 43°'7> is the dew-point required. 

The corresponding humidity-ratio was found to be 343% ; 
the proper correction given in Table 5 is -1-19*7%; 

••- 34'3+i8'7 = 54"o%. 
is the humidity required. 

Various combinations of hours are adopted in different coun- 
tries for the purpose of deducing the mean temperature from second 
order observations : 



126 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

In Sweden the formula is (or rather was, down to 1881, or 
later) for a Glaisher Screen, 

1/,- (VIII. + XIV. + 5-XXI). 
At Gaboon, 

'j^- (VII. + XIV. + 2XXI). 

At Magdeburg, 

From May to August. V^- (VIII. + XX. + M -f m). 

From September to April, '/i.,- (s^VIII. + 5-XX. + 
2-XIV.); 
and so on, in endless variety. In the British Islands, " the meaii 
tempeiature of the month for the stations of the Royal Meteoro- 
logical Society is determined by adding together the mean maximum 
and the mean minimum, and dividing the sum by 2 " ;* but in 
most months the resulting value is slightly greater than the hourly 
mean. 

At the foot of Table 3 will be found the monthly and annual 
deviation of the mean hourly temperature from the mean minimum, 
m, the mean maximum, M, and from the average of these two 
-^■(m + M). As an example, the average of the maximum and 
minimum shade temperature during June at Klerksdorp was found 
to be 54'-''o. The correction necessary to reduce the June values 
to the true mean is ■ — I'^'d, 

••• 54°-o — iO-6 = 520-4. 
is the mean June temperature required. 

Kaemtz procured a mean temperature \)\ multiplying the mean 
range M — m, by certain monthly numerical co-efficients, and adding 
the result to the minimum. Thus : 

T = m + K (M — m), 

where the co-efficient. K, changes in value from one month to 
another. The monthly values of K. for Kenilworth, together with 
some comparative numbers for the Northern Hemisphere, are given 
in Table 15. Sir John Herschel's account of such factors deserves 
to be put on record as being perhaps the one hopelessly unintelligible 
sentence he ever wrote : — " Kaemtz recommends (from a discussion 
of the observations at Padua and Fort Leith . . . ) to employ 
the formula 

n)-f''.5,. • (M — m) . (5-076 -i-x) 

where x is a variable co-efficient, fluctuating from o"366 in December 
to o"56o in August; and which may, for the purpose in question, 
be taken quite near enough at 0-44 sin {6 + 120°), 6 being the 
sun's mean longitude." 



*Marriott, " Hints to Meteorolojiical Observers," p. 30. See also some 
remarks by Scott, '' Instructions in the use of Meteorological Instruments," p. 79. 
Glaishers's elaborate " Diurnal Range Tables " should also be consulted. Hann 
notices the approach of the average extreme temperature, .} (m + M), to the true 
mean in October and November :— '• Der Sprung in den Differenzen vom 
September zum Oktober ist sehr merkwiirdig. . . ." 



Meteorological Observations. 127 

Now these numbers apply in particular to the reduction of monthly 
avt rages. But they may be converted into a formula wh'ch Nvill 
apply also to the reduction of daily averages, when the period is 
long enough. A suitable formula for Kenihvorth is : 

K = -462-r-025 sin {nT,o° ~ 162°- -,) ■ — '007 sin (n6o'^ + 2 i4°'5), 

counting from the middle of Januar}. Whence, if we determine 
the mean minimum temperature, m, and the mean maximum, M, 
of any day in the year, we can determine the mean temperature, 
T, of the dav from the formula : 

T = m + K (M — m), 

where K has the value given above. 

Example: For the ten years 1888-1897, on March ist, at Kim- 
berley. according to the Lee register. M = 86°"6, m = 6o°"o. With 
sufficient accuracy we may put n=i'^. Therefore 

T = 6o°'o ^ 26°'6 (o"46j — o"o25^o"462 — • o'oo7 — o"824) = 7i'^'8. 

Since in our example the value of h (M -r m) is 73°'3, the differ- 
ence between this and the computed mean is i°'5, agreeing, there- 
fore, with the tabular correction for March on the last line but one of 
Table 3. 

Hitherto we have been discussing mean conditions under a 
sky whose average cloudiness would fall somewhere between 20% 
and 30%. The tables at the end, Xos. 6 — 13, give, in addition, 
material applying to " cloudy " skies whose average cloudiness ex 
ceeds 50%, and to " clear " skies whose average cloudiness does not 
reach even 5%. The latter is only likely to be of occasional use 
in very special cases, chiefly in winter. For probably no station 
in the world has less cloud than Kimberley. But the former may 
apply to some extent to such places as (^ueenstown, Umtata, or 
the Katberg Sanatorium, or even Uitenhage. The secular change 
whereby temperature and pressure tend to rise, dew-point and 
humidity to fall under clear skies (and of course vice- versa under 
cloudy skies), has not been corrected for. Before computing the 
harmonic terms of the different elements, however, the annual 
curves were reduced to re-enter. It is doubtful, nevertheless, 
whether some small extraneous error is not thereby introduced.* 

Kaemtz's factors for clear and for cloudy skies are shewn in 
Table 15. 

A word of explanation may be acceptable concerning the 
Tables 6 — 13. 

First, the values under clear skies were picked out one by one 
from the registers, and arran<i;ed in monthlv sets. The same 



*In the Annual Xormals for clear and for cloudy skies, in Table I., instru- 
mental errors have been corrected. 



128 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

laborious process could be used in getting the values under cloudy 
skies, albeit there are other and shorter ways. The most suitable 
seems to be : 

At any hour in a given month 

Let p be the pres.sure (.say) under cloudy skies ; 

P the j)ressure under clear skies; 

IT the pressure under all skies. 

Let there be a cloudv days in the month and .4 clear; 

so that k=a^ A. 

Then ap + AP=(;i + A) - 

.-. ap + (k — ;i) P = k;r 
.-. P = P— (ka) (P — tt). 

This simple formula is so powerful withal that given a five 
years' full register, and the values under clear skies, then the monthly 
sets of hourly values of any element — temperature, pressure, 
humidity, etc. — may be obtained completely in about two hours. 
Here, again, the yearly means are the simple average of the monthly 
sets. 

There are a great man\ mure clear days in winter than in 
summer, sa that if we were to consider the year of clear or cloudy 
days to be the average of the days, then the annual mean diurnal 
curve under clear skies would display winter characteristics, while 
the curve under cloudy skies would display those of summer. Bv 
considering the yearly means to be the average of the monthly sets 
we eliminate the effect of the unequal distribution of days. And. 
therefore, we get a representation of a very clear or a very cloudy 
year. But of course the mean year will not l)e the arithmetic mean 
of the two components. 

Table 14 gives a comparative view of the harmonic constituents 
as far as the fourth term. 



Meteorological Observations. 



129 



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Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



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Meieorological Observatioxs. 



131 



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+ + + + + + + + + I I 



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+++++++++ 1 I I T T T T T T I I ++++ +11 + 






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++I++++++ I I I T T T T T I I I ++++ +T I + 



o f-i f. '■'■. f^. ". r c 1^ 1^ -t- c ir. "-, -■'. -r "■- -+ t-,o p p p p r r r r 

I i ' +;|+4++++ M T T T T T T T 1 i ++++ +T i + 



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■< I +++++++++ ! I I T T I I I M I ++++ +J I + 

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! o - M f-i o t^ f. c> r'. <N t^ »>• '■'■. - 7- 7- '_'"' ^1 p 7 '.'"- r"? 9 ^'7^ ."•" 
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^': +++++++i+i I I TTTTT I I+++++ +11 + 



j? ' . i t^x b b c - - i b ;r, - n ;_-. + + ^_-.x '. b - -. -+ 'r. "j '£■ - v, 

s i ^ +++++++++ 1 1 I T I I I I i I 1 ++++ +11 + 



1^ t^ in r^. O t^ '^.-r- y- -r <-, C X ;-! "-. p r-, t-. r^ p p p^ O - n pt >r, - 

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+ + + + + + + + + 1 I 1 I I I T 1 I I I + + + + +11 + 



++ +++^^++1 I I I TTTT I I I++++ +Ti + 



o i->x) t^-i-->o-o'^. — 1- "^.x '"^ ^' 7^ "t r' ? ^ "? r" p rT T'^r 

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++ +++ + +++ 1 I I I T I IT I I I++++ +11 + 



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13- 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



o o — r^. 'c -^ - '^, X c i^c '■■', z 1^ <■", — ■» r^ 'o -• -+0 x 
-b- — -bb ^--bbbbbbbbbbb 

++++++++ I I I I I M I I I I I I+++ 



n O O O O •^-X -+'^.0 -t- -t O zc O ir.C^ O t^O "OvC 'O ir, 
000000 — '■I'^iri -000- '-"-'-I — oboOO 

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n — o ^ r-x ir, c- o -^ »■'. C O r-^ "-i O -t O O C^ O " t^^c O 

— --oooo<-i'-i'"i--ooooo^ooobo- 

+ + + + + + I I I I I I I I ++-++ ++++ 



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+ + + + + + + I I I I I I I I + + + I I + + + + 



t^ ir, t^ o -)-\C C X i^ t^ --I O O u~,0 C^3C ri 10 i^ — ac — -1- 

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Meteorologxcal Observations. 



133 



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— O ir, r^. ^ :c C" -1- ^'.^C C r^x x ""• ""'O — C' X < 

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+ + + + + + + + + + + + ' i ! 



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^^ cjc — '"I -to t-^ C~iO 1/-, — r^ 'N ir, t^xi oc x -t i-^ r', O n -to 

~ ~ ~ ^ ~ : ~ ;+ + + + + -t- + + + + + -f- : I 1 






• — O <C30 -^X I/"; O — O -+ C>0 30 r<^ t^ roco f^ ^ J+ 
1 + + + + + + + + + + + + 



t^ — t^O O XI -t o 

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r<-,vC — t~*3C rl r^/O O -t- — t^ t>. 
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PI r^i U-, ir-, PI 000 t^ t^ -to — o -t M O O 10 — r^ C^ X> X) 






+ + + + + + ■ 




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134 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



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. O O - O O - r^. -t- -t -t- -t '■^. - O - r^, ir, in -+ r^. - o o - 

lOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

'++++' ' I ' ' ' ' ' ' 'l + + + + + + ++'[ "l 

r'-.vC -x oc - -1- - "I >: 1^ '1 - ir, -i-c O O O - ~ '~l - t^ C~ 
. O O O O O - r^, -t- -f ^- -t r'. - O '-I -1- "-, ir, -i- ^1 - O O O 

^oooooooooooooooooooooooo 

'++++"! ' ' ' I 'l ! ' ! + + + + + + + + + '[ ! 

-+ t^ — — -t-X tr, C^ t^ C~ '■'•. Q^ O CO i~l -C r^, "~. C^ '~i "~. C> — 
• OO — -OOi^lr^. -t-t-T-M-O'-'-, -t--t-t<-^. -ooo- 

:oooooooooooooooooooooooo 

' +++++ I '! "l I ' i ! i + + + + + ++-+"■ ' ', 

-t- Z- '•I ''I — O- r^.t^ZC — "".OCX C~X <~1 t^ C~C X O M ("I 
. - O O O O O "-I r'-, -t- ir, -r r^, O - r^. "I" lO -)- r^. ^1 O O O O 
lOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

" I I " +'i 'i ': i ] ] ] ] ' ++++++++' I I 

r^, — r<-, ir, ir, — r\ -f-x ir, ir, ir, -|- 'i — — <-i C" ~ X ir, r<-, -r, c~ 

.000000-ri(v-. -h-t-r^, --r^, -|--l-r^. r, _0000 

;000000000000000000000000 

' 1 ' +++' ' ' ! ' 1 I "; ++++++++ "i '■ ] 

<: ir, r<-. n o •+ — <^. 1^. i^.-C ""/ ir.zc x i^x O r^ O "^i O O) — 

. O O O O O O — f I 1^. -+ -t- r^. — O "-I r<-, r^, r--, ri <~1 — O O O 

:000000000000000000000000 

"\ ] '\ ' ' ' ' ' I ': ': ' ': +++++++++++ 

icvO -C i^x >n 10103C o — M r^.x o M -• r^ O O -■ -i-x o^ 

O O O O O O O — (^l i^. ■+ r<-, — O "^l r<-i r'-. ('I — O O O O O 
fOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

" + + + + + +', I 'l 'i ' ' ' ++++++++! ', I 

1— ri lox c^\C f^i f^. C^x O — fN O (^ f^i '■'vx o o ^ ^- 1^ r^ 

O O O O O O O — "^i r<~. -(-'■<-,— — ''I rr-. !-<-, r) n — O O O O 

jOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

' + + + + + +'; ' I I ! I I ++++ + + + + '! 'l I 

-(- -1- 1^ - M ir, r^.sC r^, O X r>i i/-,o -+ C^ O C r<-, -t ''\ "". O^X 
. O O O — — O O — '■'". -I- r"-. <■'-, — O f^i <^l i^. "^1 ^1 — O O O O 

:oooooooooooooooooooooooo 

■ + + H-+++I I I I I I ' f+++++++'i 'i ': 

I"! >r, I^ r- C — <■', '■^, 1^ - O ^1 t^ — Z- O -Z -Z '1 II", i^ — lOX 

O O O O O O — "I r^. •+ -t- '^. — O — '■'-.'■'■. '^, f^. 1^1 o o o o 

:000000000000000000000000 

'+++++ 1 I I 'l 1 'l I ' ++++++++" 1 I 

r^, — ri r^, r^, _ ^ O C^ Cr -r '•-. 1^ — C C X 11", 3~ t^ -1- ri CI « 

. O O O O O — i~i -t -i- -f -+ ^'. — O '-< f. -f II". -t- 1^. 1^1 — O O 

:OOOOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOOOOOOO 

I I ++I I "l I I I ]]' ' +++++++++! 

lox — c^ CI — t-s — ir, -f o '■I X f^i :^ ^x r)-<: n i^ -^oo n 
oo — oo — 'N-t--t--^-^r^. — oorn-+i<", -)-r<-, noo — 

;O00000000C0 00O0O0OO0O000 

^ +++++! I I I I I I ' ': ++++++++1 I 

3 ^ >i ^ ;^. r: > -^ ^ X r^ X 



Meteorological Observations. 



135 



=• 5 8 



- - - - - . . - _ ''-. -i- -i-^ f^, 'I O O O — 
0000000000000000000000 



+ 



! I i 



-++++ 



- O O O O - r^. . . . 
E 0000000000 



'■.'<-. -t- -)- <^. -t- -1- C> O O 
■ r^. ri O — rr -1- 100 -)- 

000000000 



r<-, ir, ri x — 
".-00- 
00000 



+++++++++ 



- -t- "-. O 10 l^ . 



-0000 'I _ 

c oooocooooooooo 



■. M C^O ". O VI O^ — "^l -I O PI 
O - -l-'i-^ ir, -i-r^. - o - - 

" 0000000000 



i I I 



++++-I-++++ 



0000000000 



O r^ i^ O i^-x. 

. . . , -1- '^l O o o o 

0000000000000 



■++++ 



M r~» — t^ ^ -\-jj -fr.zr. n -x: r^-, o -1 O O 'O -t C^ O O <o m 

— O O O O O — f^, -+ -t- -f M O PI -i- ir, 10 -+ '■'■. — O — — — 
000000000000000000000000 



+ + + 



-)- O <^, ^ m r^. O PI O O O O 10 O O O O^ Tf- Tl-O 
- — O O O O — PI r<-, rt vf r-, o — -(- lO -|- ■+ r^ — 
00000000000000000000 



+ + 



+ + + - 



CO !>. O f. "~,nO '■'". '■'-. ir, 10 " O t^yz "■'". r->. -• o i^ >r, ir, w oc O 

O O O O O O O — PI "^ ^ '■'■, O -^ '■'■, <■-, -^ r<~, PI — O o o o 

000000000000000000000000 



+++ 



++++++++ 



10 r^ ^ P| r^, ri 10 'O — * O 

0000000- <■<-. r^. . .--. ____ 

oooooocooooooooooooooooo 



++++ 



r>. ■^■x. f, O r". - PI 

-HwOOOO — P| 

00000000 



ooooooooocoooooo 



+++- 



-H vC — vO 1^ T 

-00000 
000000 



t^cc ir-, o X — — 1- 
O - r^. -i- -V <■<-. 

00000000 



0000000000 



i +++ 



++++++++ 



ooooooooooooocooo 



000000 



++ 



++++++++ 



— OOOOO'^I'-', -1--1--t-'-| — _ . .-.-... __ 
E 000000000000000000000000 



1 i i i 



+++++++++ ! I 



ooooooooooooooobo 



Z O ^-O I/". — -I PI 
O >C -+ PI — O -I - 

" "OOOOOO 



+ 



+++++++++ 









.^xx 



xr:>x^x;^x 



i3b 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



""" ^ iTT-TTTTii+++++"i + 



r^O O CO CO fo O O '•'■,0 O >-i o rTO -H i^ M y: 10 10 O O O 
-yj O '~\ r'-, 10\0 r-". » M no 0-1 r^/ '•* >n -1- f. O- -+ b M •+ 10 






+++++++++ 



+++ + I ++ 



O O ri 'I ii~,>C ^- r^ r-) coo O^ " fO *+ <0 Tj- ri 00 cr; O ri t1-o 






-++++++++ 



++++ + i ++ 



-< >i~; '^1 O t^ O <♦■! 1-1 O C^ O O C"* (^ •^- O r>-,>; O -1- f, <0 -t- CO 



o) ri o -H 



-)-0 '/'. O^ M C vO O o ^lOir. ir, ri i^ pi o ci -+0 



-+i-++ I I ! I ! I i I I I I ++++ + 



+ 



o Ti- n -1- lOvO 10 ir >s» M in M o " (N too t^vc 00 o 'o r'-.o 

~ O ^1 -O ^ lOvO "^ f r> N t^ -J Tj-^c l-^I^O roc; -' " r'v ir,0 



f, rr; 10 -t- 



+ + + + + + + + -I- I 



i + + + + + I I + 



oc C^ O — f. ro -1- -1-nC — 
+ + + + + + +f+ i 



i-> O ^^ -J- r~x> "030 M n "-I w -t- 
O -1-0 i^ 1^0 ri -t- — — i-o'OC 



O OC -i C^ 



++++ +11+ 



i-i N PI i-i 00 1-1 GO O M 0\0 00 ro -tvo CC 1030 O O O O M 
■X)OOi-i"C)r<-. roO^Om O r<-/0 t^ t^O O ro O m m -rl-O 



10 ri 'Ji 10 
'-I-QO t-H 10 



■++++ I M I I ! I i I I ++++ + I i + 



\0 i^:^ O O -I CI rooo O O O ro 10\0 vC >/". l^ '-I O — '■'■. "h 'O 



r'-, 1^ CI O 



-+++ 



1 i I +++++ + i 1 + 



70 O CT^oo :^',: 



C~ O M t-»\0 -^ M M M 00 •^- ro f 1 t^ CI — 



O 1^50 00 — 



. -I o o CO 1000 1000 n o PI COT,, 



■++++ I I I i I I I ! M +++++ + i I + 



O 00 O — I-* O C^ X. CO lO P< 00 O O O PI 00 ro PI 10 ir, O -)"-(- 



t^CO O " 



-. 10 M >0 C- P< CO •+ >0 -t O CO O M CO •* 10 



CO 10 I- — 



+++++++++ 



! ++++ + 



+ 



t^ PI PI h- O M ooo O t^ N ■*oo t^ t^ CO z) CI r>. ,i- o> o <o rN. tj- o^oo O* 



-t- -. O O — CO -+ 10 -^ CI O i-i O CI -I 10 



++++ + 



+ 



10 C> ■* 10 Tj- CO ■+ ■^ M CO PI 00 C< COvO Tt-M COCOPI O Tl-int^ 
00 O — CI CO •+ -)- o -^ O 1000 -> CO '-t + ir, CO O + O CI •+ >0 



+++++++++ 



+++ 



ino o CI 

+T I + 



r^xOi-^ O -^r^-i o -+00 o O m M t^ ir, ir,x pi ino Ooo t^ 
CO C— CI CO -(--1-00 coo -)-t>,0 PI co-^-hi^i O -+0 -^ rO'O 



CMO PI t^ 
1/-; \r, b CO 



+++++++++ 



+++ + I ++ 






xr 






x^-;^:: 



+^ 



Meteorological Observations. 



137 



O t^oo Ov O O O 00 fO M i/^OO Oi-iNwOt^rJ-OiHClTi-iO 



++++ 



MM r<^ 

+ 1 1 + 



O M O^ 0^0 O"^t000^0M00Mrf tv.>0 m CO rj- M M 10 O^ 

t>oo ooooMOMOMC^vbo^OMMO O'co vc M M fo •* 10 



+++++++++ 



I ! I ++++ +11+ 



O CS rl- ro m M O- O^ t , rO t^ !>. rOO O'-O c^ >0 t^ O^ O ^00 ■* 
t^ 0\ O M n r.-, O to C r^jO O\MMMnM0OvOMMcO ■^vO 



+ + + - 



• + + + 



+ iob M_ 

+T 1 + 



t>.0 M Ot^TJ-MOO ^O r)MOOiOOt^rJ-T)-MOCN t^oo 
OooC~C>OMMOMO<vOO^OMfSClOcorl--i-irir)-ir) 



^o '1- O CO 



+ + + ■ 



+ + + + + 



+ 



(Mt-', r,M O30 mrM>.T)-t-^fOi/%iOM MOO O^M cnco CS 00 M 

f-^jO 0^0 O M ^) O fOM IT) O^M f'^Tl-'^N OMOM O f^ThO 



! ! I 



++++ 



f^. O M M 
MM CT 

+ 11 + 



o t^x) 00 b M b v) b -tx) b roVj-<r>mo^'*o o n ^ftn 



r) 10 M c> 



++++ + 



+ 



o M30 100 100 tooNf<^o^foi/ip« M r^ in^nm-rj-r^ ■*o t^ 

100 vO t^30 00 O^CMOOcOt>.O^MMC»OvOWOMC«r>-, ■* 



++++++++++ 



+ + + + + 



+ 



riror»r<oO'*vr)(Sr<Ot^MOM<sOC«P«MOO'*for» 



■ + + + + 



+ + + + + I i + 



lOOO O PI l~vT)-M (^Tj-'+f'^OO "^M 0130 UOM o >oo ^ >o 
liOO l>»X3 QO C> O O 10 O Tl-QO O n r<^r<iMr>>rOM o M m-t- 



MM +-I-+ + 



MM C) 

+ M + 



a 
< 



c«^NOO rJ-O-O M OMOrJ-OM f<-,o ■* O t^ tmo ri 0( y3 cc o^ 
irjvO O t^OC X- 0^30 c<^ M rJ-OO o M M M C>vO M O M M r^, T(- 



++++ 



O m M c~ 

)-H M r*^ 

+ 



+ 



10 O O IC30 to O t<^0 Mt^OM M(^M ■^fOOOO M t^t^o 

too t^ t^ I^OO O^i CS M ^vO 0^0000>t^^OMMr<iTl- 



00 cooo O 



++++ 



O r<-) M O 



O O N 00 ^ O »0 rOO inMroM t^m corOfS Ov<^. OvO m o 
\0 r^OO GO O O O t>. N m lO'OO OMMMOXJ'^MMfNTt-irj 



++++ 



IT) t^oo I^mMOO MOO O fOO M Or<irornr>.M •^^M M COP) 
100 t^OO O O 00 M N moo 000 O^00 vO to M M f<-, ^ly. 



•rj-00 t-^ r-^ 

-H -+ M t^ 
M - -f 

+ i i + 

10 ri T}- M 



+ + + + 



M rj- M 00 

MM -f 

+ M + 






° X X ^ X g > X ^ X a X 



+i 



^38 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



c-xj ^ -tc- X -+ -1- o^ o- --I c^^o -1 omo ri io t^o M o n r-( 
oowh-(h-,wwbb"ciMMMbbbbbbbbMM 

+ + + + + +++ I I I I I I I I I I M ++++ 



ro O O^ r^OC O to M no r^;X OlOMt^f^t^C>CSC<r<C>0^tS 
nOOOOO"r<-, r<irooiMOOOrt>HMMOOOOi-< 
+ + + + + + I I I I I i I I + + + + + + 1 + + + 



OOOOOt-(Oi-ifqp)Mr-iMOOOOOOOOi-HHHrt 

+ + + + + + I I I I I i I I !++++!++++ 



OOOMMCS'-'O'-iMh-iM-^iHOOOOOOOOi-iO 

+++++ + + 1 I I I I I I I I + 1 I I ++++ 



O 



\0 MOO fOO-^vOrcvO O ■rt-'^t^cs roO lOO^tOOw NO O 

MMi-,C^CSr<0COMOCSMP<P»CSr)l-C'HMCSOOl-IMl-l 

+ + + + + + ++ 111111111111; + + + 



■qo 

3 

•a; 



^fOt^M voo^O r<~, -+0 r^ r^, -^ c^, M C>vC 0~ O^ CM O O lO m 
+ + + + + + + + + I I I I I I I I I I I + + + 



00 i-ioo rOl^OvO M 0^'*-»r)0 O m t^vO ■^ fOOO to t^ CS O^ 
r) N r<Oc<^"^rt-u-)^n O M cOTh'*'rl-fOcoiOr<->M O O hh 1-1 

+ + + + + + + + + I I I I I I I I I I I I + + + 



►HCsMr<-icorO'^rOH-iOO(roror'^roO)rO'd-csOOMMM 

+++ + + + + + + M I I I I I I I M ++++ 



m CMo voo om rj-t^-^Mvo M o »o\0 o o 10 -* M 00 cs 

+ + + + + ++++ M I ! I I I I I I i ++++ 



MmvoOM30m\OMm 1^30 O O O r^. •-)- r^. lO "+0 O •+ O 

bbbbH-iMC<Mbwbbobbbbbp(i-ibbbM 
I I + + + + + + I I I I I + + + I I i + + 



t^O -^ re f. -H rox t^ t^X O ce r^X; nOOt^ 01 01 mOO 

obbbbbbb^MMMb^MciciMbMbbbb 
I I I I I++I I I I I + + + + + + + I I I 



O) u-100 Ot Ot^ 'i- M M reoo O r<-,o X rf- O O 00 CC X •i-re--t- 
OOOt-iO>-tO)c<ococoo)MO-inc^ror<~<0)00-<MM 
I I I I I I I I I I I I + + + + + + + + + + + + 



O 



OOOOOO0)ro0(0)0)wOOM-i-'0(0|r-(O-'M^ 
11+ I I I I I i I i I + + + + + + + + + + + 



0'-'::::::>>:-:=:;i;xp<:c!S">>^ = "X><C3":=: 



11— .r-.c-.s^ -„^K^>-^.-,„p 






Meteorological Observations. 



139 



^wwMw'r-ibbbMMlHbbbbbb 00 boob 

+ + + + + +++ I I I I I I I ++ I ! I I +++ 

n ■*CS (^, lOOOM-i C^IOON CS O -hO O O O-' :^00 vo ro r< 
OOOOOOi-HCSi-iMOOO'^M-^C^r^-'OOOOO 

I I I I 1 1 M I i I I + + ^-h + + + + + + + + 

vO ro O \C ^ O ^ f^<vO lOXi OiOO^<0-<OOPI^-f^-im 
i_,^^000-HCSCSCSwi-iOOOO"-i-'00000 

+ + + + + I I I I I I I + + + + + + 1 +++ 

O O^ O^ O O X — r^,<3 ^) CM>» " X -1 1O30 vO P< O >0 O O O 
i-iOO>-ii-iOOi-ii-iC<'Hi-HMOOOOOOOOOMi-i 

+ + + + + + I I I I I M I I -t- + + + + + + + 

o t^vo 30 o -1 o ■*3c o -I 30 o ^ cs uo '+X 00 — 10 1^ o 

t-ii_iHH.-ii-.CSCSOO-'CS>-i>-i'--HOOO'^0000»-i 

+ + + +4- -^4-+ M I I I I I I I I M i +++ 

t^o 3oom'*nvom'*ONi-'N^ o^oo lOO oo o o o o 
i-iMMr)c»Mcsi-iOMts<sNc^i-ioo^i->ooooi-i 

+ + + + + + + + I I I I I I I I I I M +++ 

000 i^o "^it^o-o 000^0 cs (s iH i>.\o o VO 10 -H Tt ci M 
i-i-'wr^ric^r^, r<oO'-<no(NC^i-ii-cf<i-iOOO>Hi-i 
+ + + + + +r + + I I I I I I I I I I I i + + + 

\0 o f* u-,\o >o c> lOvo N 10 lo tv.o 0^0^00 too >-H O o o^ 
i-ih-icsc<r<r)csp<o««sc<c^«Mi-iFHp<mwOOOOO 

+ + + + + ++++ j I I M I I I M M ++ 

vOVCI:^-! fO'*Mr>.0 MlOO OiOOO f<~. MO) C^O IH "1 M 

wi-ii-icscs(sp<MO>HwofqNi-400Ni-"00oo« 

+ + + + + +++ I I I I I I I M I i +++ 

00 Ci rt- ir^(^ roO^C>C) 04 O^rJ-fi -^ ir;— o ri:» •*— r^O 

bw^!Hrt«rtbb^^bbbbbbci^bbbbb 

+ + + + + +++! I I M + 1 ++ I I I i I ++ 

'l-cs cs O ro'^iotstv.tv. voo -< 100 «oooo roo t>.ir)'i-t>. 
bbbbbbbbbbbbbbwMnbbbbbbb 

i I I + + +1 I I I I I+ + + +T- I I I I I 1 

00 ^-N roTi-r<^'d-i-i 0* r<inM mrviOcsoo r< ro tJ-oo O u". m 
bbbbbbbww^bbbbb«"^bbbbbb 

+ + + + + + I i 1 I I I + + + + + + + I I M I 

r<0cSfonfO0t->.0^u-)M'O30-iC>r^c<~, C^-i roo 10 co 
OOOOOOi-itHi-iiHOOOOi-iO'-i-iOOOOOO 

X I I i I M I I I + + + + + ++++ Mil 
d >-■ d :r >■ > r d ■d x' >< d 5 s > > ^ s' d x" xJ d d :::' 



140 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



c<^ CS O O O t^vO l^vO t^ t1- N m w '*• rOOO m w MO 10 1^ to 

I I I I ! I I I I + + + + + + + + + + + + I I I 



00 vo ■* O^ CO roo N 00 rv o O lOO OvO o 1-1 30 10 cs 00 i-^oo 

I I I I I I I I I + + + + + +++ +++++ I I 



100 TJ■^^^^<-lO^^O■*■^coO^M00 r>.i-i t-^ t^'O n t-^ 1-1 "^00 lO 

° TTTTTTTT I +++++++++++++ i i 



Np o CO to t^oo oo>-iMc<^ooi-i'* lovo t^i^ioO'i-M o M m 

I I I M 1 I I i + + + + + + + + + + + + + I I 



000 u~<00 000 lOvO 10 r<~,0 OrorocsO O^fS w C« '^'^O 
vs> o c<^ Tj-o 1^00 O O ■* <s 00 c< Tj- r^oo 000 1000 Tj- >-i o N 'I- 

O^ HHHHI-tl-tMCSM h-thH»-ll-('-il-*t-l 

I I I I I I I I 1 ++++++++++++ 1 I I 



Tj- 1>. M t^ C^ O CS t^vO MOOOO OO 000 N OMIO t^oo to in 



++++++++++++ 



000 ro C>-0 O -^lOroO O fOO mu-jiocs wvO coNOO ON 



•vOOO •-" roro'j-vomoo M 



++++++++++ 



ts coo COI-" ►-<»0'<a-rfTj->-( o M <s w oocomo moo 
nb 00 M CO Tt-\0 r^oo i-ip<i-co>ioO(NcoTi-r<t^'-<o>-in'*io 

1 I M 1 I I I i + + + + + + + + + + I I I I I 



Tl-iOt^oO CO CO O •-> M C0\0 rK>00 m \0 'd'O moo moo rj-tr) 
nsoo M p» coO 00 O CO cs M o ■rj-oo Mcocor^OcoOMp^Ti-in 

CV mmmmmCSMm MMOCMPtDM 

I I I I I I I I I +++++++++++ I I I I 



t^ 10 (s o 00 Ovo mr^M Mvooo t/icoM ot ^d-ocovom 



MMCSCSCSCICSM 

+++++++++++ 



M o o^-o O'l-o r( M t^oincocoa^o ooovo oi^n om 



++++++++++++ 



>0 O CO 'i- 1^ N O 'S-oo rj- p« Ti- M Tf\0 CM:^t->.M t^O^T^ft^co 



I I i I I I 



Ml-IMtSDrjCSM 
+ + + + + ++ + + + ++ I 



CO M 1000 100 mr^coooo MOO m c>t^M m co mo m «o o 



(S P< P< M 



+ + + + + + + + + + + -^ + 






Meteorological Observations. 



141 






00 O r< Tt-'nt^cc u~,0 1-00 r^.O 00 C>C^t^r) t^cs O covot^ 



TTTTTTTi ;++++++++++++! 1 1 



+ + + + + + + + + + + + I I i 






\C O 00 O r) r«~. 1-1 O t-^ O vr, loO t^ Occ w mOO'+Ooo vo 



^ 



++++++++++++ 



00 O — r^. 100 00 r^O won vooo 3000 t^-^t^M o romt^ 



ox 



+ + + + + -I- + + + + + 



O ri in -^mr^ moo o^o^o^^ios-rt cncc f<^ ^ o^ c> '-i vo 






M I ! M I I I I f + +-i- + + + + + + + i I 



•*oo M ICO CO N mo ^^ t^t^Noo OTf-Ti-oo >nx> tJ- m m 



ex 



1^00 OiH«r<^vr)t^Oi-iiOi-HOooOOoOOC)Oi-imtot>. 

I I TTTTTTT 1++''"""'^ 



+++++■ 



oooioo o th^oooiop) m m- 



c) o " i-i 00 



^ 



o OP) PI Minmomi-i 00 1-1 00 vo t^o ^ o 'i- m t^ m ri 



ex 



++++++++++ 



rs co'^OO'-i ■*ts OP) rt-O i-i mOP)>0t>.0 i-i t^oo --I O 



ex 



I I + + + ++++++ + 



t^w i-( ts ot^OP) ■^•-it^t^vopi w p) 00 00 m o p) O P) 

1-1 r^, 100 O t^oo O 10 ro O ■^00 OP)>-iOOOP)P)ior>>-i 



■x$ 

ex 



-1 -1 P) P) P) P) rH 

+ + + + + -+++ 1- 



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Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



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Meteorological Observations. 



143 



Table 15.— Kamtz Factors. 





Kenihvortl 


1. 


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All 


sphere. 




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•487 1 -435 


•451 


•476 


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•475 j -424 


•440 


•475 


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•446 


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•462 


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•460 


•464 


•451 


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■465 


•472 


•433 


Oct. 


•500 


•478 


•488 


•447 


Nov. 


•516 


•483 


•497 


•496 


Dec. 


•515 


•462 


•480 


•521 


Year 


•511 -455 

1 


•462 





II.— ON THE ELECTRIFICATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE 
SURROUNDING SOLID BODIES WHEN THESE 
ARE RAISED TO MODERATE TEMPERATURES. 

By J. C. Beattie, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 



§1. The effect of increase of temperature of the charged body on 
its capabihty of retaining a charge has been made the subject of 
research by numerous experimenters. 

Guthrie showed that a metal — in his experiments an iron sphere 
— when wiiite hot cannot retain a charge either of positive or of 
negative electricity ; and that as it cools it acquires the power of 
retaining a negative charge before it can retain a positive one. 

Elster and Geitel have shown that a conductor insulated in the 
neighbourhood of a glowing body becomes charged in air which pre- 
viously had been rendered free from dust particles. These experi- 
menters have also shown that a body made to glow in a gaseous 
atmosphere takes a charge whose value depends on the nature and 
^tate of glow of the body as well as on the nature and density of the 
surrounding gas. 

Schuster states that a glowing copper rod gives off negative 
electricity to the air so long as it is oxidising. After the oxidation 
is complete it retains a charge given it, whether the charge be 
positive or negative. On the other hand, when an oxidised copper 
wire was made to glow in hydrogen, it retained a negative but not a 
positive charge so long as there was deoxidation, and even for a time 
after the deoxidation had ceased. 

Branly states that the electrification of the air surrounding a 
glowing surface depends on the nature of the surface. He found, 
for an example, that a red-hot glass rod, when connected to the 
ground, discharges negative electricity, while a lamp cylinder covered 
with aluminium oxide, bismuth oxide, or lead oxide, discharges 
positive electricity. 

J. J. Thomson has observed that a charged metallic body sur- 
rounded by a heated atmosphere has greater power of communicating 
a charge to the atmosphere when it is hot than it has when cold. 

Closely connected with the various phenomena mentioned 
above is the well-known discharging power of flames with or without 
volatilized substances in them. 

Of recent years it has been possible — thanks to Kelvin's electric 
filter method — to examine not only the change in the electric state 
of the solid, but also the change in that of the surrounding gas. 



Electrification of the Atmosphere. 145 

In the present paper a number of experimental results are 
^iven relating to the electrification of gases surrounding metallic 
bodies when these bodies and their surrounding atmospheres are 
heated to a temperature below that of the melting point of zmc. The 
paper is compiementan. to two published in the " Philosophical 
Magazine,""* where, howe^•er, the electric state of the solid was con- 
sidered. 

§2. Experimental Arrangement. 

To test the electric condition of the gases two arrangements 
were used. 

In the first of these. Fig. IV., a metal tube (A), usually of 5 cm. 
internal diameter of i"6 to^ 3'2 mm. in thickness, and of 82 cm. in 
length, was used. Each end was closed with a tightly-fitting, 
asbestos-covered cork, through the centre of which was passed a 
wire or metal strip (M), so that it lay approximately in the axis of 
the tube. This will be referred to as the axial wire. In addition, 
each cork had a glass tube passing through it, the one in the cork 
at the ingress end could be joined by rubber tubing to a glass wool 
hlter (Fa), and a Woulffs's bottle (W), containing water or strong 
sulphuric acid as the case might be ; the filter was always joined 
metallically to the tube (A). 

To the glass tube at the egress end of (A) was joined a rubber 
tube, which in turn led, through a "Woulff bottle (W,), to a glass tube 
fitting into one end of a tunnel in a piece of parafiin. Another glass- 
wool filter (F^,) was fixed on to the other end of the tunnel in 
the same piece of paraffin, and to a second tunnelled piece. In the 
other end of this second piece was fixed another glass tube, from 
which a piece of rubber tube led to the air pump. The tube (A) 
could be placed in a tube-heating furnace of the ordinary pattern. 
In some experiments the tube (A) was exposed directly to the flame; 
in others it was covered with asbestos and wire gauze. 

In the second arrangement, tube (A) was replaced by two cylin- 
drical vessels of iron, Fig. V., about 15cm. in diameter, the lower 
30 cm., the upper 10 cm. in height. The upper telescoped into 
the lower, and thus formed an hermetically-sealed lid. At a height 
of 3"8 cm. from the bottom of the lower and diametrically opposite 
to each other were fixed two iron tubes (A) and (B), each about 
45 cm. long and i'2 cm. internal diameter. Through the middle 
of the lid was passed a stout brass wire ("W), surrounded and insu- 
lated from the lid by ebonite wrapped in asbestos, great care being 
taken to make the fitting air-tight. The end (E) of the brass wire 
carried a thin disc of zinc, 10 cm. in diameter. A second disc 
of zinc was laid on the inside of the bottom of the lower vessel. 
The tubes (A) and (B) were closed at the ends remote from the 
cylinders by tightly-fitting corks, each supplied with a glass tube 
leading by rubber tubing to various filters and wash-bottles as in 
the first arrangement. Asbestos was placed on the sides and on the 

*" Phil. Mag." ser. 5, vol. xlviii., pp. 97-106 (July 1899) ; 
" Phil. Mag.," ser. 6, vol. i., pp. 442-454 (.A.pril 1901). 



146 Report §.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

base of the iron cylinder and on the ends of the pipes (A) and (B) 
next the cylinder. The flame was placed underneath the base of the 
cylinder. 

A quadrant electrometer, surrounded by wire gauze, was used 
in both arrangements. The lilter (F,.) was inside the gauze and in 
permanent metallic connection with one pair of quadrants. This 
pair could be joined to case or insulated at will. The metal tubes 
and cylinders, the hlter (FJ, the wire gauze and the other pair of 
quadrants were metallically connected with the case of the instru- 
ment. The axial wire in the first arrangement, or the stout brass 
wire in the second, could be connected with the case of the instru- 
ment or with the source of a constant E.M.F. just as desired. 
It may be stated once for all, that, before each experiment, the electro- 
meter, with connected hlter (F,,), was tested for insulation, and 
no results were taken when the insulation was faulty. Tests were 
always made to ascertain that the air passed from the room through 
the filter (F.,), through the metallic vessels, through the filter (F^), 
and thence to the pump. In no case was any trace of electrification 
obtained on drawing air from the room in this way when the flame 
was not lit. Great care was also taken to prevent products of com- 
bustion from entering the metallic vessels. 

§3. Preliminary Experiments with an iron tube, a copper tube, 
and with phosphorus in a zinc tube, the arrangement being as in 
Fig. IV. 

In the case of the iron and the copper tubes, six burners 
in the furnace were used, and the flame was applied directly. The 
tubes were heated to a cherry red. In the case of the iron tube, it 
was found that, with everything to case, the air drawn through was 
positively electrified when tested by the filter (F,.). The amount of 
the electrification increased with the electromotive force. The 
nature of it was positive, quite irrespective of the nature of the charge 
given to the insulated axial wire. The electrification was not 
removed by drawing the air through (i.) a U-tube filled with pumice- 
stone soaked in strong sulphuric acid, (ii.) a wash-bottle containing 
water, (iii.) first water and then a solution of potassium iodide in 
water, or (iv.) an alkaline solution of pyrogallic acid and a U-tube 
containing pumice-stone soaked in strong sulphuric acid. It was 
removed so far as the filter (Fc) was able to test by drawing the 
air through water, potassium iodide solution, pyrogallic acid and the 
U-tube, before reaching the filter. 

It is to be remembered, however, that the effect of passing the 
electrified air through solutions of this nature is twofold, (a) certain 
constituents may be taken from the air, or (b) the bubbling may cause 
an electrification of the air sufficient to give an indication on the 
filter. This latter effect was allowed for by drawing non-electrified 
air through the various solutions, and then testing by the filter. The 
result was a slight negative electrification, causing a deviation of a 
fraction of a scale division on the electrometer. 

The following table shows the effects produced. 

The figures are the mean of a nimiber of experiments. 



Electrification of the Atmosphere. ±h} 



Deviation of Electro- 
Electrified Air from Iron Tube was drawn throngh. meter in volts per 

Stroke of Pump. 



I. R. Tube only 

(i.) I.R. Tube + U tube with Pumice and H2SO4 

(ii). I.R. Tube + water 

(iii.) I. R. Tube + water + KI solution 

(iv.) I.R. Tube + 'Pvro' + U. tube 

(v.) I. R. Tube + water + KI + Pvro 



+0-070 
-j-0'o6o 
-i-0050 
+0-045 
+0016 
+0020 



(vi.) I. R. Tube + water + KI + Pvro + U Tube +0-000 



From this we might infer that the electrification is not carried 
to any extent by solid particles, by water vapour, or by ozone, but it 
would seem to be carried by the oxygen chiefly. 

In the case of the copper tube at a red heat, the effect produced, 
as the air was passed through, was a positive electrification of the 
air. After the tube was oxidized coal gas was passed through, which 
when tested by the filter showed a large negative electrification. The 
positive and the negative electrifications were observed even with 
the .whole apparatus to case, a change in the sign of the electrifi- 
cation of the copper tube relative to the insulated axial wire 
did not produce a change in the electrification of the air or of the 
coal gas. 

In the experiments with phosphorus, a clean stick of that 
element about six inches long was placed in a small zinc trough. 
Water was then poured into the trough so as to leave exposed only 
the upper side of the stick of phosphorus. The zinc vessel was 
then placed inside a zinc tube. When the whole was connected to 
case and air was drawn off to the filter — precautions being taken 
to ensure that the air drawn to the filter passed first over the 
phosphorus — it was found that little or no electrification was shown 
on the filter. On the other hand, when the zinc tube with which 
the zinc vessel containing the phosphorus was in metallic contact 
was connected to one terminal of a batten- of Leclanche cells and to 
the case of the instrument, while the insulated axial wire was con- 
nected to the other terminal of the batter}', the air was found to be 
positively or negatively electrified according as the insulated wire 
was negatively or positively electrified. The electrification due to 
the oxidation of phosphorus shows in this respect a marked differ- 
ence from that due to oxidation caused by heating. 

The fact that clean iron and clean copper, when oxidizing,, 
electrify the surrounding air positively was experimentally verified by 
Schuster. The effect due to phosphorus has been studied very 
thoroughly by Elster and Geitel. These known results are given here 
simply to indicate the capability of the present arrangement wherein 
an electric filter is used. 



148 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

§4. Electrification of gases at temperatures below 400°C. 

In the experiments now to be described, the outstanding dififer- 
ence is the temperature at which the results are produced. 

No attempt was made to determine the temperature accurately. 
The highest temperature attained was about 35o°C, the melting 
point of zinc. The effect of heating to a temperature slightly lower 
than this was tried with a great many substances and combinations 
of substances. 

The substances may be divided into two classes: (i) those 
which, when heated, in certain circumstances, acquire the power of 
giving a charge to the surrounding air; (2) those which, in like cir- 
cumstances, do not acquire this power. The first class may be 
sub-divided into (a) those in which it was possible to predict what 
would happen, and (b) those in which it was not possible to predict. 

In class (b) is potassium permanganate. This substance was 
tried several times with the first experimental arrangement. There 
was always evidence that a gas was being given off in the back 
pressure in the wash-bottles. When the air from the room was 
drawn through while the tube was being heated, it was found that 
the charge given tO' the filter (F,.) was sometimes positive and some- 
times negative. Usually it was possible in the early part of the 
experiment to influence the charge given to the filter by giving a 
charge of a definite kind to the insulated axial wire ; for example, 
in one experiment with the wire joined to the negative terminal of 
a battery of 40 Leclanche's, the electrification given to the filter was 
positive, to the positive terminal it was negative. As the tempera- 
ture rose, the positive reading became less and less, till, finally, in 
all cases, the electrification given to the filter (Fe) was negative. 

A second substance behaving in a very erratic manner was zinc 
chloride. Some days the results were negative, on others positive. 
Consistent results were obtained with potassium bichromate, treated 
with iodine or with bromine, on a zinc strip placed in a zinc tube ; 
with common salt similarly treated, with lithium chloride under 
like conditions, with potassium iodide treated with bromine, and 
with zinc sulphide alone. No electrification of the atmosphere was 
obtained in the case of potassium bichromate, common salt, lithium 
chloride, treated with iodine or with bromine, in the absence of zinc. 
The effect of the absence of zinc in the case of potassium iodide 
treated with bromine was not tried. Zinc sulphide was not tried in 
the absence of zinc. 

The substances of the second class, i.e., those which, when 
heated, showed no electrification of the surrounding atmosphere, 
were barium sulphide, either alone or after being treated with iodine 
and heated in an iron tube, barium oxide and barium peroxide 
heated in an iron tube, copper oxide heated in an iron tube, copper 
sulphide similarly heated, potassium carbonate with or without 
iodine in a zinc tube, potassium bicarbonate in a zinc tube, potas- 
sium nitrate in a zinc tube, strontium nitrate in a zinc tube, common 
salt with iodine or bromine in an aluminium tube. 



Electrification of the Atmosphere. 



149 



§5. Questions for expeirmental investigation. 

Experiments were made to test (a) \Yhether the nature of the 
electrification, positive or negative, given to the air could be deter- 
mined by the nature of the charge given to the surrounding vessel 
i.e. how the electrification of the gas was influenced by the 
electromotive force ; (b) what it was that carried the electrification ; 
(c) whether the electrification of the gas was destroyed by passing a 
current throught it, when electrified ; (d) whether it was possible to 
transmit the agency effective in causing the electrification from one 
space to another by means of drawing the electrified air from one 
space to another. 

§6. The effect of the electromotive force on the electrification 
of the gas. 

In the various experiments the zinc alone was first tested, the 
temperature being such as to cause oxidation but not fusion of the 
zinc. It w^as found that in such circumstances the air was not 
electrified. Potassium bichromate was first placed on a strip of 
zinc, 22'5 cm. by 2 cm., and sprinkled with iodine, and in some 
cases the whole was placed in the zinc tube, but in later experi- 
ments the zinc strip and its covering of potassium bichromate and 
iodine were heated so as to drive off the iodine, and then the 
strip was placed in the zinc tube and heated. In cases where 
bromine was used the bromine was sprinkled over the potassium 
bichromate on the zinc strip, and allowed to evaporate, and then 
the whole was placed in the zinc tube and heated. The air drawn 
through the tube and tested by the filter (Fe) was strongly electrified 
positively even with ever}'thing to case. The electrification was 
positive both when the insulated axial wire was joined to the positive 
and when it was joined to the negative terminal of the Leclanche 
battery, the other terminal being joined to the zinc tube and the 
case of the instrument. The results are exhibited in the following 
tables : — 



POTASSIUM BICHROMATE AND BROMINE ON A ZINC 
STRIP IN ZINC TUBE. 



Axial Wire. 



Case 

+ 3 volts 
+ 12 volts 
+36 volts 



Deviation in Volls 

per Stroke of 

Pump. 



+0-054 
+0'05o 
-f-o-o63 

-I-0-07C 



IsO 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



POTASSIUM BICHROMATE WITH IODINE ON A 
ZINC STRIP IN ZINC TUBE. 







Deviation in Volts 






Axial Wire. 


pei: Stroke of 
Pump. 






Case 


+ 0-063 






+ 1-5 volts 


+ 0-067 






+ 3-0 „ 


+ 0-080 






+ 6-0 „ 


+ 0-075 






+ 12-0 „ 


+ 0-067 






-'r36"o „ 


+0-059 






— 1-5 „ 


+0-084 






— 3"o „ 


+0-088 






— 6*0 „ 


+ 0-084 






— I2-0 „ 


+ 0-084 






— 36-0 ,, 


+ 0-059 





lodined salt on zinc and the substances enumerated in class (ii.) 
(b) behaved in a similar way. The electrification in all these cases 
at a temperature just below the melting point of zinc was positive, 
and practically independent of the drop of voltage, between the 
insulated axial wire and the metal tube with all the voltages used in 
the experiments. 

These substances were also tried with the second experimental 
arrangement. The distance between the insulated disc and the 
substance on the disinsulated zinc disc on the bottom of the vessel 
was varied from two to eleven centimetres with changing the sign of 
the electrification. It was found that the sign of the electrification 
given to the filter (F^,) changed to negative when the temperature 
was such as to fuse the zinc. 

§7. The carrier of the electric charge. 

In the first experimental arrangement, Fig. IV., Woulff's bottles 
could be placed between the tube and the filter (F^.). The air was 
drawn through these wash-bottles singly or in various groups. These 
wash-bottles were insulated. The following table gives the results 
obtained in one experiment in which potassium bichromate 
sprinkled with iodine was placed on zinc. The axial wire was con- 
nected to case. 



Deviation in Volts 

per Stroke of 

Pump. 



+0-038 
+0-042 
-I-0-046 
-i-0-042 



Air drawn through. 



(1) Water (2) KI solution (3) U-tube with Pumice and H2SO1 

(2) and (3) as above. 
(2) as above. 
Nothinp-. 



Electrification of the Atmosphere. 



151 



Many experiments were made. The above gives a fair idea 
of the result. Another solution often employed was an alkaline 
solution of pyrogallic acid. The effect of this was to reduce the 
reading slightly when salt and iodine, or lithium chloride and iodine 
were used. 

The effect was much more marked when (i) potassium iodide 
and bromine or (2) zinc chloride was used. The following table 
will give an idea of the results obtained when these substances were 
used. 

POTASSIUM IODIDE ON WHICH BROMINE HAD BEEN 
SPRINKLED ON A ZINC STRIP IN A ZINC TUBE. 



Axial Wire. 


Deviation in Volts per 
Stroke of Pump. 


Air drawn through. 


Case 
+60 volts 
-60 „ 
—60 „ 
-60 „ 
^60 „ 
—60 „ 
—60 „ 
—60 „ 


+0-26 
+ 1-55 
+2-17 
+0-38 

+ 1-20 

+0-53 
+0-30 

+ 1-75 
+0-50 


(1) Strong H2S0i 
(i) As above 

(i) As above 
(i) and (2) Pyro 
(i) As above 

(2) As above 
(i) As above 

Nothing 
(i) As above 



Here there is a decided change when the " pyro " and H0SO4 
are used as traps. Quite as decided an effect was produced with 
zinc chloride in a zinc tube. 

The experiments were varied by drawing different gases through 
the tube. The following table gives the results obtained with 

COMMON SALT AND IODINE ON A ZINC STRIP IN A 
ZINC TUBE:— 



Axial Wire. 


Deviation in Volts 
per Stroke. 


Gas. 


Date. 


To Case. 


+ 0-36 
+ 0-36 
+o-i6 
+ 0-004 
+ 0-14 
+0-I8 


Air 1 15th June, 1901 
Nitrogen 1 5, „ 
Air i8th 
Hydrogen \ „ „ 
Air : „ 
Coal Gas „ 



Results with oxygen or carbonic acid gas were not noticeably 
■different from those in air. 

§8. Possibility of transmitting the effect from one place to 
-another. 



152 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



To test whether it was possible to transmit the agency effective 
in causing the electrification from one space to another, the first 
arrangement was modified by introducing between the tube (A) and 
the filter (Fg), a second tube (A), similar in all respects to A. 

(A) was heated , (A) was in the first part of the experiment con- 
nected to case, and in it was placed a strip of zinc covered with 
common salt, which had not, however, been treated with iodine. 
The electrified air from (A), in which was a strip of zinc covered with 
iodined salt, was allowed to pass through (Aj) before reaching the 
filter (F^.). After this had been continued for some time (A) was 
taken awa) and (Aj ) was heated. No electrification was shown on the 
filter when the air was drawn through it from the tube (Aj ). 

§9. Effect of current. 

The charge given to the gas was not destroyed by passing a 
current through it. This was tested by an arrangement similar 
to that described in §8. The gas was charged in (A); it was drawn 
through (Aj) which contained no substance; the insulated axial wire 
of (A ) was connected to one terminal and the tube itself tO' the other 
terminal of a battery of forty Leclanche's. No diminution of the 
effect on the filter was produced by this means. 

§10. Quantity of electricity given in filter (F,.) by a c.cm. of 
gas. 

The capacity of the quadrant electrometer with connected 
filter was 'oooi microfarads. The capacity of a barrel of the pump 
was 344 cubic centimetres. The quantity of electricity per cm.''' 
was as follows : — 



Air from Iron Tube 

Coal Gas from Copper Tube 

Air from Phosphorus Tube ... 

„ Zinc Tube with Iodined Salt 

„ „ „ Potassium 

Permanganate 

), „ I) Lithium 

Chloride 

„ „ „ Potassium 

Iodide and Bromine 



Axial Wire. 



+220 

-I- 36 volts 
-36 „ 

+36 „ 
-36 „ 

+36 „ 
-36 „ 

+60 „ 
—60 „ 

+45 M 



+60 
—60 



Conlombs 
per cm.' 



+ 9-0 X I0-' 

— 4-5 X 10-' 

— 10 -o X 10-^ 

— 1-4 X 10-7 
+ i-i X 10-7 

+ 1-2 X 10-7 
+ 0-8 X 10-7 

— 2-8 X 10-7 
-f 2-2 X 10-7 

+ 6-6 X 10-7 



4- 4-0 X 10-7 
4- 6-0 X 10-7 



Electrification of the Atmosphere. 153 

§11. Conclusions. 

1. The following substances, common salt, lithium chloride- 
potassium bichromate, on which iodine or bromine has been 
sprinkled, have, in the presence of zinc, the property of causing the 
surrounding atmosphere of air. oxygen, nitrogen, carbonic acid or 
coal gas to become electrified positively when raised to a temperature 
l)etween 3oo°C. and 35o°C. An atmosphere of hydrogen is nor 
electrified in similar circumstances. Stress is to be laid on the fact 
that it is the atmosphere, not the solid particles, nor the ozone, 
nor the water vapour which takes the electrification. The electrifi- 
cation is not due to a gas coming off as it is in the case of potassium 
permanganate. 

2. The effect differs from the electrification produced by phos- 
phorus, rontgen rays, uranium, or thorium in that it is only possi'.ile 
to electrify the gas positively with voltages up to -r 200 volts. 

3. The effect differs from that produced in a red hot iron or 
copj)er tube in that it does not appear to be due to oxidation or 
deoxidation. 

4. The atmosphere under the action of these substances brings, 
about an equalization of potential between two mutually insulated 
different metals ; in other words, when the two mutually insulated 
metals are connected by a wire the circuit is completed by the 
intervening atmosphere, and a current flows. 

5. Other sub.stances which have this property are potassium 
iodide, treated with bromine, in the presence of zinc, zinc sulphide- 
zinc chloride, and a number of substances mentioned in §4. 

6. The effect does not seem to be connected with fluorescence, 
thermoluminescence, or with the giving off of a gas on heating. 

7. There seems to be three distinct methods — apart altogether 
from the well-known electrifying properties of flames and their fumes- 
— of obtaining an electrified gas by heating. 

1. By oxidation or by deoxidation as in the atmosphere drawn 

from the neighbourhood of an oxidising or deoxidising 
metal. (Schuster.) 

2. By driving off from a solid a gas which carries a charge 

with it as in the gas obtained by heating potassium 
permanganate. (Townsend.) 

3. By heating the atmosphere over iodined common salt — 

and other iodined or bromined substances mentioned 
above — in the presence of zinc; or by heating the 
atmosphere in the presence of a number of substances. 
such as zinc chloride, zinc sulphide. 



A THIRD LIST OF WRITINGS OX DETERMINANTS. 
By Thomas Muik, LL.D., F.R.S. 



I. The first " List of Writings on Determinants " was published 
in the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, Vol. XVIIL, pp. 1 10-149. 
It covered the period 1693-1880, and contained 589 titles of books, 
memoirs, etc., which had appeared within that period. In the pre- 
paration of it the primar\ object aimed at was to provide working 
mathematicians with the means of knowing what had been done by 
their predecessors, and so to make research less laborious and at the 
same time more fruitful. It was also intended that the material thus 
collected should be immediately used by myself in the writing of an 
■exhaustive histor}- of the theory ; and in part this intention was 
•carried out in the years 1884-89, the first volume of the work having 
•been published in 1890. 

The second list api)eared in the same journal. Vol. XXL, pp. 
299-320, and covered the period 1784-1885, thus supplying omitted 
titles, 84 in number, belonging to the period of the first list, and 
giving the titles, 176 in number, for an additional period of five 
years. 

2. The present list is similar to the second, but is much 
more extensive, the new period dealt with being three times as long. 
It opens with the supply of omissions made in the previous lists, 
and contains in all more titles than these two lists put together. 

In view of the repeated gleanings thus seen to have been made, 
and in view of the fact that the literature of quite recent times can 
•be examined easily and with little chance of making omissions or 
mistakes, it is highly probable that the 1744 titles which the three 
lists together contain form a practically complete conspectus of all 
the work that has been done on the subject from the earliest 
times up to the close of the nineteenth century. The existence of 
the International Scientific Catalogue and other publications of a 
more special character makes the twentieth century a matter of com- 
paratively little concern to the collector of historical material. 

3. As in the case of the previous lists, the writings meant to be 
included are those which concern the theory or the histor x of the 
theory; all papers which contain mere instances of the application 
■of the functions are carefully omitted. At the same time, if a paper, 
while professing to deal with a mere application of determinants, or 
•even to concern a totally different subject, should, nevertheless, 
throw some sidelight on the theory, it has been as scrupulously 
noted as if its title bore reference to the theorv. and to the theory 
■onlv. 



List of Writings ox Determixants. 155 

4. The order of arrangement of the titles is meant to be the 
order of their dates, and this not merely so far as the year is con- 
cerned, but the month as well. It has to be noted, however, that 
such accuracy is far from being completely attainable, and will never 
be attainable until there is some general agreement made anrl acted 
upon as to the mode of dating scientific writings in all the different 
mediums of publication. 

In the domain of mathematics these mediums are practically 
not more than four in number, viz. : (i) The serial publications of 
.societies; (2) publications of the magazine class; (3) books and 
pamphlets separately published ; (4) school-programms and university- 
dissertations. In regard to the first of these it would seem desirable 
that every printed paper should bear the date of its receipt by the 
.secretary of the society, or the date of its presentation to the societ}-, 
or both dates; and, further, that the fasciculus of the society's pub- 
lication which contains the paper should bear the date of its issue 
to the public. Some of the leading societies already comply with 
all these requirements ; most societies comply in part ; but, strange 
to say, there are still laggarrls whose publications have only a year- 
date on the title-page of each volume — a year-date which very pro- 
bably is not appropriate to even a minority of the papers which the 
volume contains. 

In the case of magazines, journals, etc.. there is still more 
variety and more carelessness than in the case of the serials of 
societies. The best editors print at the end of each paper the date 
placed there by the author, and in addition print on the cover of 
•each fasciculus the date of its issue. Such editors, however, are 
few in number: and, unfortunately, some of those in England are 
among the worst, the authors date being almost invariably awant- 
ing. and the month mentioned on the cover being often quite mis- 
leading. 

Books and pamphlets sometimes bear two dates, the day-date 
at the end of the preface and the year-date on the title-page : the 
date of actual issue to the public is almost never ascertainable from 
the book itself, and e.xceedingly diflficult to obtain othenvise. 

Degree-dissertations and the papers contained in school-pro- 
gramms usually bear the date of the occasion on which thev were 
"held up to honour, and. like other separate publications, bear "a year- 
date on the title-page. They show no exact date of publication, 
and there is the further difficulty that they are not catalogued in the 
ordinary dated bibliographies issued for the informarion of book- 
sellers. 

5. In the great majority of cases the language of the printed 
title given in the following list is the language in which the pap^r 
originally appeared. When a different course is taken an English 
translation of the title is given, and for distinction's sake is enclose<i 
in brackets. The languages which have been thus treated are Rus- 
sian, Polish, Hungarian. Czech, and others less commonlv known. 
When there is no title in the original, an English title descriptive of 
the contents is given and enclosed in the same wav. 



156 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

In some cases the names of the serials are similarly deait 
with. 

6. There is no single library in existence which contains all 
the writings included in the three lists, or even in the last of rhe 
three; and, what is still more to be regretted, there is apparently 11 ) 
single library in the United Kingdom which contains full sets of all 
the societies' serials referred to, none which contains full sets of all 
the mathematical magazines, none which contains all the separate 
books and pamphlets, and none which contains all the degree-dis- 
sertations and school-programm.s. The English mathematical socie- 
ties, to whose libraries one naturally turns for full sets of the purely 
mathematical serials, leave their members in ignorance as to what 
they possess of this kind. They publish, it is true, in irregular instal- 
ments the names of the serials which they receive in exchange f«r 
their Proceedings, but nowhere any complete list of all the serials 
which are accessible in their rooms. St'il less effort do they make 
to inform their members of the wheieabouts of libraries where 
sets of serials are kept which they themselves do not possess. The 
current mathematical serials of the world are not above eighty in 
number; they, therefore, could be catalogued on two pages of either 
society's Proceedings, and bv doubling the space it would be possible 
to indicate fully not only the volumes actuall) possessed by the 
society, but also possessed by any important libraries within' 
the same city. In the case of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society,, 
the catalogue might easily and with advantage include all the larger 
libraries of Scotland within its purview : and in the case of the 
London Mathematical Society certain libraries at Cambridge and 
Oxford could not well be omitted. The printing of such four-page 
catalogues would at lea.st make evident to members " the nakedness 
of the land,'" and might stir them up to make an effort to supply the 
more important wants.* 

8. To increase the usefulness of the three lists, and, so to sjjeak. 
complete the work connected with them, there has been appended to 
the present list an index of all the authors" names appearing in anv 
one of the three. This is arranged alphabetically, and the lists 
having been designated (A). (B), (C) in order, each paper is fully 
indicated by gi\ing one of these letters to show the list to which 
the paper belongs, and printing after it the \ear-date of the paper- 
Thus the entry 

Noether. M. a 1876. 79(2): C 95. 

intimates that the author in question has a paper under the vear 
1876 in the first list, two papers under the year 1879 in the same 
list, and a paper under the year 1895 in the third list. 



*The new University of London has a splendid heritage in the Graves 
Library of University College. Present and future graduates could do a noble 
work by keeping all the sets of serials in the library up-to-date and in other 
ways maintaining its original high character for completeness. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 157 

9. It will readily be understood that the preparation of ihe list 
has involved much labour to others beside myself, and that a con- 
siderable share of this is due to the fact of my distance from the 
^^reat libraries of Europe. About one hundred and eighty of the 
title-slips cost more worry to check and complete than all the rest 
put together, and some of them made the journey to and from 
Europe several times before they could be filed as satisfactory.! 
In recalling this it gives me pleasure to say that in almost no case 
did I apply to strangers for assistance without receiving at least a 
svmpathetic answer. Such kindnesses I ha\e already tried to 
acknowledge in some way or other ; but to most of those who rendered 
them the appearance of the list in print will. I feel sure, be the best 
form of reward. 

THE THIRD LIST (1748-1900). 

1748. Fontaine [des PjERtins, A.] Memoires donnees a TAcad- 
emie des Sciences, non imprimes dans leur temps, 
(p. 94.) 588 pp. Paris. 1764. 

1770. Vandermonde. Memoire sur la resolution des equations. 
Man. dc TAcad. des Sciences, Annee 1771. p. 369. 

1773. Lagrange, J. L. Recherches d'arithmetique. Noiiv. Mem. 

de TAcad. Roy Berlin, Ann. 1773. (pp. 265-312.) 

p. 285. 

1795. Prony [R.]. Lecons d'analyse. Considerations sur les 

principes de la methode inverse des differences. 

Journ. de I'Ecole Polyi. I. (pp. 211-273.) pp. 264. 265. 
1809. MoNGE [G.]. Essai d'application de I'analyse a quelques 

parties de la geometric elementaire. Joiini. de 

VKcole Polyi. VIIL, pp. 107-109. 
1809. HiRSCH. M. Sammlung von Aufgaben aus der Theorie der 

algebraischen Gleichungen. pp. T03-107. Berlin. 

581 1. Prasse, M. de. Commentationes Mathematicae. vii. De- 

monstratio eliminationis Cramerianae. pp. 89-102. 

Lipsiae. 1804- 181 2. 

i8ii. BiNET. J. P. M. Memoire sur la theorie des axes conjugues 
et des momens dinertie des corps. Jouni. dc 

I'Ecole Polvi. IX. (pp. 41-67.) pp. 45-46. 

i8ii. BiNET. J. P. M. Sur quelques formules d'algebre. et sur 
leur application a des expressions qui ont rapport aux 
axes conjugues des corps. Xoiiv. Bull, des .Sci. 

par la Soc. Philomaiique, II.. pp. 389-392. 

18 1 2. Wronski. H. Refutation de la Theorie des Fonctions 
Analytiques de Lagrange, pp. 14, 15. ..., 132, 133. 

Paris. 



fOne of the most willin^f and capable helpers, Mr. John Hardie, librarian of 
Ihe Edinburgh Royal Society, has my special thanks. 



158 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1813. Gergonne, J- D- Developpement de la theorie donnee par 

M. Laplace pour relimination au premier degre. 
Aiiiiah'S dc ISLath. IV.. pp. 148-155. 

1 81 4. Garnier, J. G. Analyse Algebrique, faisant .suite a la 

premiere section de I'algebre. 2e edition, revue et con- 
siderablement: augmentee, pp. 541-555- Paris. 

1 81 5. Cauchv, A. L. Theorie de la propagation des ondes a la 

surface d'un fluide pesant dune profondeur indefinie. 
Mem. present cs par divers savants d I'Acad. ray. des 
SCI. dc VTnst. dc France. ... I. (1827). Or (Eiivres 
]<? sen 1.. pp. 5-318. 

18:15. Scherk. H. F. Mathematische AbhandlungL 1. (pp. 31- 

°"-) iv. + 116 pp. Berlin. 

1827. Jacobi, C. G. J.'^ Ueber die Haui)ta.\en der Flachen der 
zweiten Ordnung. Crelle's Joiirn. II.. pj). 227- 

1827. Jacobi. C. G. J. De singulari quadam duplicis integralis 
transformatione. Crelle's Joiirn. II., pp. 234-242. 

1829. Minding, F. Auflosung einiger Aufgaben der analytischer 
Geometrie vermittelst des barvcentrischen Calculs. 
Crelle's Jour a. V., pp. 397-401. 

1829. Jacobi, C. G. J. Exercitatio algebraica circa discerptionem 
singularem fractionum. quae plures variabiles invol- 
vunt. Crelles Joiirti. V., pp. 344-364. Also, in 

part, in Noiiv. Annates de ISLatli. IV., pp. 533-535. 

1829. Cauchv. A. L. Sur Tequation a I'aide de laquelle on deter- 
mine les inegalites seculaires de mouvements de.s- 
planetes. Exercices de Math. JV. Or CEiivres 
(2) IX., pp. 172-195. 

1831. Jacobi, C. G. J. De transformatione integralis duplicis in- 

definiti in formam simpliciorem , 

Crelle's Joiirn. VIII.. pp. 253-279, 321-357. 

1833. Jacobi, C. G. J. De binis quibuslibet functionibus homoge- 

neis secundi ordinis per substitutiones lineares in alias- 
binas transformandis quae solis quadratis variabilium 

constant; una cum Crelle's Jonrn. XII. pp. 

1-69. 

1834. Jacobi, C. G. J. Dato systemate n aequalionuin linearlum 

inter ;/ incognitas, valores incognilarum per integralia 
definita (;/-i)-tuplicia exhibentur. Crelle's Jonrn. 

XIV.. pp. 51-55. 



* In this volume of Crelle's Jouni. five other sets of initials are found preceding" 
the name Jacobi, vi/., C. D.,"j. (i.. J. D. G., [. G. D., D. G. T.. the same w riter 
alu avs beinsi meant. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 159) 

1837. Binet, J. P. M. Observations sur des theoremes de georae- 

trie, enoncees Joiirn. de Liouville, II., pp. 

248-252. Or, in abstract, in Nouv. Annales de Math.. 
v., pp. 164-165. 

1839. Sylvester, J. J. On derivation of coexistence. Part I.,. 
being the theory of simultaneous simple homogeneous- 
equations. Philos. Magazine, XVI., pp. 37-43. 

1839. MoLiNS, [H.]. Demonstration de la formule generale qui 

donne le.s valeurs des inconnues dans les equations du. 
premier degre. Joiirn. de LioitviUe. IV., pp. 509- 

5^5- 

1840. RicHELOT, F. J. Nota ad theoriam eliminationis pertinens.. 

Crelle's Jonrn. XXL. pp. 226-234. 

1 84 1. Haedenkamp. H. Leber Transformation vielfacher Inte- 

grale. Crelle's Joiirn. XXIL, pp. 184-192. 

1 84 1. Sylvester, J. J. Examples of the dialytic method of 
elimination as applied to ternary systems of equations. 
Cambridge Math. Joiirn. II., pp. 232-236. 

1 84 1. CRA^^•FURD, A. Q. G. On a method of algebraic elimina- 
tion. Cambridge Math. Joiirn. II.. pp. 276-27S. 

1 84 1. Cauchy, a. L. Note sur la formation des fonctions alternees 
qui servcnt a resoudre le probleme de I'elimination. 

Compies Rendns (Paris.) XII., pp. 414-426: 

or (Eiivres 1^ sen VI., pp. 87-89. 

1 84 1. Cauchy, A. L. Note sur les diverses suites que Ton peut 
former avec des termes donnees. Exercices 

d' analyse et de phys. math. II., pp. 145-150. 

1843. Hesse, O. Leber die Kildung der Endgleichung, welcha- 

durch Elimination einer Variabeln aus zwei alge- 
braischen Gleichungen hervorgeht, und die Bestim- 
mung ihres Grades. C relies Joiirn. XXVI I.. 

PP- 1-5- 

1844. Hesse. O. Leber die Elimination der Variabein aus dreii 

algebraischen Gleichungen vom zweiten Grade mit zwei 
Variabeln. Crelle's Jonrn. XXVIII. . pp. 68-96. 

1844. RosENHAiN, G. Exercitationes analyticae in theorema Abe- 

lianum de integralibus functionum algebraicarum. 
Crelle's Jonrn. XXVIII. , [pp. 249-278. XXIX., pp. 
1-19] p. 263 

1845. RosENHAiN. G. Neue Darstellung der Resultante der Eli- 

mination von 2 aus zwei algebraischen Gleichungen.... 
Crelle's Jonrn. XXX., pp. 157-165. 

1845. Jacobi, C. G. J. Theoria novi multiplicatoris systemati: 
aequationum differentialium vulgarium applicandi. 
Crelle's Jonrn. XXIX.. pp. 213-279, 333-376. 



i6o Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1846. LlouviLLE, J. Sur une classe d'equations du premier degre. 
Jonrn. de Lionville, XI., pp. 466-467 ; or, in aljstract, 
Archiv d. Math. 11. Phys. XXII., p. 226. 

1846. Terquem, O. Notice sur relimination. A'oiiv. 

Annales de Math. V., pp. 153-162. 

1849. Malmsten, C. J. Moyens pour trouver Texpression de la 

«ieme integrale particuliere de Tequation lineaire 

Crellc's Journ. XXXIX., pp. 91-98. 

1 85 1. Hes.se. O. Ueber die Bedingung. unter welcher eine homo- 
gene ganze Function von ;; unaVjhangigen Variabelii. . . 
Crellc's Journ, XLII., pp. 117-124. 

1851. Sylvester, J. J. Sketch of a memoir on elimination, trans- 
formation and canonical forms. Camhr. and 
Huh. Math. Journ. VI., pp. 186-200. 

1851. Cayley, a. On the theoryi of pemiutants. Cainb. 

and Dub. Math. Journ. VII., pp. 40-51 ; or. Collected 
Math. Papers. II., pp. 16-26. 

5853. Sylvester, J. J. Provisional report on the theory of deter- 
minants. Report, British Assoc XXIII., 

p. 66. [N.B. — This is a reason and apolog\ for not 
presenting a report !] 

1854. Hermite, Ch. Extrait d'une lettre (Determinants 

whose conjugate elements are of the form a + b-/-i, 
a- h\f^). Crelle's Journ. LII., pp. 39-40. 

1854. Majo, L. de. Metodi e formole generali per eliminazione 
nelle equazioni di primO' grado. iMcin. Accad. 

Sci. (Xapoli) I. (1852-54) pp. 101-116. 

1854. Cayley, A. Recherches sur les matrices dont les termes 

.sont des fonctions lineaires d'une seule \ariable in- 
determinee. Crellc's Journ. L., pp. 313-317; or 

Collected Math. Papers, II., pp. 216-220. 

1855. Cayley, A. Xote sur une formule pour la reversion des 

series. Crelle's Journ. LII., pp. 276-284; or 

Collected Math. Papers, IV.. pp. 30-37. 
1855. Cayley, A. X^ote sur la methode d'elimination de Bezout. 

Crellcs Journ. LIIL, pp. 366-367 : or, C'-'llected Math. 

Papers, IV., pp. 38-39. 
5856. Brioschi, F. Sur une nouvelle propriett- du resultant de 

deux equations algebriques. Crelle's Jour)i. 

LIIL, pp. 372-376. 
11857. C.WLEY, A. Note sur les normales dune conique. Crelle's 

Journ. LVL, pp. 182-185. Collected Math. Papers, 

IV., pp. 74-77. 
1858. Raabe. J. L. Mathematische Mittheilungen. No. ix. 

ZugaV)e zur Jakob Bernoulli'schen Funktion und Kin- 

fiihrung einer neuen. die Euler'srhen Funktion. 

Zurich. 

(.Account of it by Brioschi in Annali di Mat. 1., pp 

260-263.) 



.Oj( 



List of Writings on Determinants. i6i 

i858. Heine, E. Auszug eines Schreibens iiber die Laiiihchen 

Functionen an den Herausgeber. Einige Eigen- 

schaften der Lamhchen Functionen. Crclh s Jonrn. 

LVL, pp. 77-86, 87-99. 
{858. Gallenkamp, W. Die einfachsten Eigenschaften und An- 

wendungen der Determinanten. (Sch. Progr.) 

Hesse, O. Zur Theorie der ganzen homogenen Functionen. 

Crelle's Journ. LVL, pp. 263-269. 
1859. Hesse, O. Xeue Eigenschaften der linearen Substitutionen 

welche gegebene homogene Functionen des zweiten 

Grades in andere tran.sfomiiren die nur die <^uadrate 

der Variabeln enthalten. Crelle's Journ. LVIL, 

pp. 175-182. 
i860. Cayley, A. Recent terminology in Mathematics. E)iglish 

Cyclopaedia, V., pp. 534-542 : or. Collected Math. 

Papers, IV., pp. 594-608. 
i860. IsANDER, L. F. Inledning till determinant-theorien. 

(Dissert.) L"psala. 
.1861. Grassmann, H. Die Ausdehnungslehre. VoUstandig und 

in strenger Form bearbeitet. pp. 37, ... 99, ... 

xii + 388 pp. BerHn. 
J 862. Smith. H. J. S. Keport on the theory of numbers. Part 

IV. Rcpori Briiish Assoc XXXIL, 

PP- [503-5^6] 504. 

1864. ToRELLi, G. Soluzione della questione 694 dei Xouvelles 

Annales. (Michael Roberts' rleterminant.) Giornale 

di Mat. II., p. 191. 
J 866. Renshaw, a. Ea.sy method of deducing consecutivelv the 

permutations of the first n integers. Oxford, 

Caiub. and Dubl. Messenger of Math. IV., pp. 36-37. 
1867. ToDHUNTER, I. An elementary treatise on the theorv of 

equations, (pp. 256-297.) viii-l-318 pp. London. 

1867. RuBiNi, R. Com))lemento agli elementi di Algebra. 

viii + 484 4- i\' . Xapoli. 
1867. Chodnicek, J. Die Grundziige der Kombinationen und der 

aus ihnen abgeleiteten Reihen und Determinanten. 

Kremsier. 

1867. FuERSTENAU, E. Neue Methode zur Darstellung und Be- 

rechnung der Gleichungen durch Determinanten der 
Koefficienten. Marburg. 

1868. X'eumann, . L'eber Vorzeichensbestimmung in Formeln 

der Determinanten-theorie. Anwendung auf die Her- 
leitung des Sylvesterschen und Jacobischen Satzes. 

(Sch. Progr.) Danzig. 

11868. Baur, C. W. Auflosung eines Systems Yon Gleichungen, 

worunter eine quadratisch. die anderen linear. Zeit- 

schrift f. Math. 11. Phys. XIV., pp. 129-140. 426-435. 



i62 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1870. Bertrand. J. Changemezit de variables dans les integrale* 
multiples. Traiic de CaJc. Bif. et de Calc. Itit. 

II., pp. 468-469. 

1870. Trzaska, W. Krotkie wiadomosci o wyznacznikach. (Ap- 
pendix to Folkierski's Zasadx rachunht roznicikowego.)- 

Paris. 

1870. Versluys, J. Discus.sion complete d'un systeme d'equations^ 
lineaires. Archiv d. Math. u. P/iys. LII., pp. 257- 
277. 

1870. Unterhuber, a. Eiiileituni;- in die Theorie der Determin- 
-'I'l^en. (Sch. Progr.) Leoben. 

1870. GoRDAN, P. Ueber die Bildung der Resultante zweier 

Gleichungen. Math. Annalen. III., pp. 355-414. 

187 1. Versluys, J. Applications des determinants a I'algebre et 

a geometric analytique. Ai'chiv d. Moth. u. Phys. 
LIII., pp. 137-187. 
1871. BouRGET, J. Des permutations. Noiiv. Aniiales de 

Math. (2) X., pp. 254-268. 

187 1. Valeriano, V. Sistema generale di n equazioni lineari fra 

« incognite. Giornale di 'Mat. IX., pp. 371- 

376. 
i87i(?) Cayley, a. (Permutations obtainable by a cyclical sub- 
stitution and an interchange). (Problem 33 -9-)' 
ISLath. from Ednc. Times, XV., pp. 66-67. 

1872. Maurer, F. Grundziige der Determinantenlehre. 

(Sch. Progr.) Budweis. 

1872. (3NOFRIO, P. Intorno ad una tunzione che entra nella com- 

posizione delle ridotte delle frazioni continue 

Giornah di Mat. X., pp. 37-46. 

1872. G[erono. E]. De la realite des racines de 1 equation du 
troisieme degre en i Noiiv. Annales de- 

Math. (2) XL, pp. 305-308. 

1872. Mertens. F. . (Generating function of any complete 

symmetric function.) CreJle's Joitrn. LXXV.,. 

p. 264. 

1873. Bauer. G. Bemerkungen iiber einige Determinanten geo- 

metrischer Bedeutung. Sitzimgsb. ... Akad.. 

d. ]Viss. (Miinchen.) II., pp. 345-354. 
1873. Beltrami. E. Sulle funzioni bilineari. Giornah' di 

Mat. XL, pp. 98-107. 
1873. GiiNTHER. S. Ueber die allgemeine Auflosung von Gleich- 

ungen durch Kettenbriiche. Math. Annalen. VII.,. 

pp. 262-268. 

1873. IsE, E. Sul grade della risultante. Giornale d'v 

Mat. XL, p. 253. 
1873. RuBiNi, R. Trattato d'algebra. Parte seconda (v. Cap. 
^•'^'" vii. -f364 pp. Napoli.. 



List of Writings Oix Determinants. 163, 

1873. Lipschitz. R. iieitrag- ziir Theorie des Hauptaxenproblems. 

Ahhandl. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. Whs. (Berlin.) 

1874. Malet, T- C. On certain symmetrir functions of the roots 

of an algebraical equation. Truiis. Roy. IrisJi 

Acad. XXV., pp. 337-34-^- 
1874. GuNTHER. S. Zur mathemati.schen Theorie des Schachbretts.. 

Archiv d. Math. 11. PJtys. LVL. pp. 281-292. 
1874. Zeuthen, H. G. En Bemaerking om Bevi.serne for Hoveds- 

aetningen om Elimination mellem to algebraiske- 

Ligninger. Tidsskrifi for Math. (3) \\\. pp.- 

165-171. 

1874. Legge. a. di. Teoria dei determinanti. Roma. 

1875. Madsen, V. H. O. En Bemaerking om Sylvesters dialyti.ske 

Eliminations^methode. Tidsskrift for Math.. 

(3) v., pp. 144-M5- 
FOXTEXE, G. Theoreme pour la discussion dun systemt- de 
« equations du premier degre a n inconnues. Noiii'. 
Annales de Math. (2) XIV., pp. 481-487. 

1875. KorcHE, E. Sur la discussion des equations du premier 

degre. Coinptes Reiidiis (Paris.) 

LXXXI., pp. 1050-1052. 

1875. Mi-KAV, Ch. Sur la di.scussion dun systeme d'equations- 

lineaires simultaiiees. Comptes Rendiis 

(Paris.) LXXXI.. pp. 1 203-1 204. 
i875(?) Cotterill, T. (A theorem regarding a special alternat- 
ing function.) (Problem 4830.) Math, from 
Educ. Times, XXVIIL. pp. 26-27. 

iv 75. DoNNiNi. P. Sopra un sistema particolare d'equa^ioni lineari.. 

Livorno. 

.'875. Geer, p. van. Over het gebruik van determinanten bij de- 
methode der kleinste kwadraten. Niemv Archief 

V. Wish. I., pp. 179-188. 

1876. Darboux, G. Sur la theorie de IVlimination entre deux. 

equations a une varial)le. Bull, des Set. Math.. 

X.. pp. 56-64. 

1876. HozA, F. Beitrag zur Theorie der L'nterdeterminanten.. 
Archiv d. Math. u. Phys. LIX., pp. 387-400. 

1876. HozA. F. L'eber das Multiplicationstheorem zweier Deter- 
minanten «ten Grades. Archiv d. IMath. 11. Phys.. 
LIX., pp. 403-406. 

1876. Helmling, p. Anwendung der Determinanten zur Darstel- 
lung transzendenter Funktionen. Dornat 

i876(?) Janni, V. Nota sullo sviluppo di un delerminanle. 
[N.B. — A separate work, but without indication of 
date or place of pul:)lication.] 



^64 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

JS77. RorcHK, E. Sur relimination. Nouv. Annales de Math. 
(2) XVI., pp. 105-113. 

1S77. \'k\ti:jols, . Sur un probleme compreiiunt la theorie de 

relimination. Coniptes Rendus (Paris) 

LXXXIV., pp. 546-549. 
1877. D'OviDio, E. Ricerche sui sistemi indeterminati di equazioni 

linear!. Atii Accad (Torino.) XII., 

PP- 334-349- 
i877(?) ScHOLTZ, A. (A theorem on determinants.) Mtiegytemi 

Japflh, (Budapest.) II., pp. 121-123. 

1877. Igel, B. Einige Satze und Beweise zur Theorie der Resul- 

tante. Siizungsb Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien). 

LXXXL, 2, pp. 145-168. 

1877. Mansion, P. On a pair of algebraical equations. Mess- 

enger of Math. (2) VII., pp. 57-58. 

i877(?) KoNiG. G. (New proof of the multiplication-theorem 
of determinants.) Miiegytemi lapok. (Buda- 

pest). II., pp. 271-274. 

1877. Serdobinsky, V. E. (Note relating to the theory of deter- 
minants. A chessboard problem.) ]\IaL Shornik 

(Moscow). X.(i), pp. 74-86. 

1877. Hill, G. W. On the part of the motion of the lunar perigee 

which is a function of the mean motions of the sun 
and moon. Cambridge. U.S.A. 

(Also with some additions in Ada Math. VI fl. pp. 
1-36, year 1886.) 

1878. Glaisher. J. W. L. (Expression for the quotient of an axi 

symmetric determinant by the complementarv minor 
of a diagonal element.) (Problem 5530.) Educ. Times, 
XXXI., p. 21 ; Math, from Educ. Times, (2) II., pp. 
95-96- 
1878. BoRCHARDT, C. W. Zur Theorie der Elimination und Ket- 

tenbruch-Entwickelung. Abhandl Akad d. 

Wiss. (Berlin), pp. 1-17. 

1878. Braasch. J. H. Detemiinanten hoheren Ranges. 

(Sch. Progr.) Hamburg. 

1878. ScHERiNG, E. Theorie analytique des determinants. 

Coniptes Reiidus (Paris.) LXXXVI.. pp. 1387- 

1389. 

3878. Scholtz, a. Sechs Punkte eines Kegelschnittes. Archiv 

d. IMath. H. Phys. LXIL, pp. 317-324. 

1878. Tanner, H. W. L. (3n certain functions allied to Pfaffians. 
Quart, fouru. of IMath. XVI.. pp. 34-45. 

1878. Mansion. P. Sur lelimination. Comptes Rendus .... 

(Paris.) LXXXVII., pp. 975-978. 



List of Writings Oix Determinants. 165 

1878. Mansion, P. Sur I'elimination. Bull. ... Acad. roy.. 
de Belgique. XLVI.. pp. 899-903. 

1878. Battelli. S. I prinii element! della teoria dei determinanti. 

(Sch. Piogr.) Rovereto. 

1879. Lemonnier. H. Memoire sur relimination. Paris.- 

1879. Simonnet. . Sur les conditions de I'existence d'un nombre 
determine de racines communes a deux equations don- 

nees. Comp/cs Reud/ts (Paris.) LXXXVIII.,. 

pp. 223-224. 

1879. Stodockiewicz. J. (Proof of Cayley"s formula for calculat- 
ing the number of different terms of an axisymmetric 
determinant.) (Yearbook of Sci. Papers. Warsaw). 

1879. MuiR. Th. Preliminary note on alternants. Proceedings- 
Row Soc. Ed'uiburgh. X.. pp. 102-3. 

1879. Falk. ]M. Sur la methode d'elimination de Bezout et 

Cauchy. No%'a Ada Reg. Soc. C psal. (3) 3^1 pp. 

Also in Upsala Univ. Arsskrifi. 
1879. Sylvester. J. J. Sur une propriete arithmetique d'une serie- 

de nombres entiers. Comptcs Rend us (Paris.)- 

LXXXVIII., pp. 1297-1298. 
1879. Hioux. V. Note sur la methode d'elimination Bezout- 

Cauchy. Nouv. Annates de ISlath. (2) XVIII.. pp. 

289-295. 
1879. Hunyady, E. Beitrag zur Theorie der Fliichen zweiten 

Grades. Crelle's Journ. LXXXIX., pp. 47-69. 

1879. Borsch. A. Ueber ein den Gleichungen der orthogonalen 

Substitution verwandtes Gleichungssystem. Zetfschrift. 
f. Math. u. PJiys. XXIV., pp. 391-399. 

1880. Hesse. O. Die Determinanten elementar behandelt. (Trans- 

lation into Polish bv Zdziarski.) Warsaw. 

1880. Zajaczkowski, W. O pewnej wlasnosci pfafiana. Roz- 
praivy ... Akad. ... (Cracovia.) VML, pp. 67-74. 

1880. Paige, C. le. Sur IVliminatioo. Comptcs Rendiis 

(Paris.) XC, pp. 1210-1212. 

1880. Eiehler, Ch. Sur les equations lineaires. Nouv. Annales 
de Math. XIX., pp. 31 1-33 1, 356-362. 

1880. Zajaczkowski, W. (Theory of determinants with p suf- 
fixes.) Rozpraivy ... Akad. ... (Cracovia). VIII. 
pp. 2-4; Pamietnik ... Akad. ... (Cracovia). VI.. pp 
1-31- 

1880. Caspary, F. Ueber die Lmformung gewisser Determinanten. 
welche in der Lehre von den Kegelschnitten vorkom- 
men. Crclles Joitrn. XCIL. pp. 123-144. 

1880. Frascara. G. a. Sui determinanti. Geneva. 



.i66 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1880. ScHMrrz, Alfons. Bemerkungen iiber die Anwendbarkeit 
der Franzosischen ISIethode zur Auflosung linearer 
Gleichungen. Zeitschrifi f. math. u. natiiriv. Unter- 
riclii XL, pp. 4:;8-43i. 

1880. RouCHE, E. Note sur les equations lineaires. Joiini. de 

lEcole Polyi. Cah. 48, pp. 221-228. 

-t88i. SCHAPIRA, H. Grundlage zu einer Theorie allgemeiner Co- 
funktionen und ihren Anwendungen. 228 pp. Odes.sa. 
[This is stated to be the Erste Lieferung of the Krste 
Abtheiliing (Funktionen einer Variabehi) of the Erster 
TJicil (Lineare homogene Cofunktionen). and to be 
a reprint from the 3rd vol. of the Memoirs of the 
Math. Sect, of the New Russian Soc. of Scientists. The 
language of the text is Russian.] 

0:88 1. Farkas, [J.]. (A determiiiaiital equation.) Matliesis. I., 

pp. 12-13, yill., pp. I95--0-- 

1881. Pasch, M. Notiz iiber ternare Formen mit verschwindender 

Functionaldeterminante. Math. AnnaJcn. XVIII., 

PP- 93-94- 
1881. Mollame, V. Sulla somma della potenze simili di numeri 

qualunque in progressione aritmetica, Atti 

Accud. Gioenia (Catania). XV., pp. 261-272. 

1 88 1. Pellet, A. E. Sur les detemiinants. Assoc, francaise 

(Congres d'Alger). 

1 88 1. Laquiere, . Demonstration rationnelle des premiers prin- 

cipes des determinants. Assoc, francaise .... (Congres 

d'Alger.) 
J 88 1. Kronecker, L. Zur Theorie der Elimination einer Varia- 

beln aus zwei algebraischen Gleichungen. Moiiatsb... 

Akad. d. Wiss. (Berlin.), pp. 535-600. 

1 88 1. MuiR, Th. a list of writings on determinants. Quart. 
Journ. of Math. XVIII. , pp. 1 10-149. 

1881, Levy, L. Sur la possibilite de I'equilibre electrique. Comptes 

Rendus ... (Pari.s.) XCIIL, pp. 706-708. 

5881. Warner, J. D. Symmetrical method of elimination in 
simple equations by use of some of the principles of 

determinants. American Assoc (Cincinnati), pp. 

50-56. 

1882. Mansion, P. Introduction a la theorie des determinants. 

2e edition. 32 pp. Gand. 

.1882. MuiR, Th. a proposed general method for the solution of 

equations. Proceedings Philos. Soc. Glasgow, XIII. , 

p. 616; Ediic. Times, XLVL, p. 442 (Problem 12 100). 
3882. VoiGT, W. Allgemeine Formeln fiir die Bestimmung der 

Elasticitatsconstanten Wiedemann's Annalen d. 

Phys. XVL, pp. [273-321, 398-416]. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 167 

1162. Hammond, J. (Properties of the double circulant of the 
fourth order.) Ednc. Times, p. 127: Ma/k. from 

Ediic. Times, XXXVII., p. 75. 

1882. Jenrich, p. Beitrage zur Methodik des raathematischen 
Unterrichts mit Beriicksichtigung der Determinanten- 
frage. (Sch. Progr.) Magdeburg. 

1882. Kretkowski, W. (Proof of a theorem regarding two general 

determinants). [In Pohsh.] Mcni. Acad. Sci 

(Cracovia). IX., pp. 45-47. 

1882 MuiR, Th. (A determinant which is the third power of an- 
other of the third order). (Problem 7217.) Ediic. 
Times, XXXV., p. 313; Math, from Educ. Times, 
XXXIX., pp. 106-107. 

1882. Hagen, J. On division of series. American Journ. of 

Math, v., pp. 236-237. 

1882. BiEHLER, Ch. Sur Telimination. Xouv. Aniialcs de 

Math. (3) I., pp. 529-542. 

1883. LoNGCHAMPS, G. DE. Algebre. Les determinants, pp. 

64-100: Theoreme de Binet et Cauchy, pp. 637-664. 

xii. -r67o pp. Paris. 

1883. Bruno, Faa de. Sur le developpement des fonctions 
rationelles. American Journ. of Math. V., 

pp. 238-240. 

1883. Lodge. A. Note on the coefficients in a transformed equa- 
tion. Messenger of Math. XII., pp. 1 78-179. 

1883. Egidi, a. Trattaio elementare dei determinants 

Roma. 
1883. DosTOR, G. Elements de la theorie des determinants. 2<? 

^d^tion. xxxiv.-f36i pp. Paris. 

1883. Cesaro, E. (The circulant whose elements are in equi- 

different progression). Mathesis, III., pp. 118-119; 

VI., pp. 60-62. 
i883.(?) Giudice, Fr. Equazioni simultanee di primo gradu. 
1883. Krober, . Die Determinanten fiir den Unterricht bear- 

1 citet. 30 pp. Bischweiler. 

1883. Andreief, C. Note sur une relation entre les integrales 

definie.<^ des products des fonctions. Mint. . . . set. 

phys. et not. (liordeaux). (3) IL, pp. i-i.j. 

1883. Pincherle, S. Una formola sui determinanti. Rendic 

Accad. ... (Bologna) pp. 105-106. 

1884. Mansion, P. Theorie de I'elimination entre deux equations 

algebriques au moyen de determinants. 

86 pp. Paris. 
1884. Muir. Th. Recent text-books of determinants. Nature, 
XXIX.. pp. 378-379. 



i68 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

J 884. Allersma. [T. J.]- (Resolution of a special trigonometrical 
alternant into factors.) Mathesis, IV., p. 95 ; VI.,. 
pp. 88-89. 

1884. Jezek, O. Leber das formale Bildungsgesetz der Coeffi- 
cienten des Quotienten zweier Potenzreihen. 
Siiztiiigsh. ... des. d. >> tss. (Prag). pp. 127-144. 

1884, Weyr, Ed. (On the principal theorem of the theory of 

matrices.) [In Czech.] Sitziingsb. ... Ge.'i. d. Whs.. 

(Prag.) pp. T48-152. 
1884. Voss, A. Uel)er Polygone, welche einem Gebilde zweiten 

Grades umschriehen sind. I\IatJi. Auuahii. XX'N'... 

PP- [39-70] 49-57. 
1884. Amigues. E. Elimination par la niethode de Bezout per- 

fectionnee par Cauchy. Journ. de IMath. Spec. {2} 

VIIT.. pp. 101-104. 
1884. Gegenbaur, L. Ueber Determinanten hoheren Ranges.. 

DeukscJir AJmd. d. Wiss. (Wien.) XLIX.. 2. pp.. 

225-230. 
1884. Stieltjes. T. J. L'n theoreme d'algebre. Acta Math. 

VI.. pp. 319-320. 

1884. Sylvester. J. J. (Theorem regarding two matrices with a 
common latent root.) (Problem 7836.) Educ. Times,. 
XXXVII., p. 297 ; Math, from Educ. Times. XLIL. 
p. 10 1. 

1884. Starkoff. (A communication on the theory of determin- 
ants.) [In Russian.] A)iii. Univ. (Kasan.) III.,. 
PP- 75-79- 

1884. Sylvester. J. J. (A special quaternary quadric in deter- 
minant form.) (Problem 7889.) Educ. Times.. 
XXXVII.. p. 356: iMath from Educ. Times, 
XLVIIL. p. 37. ^ ' 

1884. Jadanza. N. Teorica dei cannochiali. esposta secondr^ il 
metodo di Gauss. Torino 

1884. Zbrozek, D. (Application of determinants to the theorv of 

least squares.) [In Polish.] Pamietnik akad. 

(Cracovia.) IX., pp. 199-218. 

1884. Deruyts, J. Sur lanalyse combinatoire des determin.nHs 

Man Soc Sci. (Liege.) (2) XL. n pp. 

1885. Cauchy, A. L. Algebraische Analysis. Deutsch. herausg_ 

von C. Itzigsohn. ' ^^.+3^8 pp. Berlin, 

1885. Tartinville. a. Premiere lecon sur les determinants. 

I'aris. 
1885. Voss, A. Ueber Poncelet-Zeuthen'sche Polygone. welche 

einem Gebilde zweiten Grades einschrieben sind. 

Math. Annalen. XXVL. pp. [231-246] 2:^2-27^^. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 169 

1885. Stieltjes, T. J. Sur une generalisation de la serie de 

Lagrange. Annales set. de Vec. norm. sup. (3) IL, 

pp. 93-98. 
1885. ScHENDEL. L. Die r-stufige Determinante «-ten Grades. 

Zeitschrift f. Math. u. Phys. XXXIL, pp. 185-187. 
1885. Simmons, T. C. An application of determinants to the 

solution of certain types of simultaneous equations. 

Math, from Educ. Times. XLIV.. pp. 136-143; EI 

Progreso Mat. V.. pp. 1-4, 40-44. 

1885. ScHENDEL, L. Der Kronecker'sche Subdeterminantensatz- 
Zeitschrift f. Math. u. Phys. XXXIL, pp. 1 19-120. 

1885. MuiR, Th. Recent text-books of determinants. Nature, 
XXXIL, pp. 411-412. 

1885. Russell, W. H. L. On the reduction of algebraical deter- 
minants. British Assoc LV.. pp. 910-911. 

1885. Meray, Ch. Decomposition des polynomes entiers a 
plusieurs variables en Elements lin^aires. Annales set. 
de Vec. norm. sup. (3) II., pp. 291-302. 

1885. Cesaro, E. (Evaluation of a determinant connected with 
the theon- of integers.) Noitv. Annales de Math. 
(3) IV., p. 451. 

1885. Hamburger, M. Anwendung einer gewissen Determin- 

antenrelation auf die Integration partieller Differen- 
tialgleichungen. Crellts Joitrn. C pp. [390-404] 
390-394- 

1886. LiPSCHiTz, R. Untersuehungen iiber die Summen von Quad- 

raten. 148 pp. Bonn, 

[v. also Bull, des sci. math. (2) X., pp. 163-183.] 
1886. Capelli, a. e Garbieri, G. Corso di analisi algebrica. 
(v. I. Cap. IV., V.) vii. + 5ii pp. Padova. 

1886. West, E. Expose des methodes generales en mathematiques. 
Resolution et integration des equations. Applications^ 
diverses. D'apres Hoene Wronski. 

X. -f3i4 pp. Paris. 

1886. Studnicka, F. J. (On a new independent representation 

of Bernoulli's numbers.) [In Czech.] Casopis pro 
pestovdni math, a fys. XV., pp. 97-102. 

1886. Wolstfnholme, J. (A special «-line determinant resolvable 
fyito factors.) (Problem 8394.) Educ. Times, 
XXXIX., p. 33, p. 164; Math, from Educ. Times, 
XLV., pp. 85-86. 

1886. MuiR, Th. (Transformation of a special persymmetric 
determinant of the fourth order. (Problem 8408.) 
Educ. Times, XXXIX., p. 34. 



17© Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1886. Benoit, . Note sur la decomposition d'une forme quad- 
ratique a ni variables en une somme de m-n carres. 
Nouv. Annates de Math. (3) V., pp. 30-36. 

1886. Cesaro, E. Le determinant de Smith et Mansion. Nouv. 
Annales de Math. (3) V., pp. 44-47- 

1886. Studnicka, F. J. Eine neue Anwendung der Kettenbruch- 

determinanten. Sitziingsb Ges. d. Wiss. (Prag.) 

pp. 3-6. 

1886. LoRiA, G. Intorno ad alcune relazioni fra distanze. 
Periodica di Mat. I., pp. 33-43. 

1886. Ward, P. C. (Equivalence of two special determinants of 
the third order.) (Problem 8459.) Educ. Times, 
XXXIX., p. 71. 

1896. PoiNCAKE, H. Sur les determinants d'ordre infini. Bulletin 
Soc. Math, de France, XIV., pp. 77-90. 

1886. MuiR, Th. The theory of determinants in the historical 
order of its development. Part I. Determinants in 
general, 1693-1779. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edin- 

burgh, XIII., pp. 547-590- 

1886. JuRGENS, E. Zur Auflosung linearer Gleichungssysteme und 
numerischen Berechnung von Determinanten. 

(Festschr.) Aachen. 

1886. Johnson, W. W. On a geometrical representation of alter- 
nants of the third order and of their quotients when 
divided by A(o i 2). Quart. Journ. of Math. 
XXL, pp. 217-224. 

1886. Anglin, a. H. Sur le coefficient du terme general dans 
certains developpements. Journ. de Liouvillc. (4) 
II., pp. 139-150. 

1886. Mansion, P. Elemente der Theorie der Determinanten, mit 
vielen Uebungsaufgaben. Zweite vermehrte Auflage. 

vi. -1-56 pp. Leipzig. 

1886. Tartinville, a. Seconde le9on sur les determinants. 

Paris. 

1886. Bagnera, G. Sopra i determinant! che si possouo formare 
cogii stessi n^ element!. Giornale di Mat. XXV., 

pp. 228-231. 

1886. Voss, A. Ueber einen Fundamentalsatz aus der Theorie 

der algebraischen Functionen. Math. Annalen, 

XXVIL, pp. 527-536. 
i886. Loria, G. Nota sulla moltiplicazione di due determinanti. 

Jorn. de sci. math, c astron. (Coimbra.) VIL. pp. 

101-105. 

1886. Hanus, p. H. An elementary treatise on the theory of 
determinants. A Text-book for Colleges. 

viii. -F2i8 pp. Boston, U.S.A. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 171 

1886. Capelli, a. Sopra una teorema che si coUega strettamente 
colla formola che serve ad esprimere le forme alge- 
briche di n serie di variabili «-arie per mezzo di potenze 
del determinanle delle variabili e di forme che di- 
pendono da sole n-\ serie di variabili. Rendic. del 
Circolo Mat. (Paleniio.) L, pp. 133-135- 

1886. MuiR, Th. a supplementary list of writings on determinants. 
Quart. Journ. of Math. XXI., pp. 299-320. 

1886. Tucker, R. (An . axisymmetric three-line determinant). 
(Problem 8609). Ediic. Times, XXXIX., p. 227 ; 
Math, from Ednc. Times, XLVL, pp. 69-70. 

1886. Torelli, G. Alcune relazioni fra le forme invariantive di 
un sistema di binarie. Rendic. ... Accad. ... 

(Napoli). XXV., pp. 125-134. 

1886. Rados, G. (On a theorem of determinants). [In Hungarian]. 
Math, i's termeszett ertesito, (Budapest.) IV., pp. 268- 
271. 

1886. Rados, G. Zur Theorie der Determinanten. Math. 

tt. natiirw. Berichte aiis Ungarn, VIII., pp. 60-64. 

1886. Anglin, a. H. On certain theorems mainly connected with 
alternants. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XIII., 
pp. 823-839. 

1886. Heal, W. E. Expression of the coefficients of Sturm's func- 
tions as determinants. Annals of Math. II., 
pp. 85-89. 

1886. GiBBS, J. W. Multiple algebra. American Assoc 

XXXV., 32 pp. 

1886. Studnicka, F. J. (On the simplest deduction of the co- 
efficients of a series which represents the reciprocal of 
a polynomial expression of the «th degree arranged 
according to ascending powers of x.) [In Czech.] 
Casopis pro pestovdni math, a fys. XV., pp. 170-178. 

1886. Laurent, ri. Memoire sur les equivalences algebriques et 
I'elimination. Nouv. Annates de Math. (3) V., pp. 

432-447. 456-460. 

1886. Loria, G. Su una proprieta del determinante di una 
so'Stituzione ortogonale. Jorn. de sci. math, e astron. 
(Coimbra.) VII., pp. 129-132. 

1886. MuiR, Th. (An upper limit for the value of a determinant.) 
(Problem 14792.) Edtic. Times, LIV., p 83; Math, 
from Educ. Times, (2) I., pp. 52-53. 

1886. Edwardes, D. (A relation connecting three determinants of 
the second order.) (Problem 8767.) Educ. Times, 
XXXIX., p. 372; Math, from Educ. Times, LI., p. 76. 

1886. Rogers, L. J. (A double alternant of the third order whose 
elements are trigonometrical.) (Problem 8765). Educ. 
Times, XXXIX., p. 372 ; Math, from Educ. Times, 
XLVIL, pp. 88-89; Mathesis. IX., p. 128. 

N 2 



if2 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1886. Sylvester, J. J. (Persymmetric determinants who.se ele- 
ments are sums of like powers of n quantities.) (Problem 
8746.) Educ. Times, XXXIX., p. 371. 

1886. Veltmann, W. Auflosung linearer Gleichungen. Zeiischrift 
f. Math. u. Phys. XXXI., pp. 257-27.'. 

1886. Nekrassof. p. (The importance and the historical develop- 
ment of the theory of determinants.) [In Russian.] 
Phys.-math. sci. ... (Moscow.) II., pp. 169-178. 

1886. Schrader. W. Beitrage zur Theorie der Determinanten. 

vi. -ri56 pp. Halle a. S. 
1886. Fouret, G. Sur un mode de transformation des determin- 
ants. BuUet'in Soc. Matli. de France. XIV.. pp. 146- 
151- 
1886. ToRELLi, G. (Expression of a special Pfaffian as an altern- 
ant.) Gioniale di Mai. XXIV., p. 377. 

1886. Presle, a. de. Multiplication de deux determinants de 
meme degre. Bulletin Soc. Math, de France, XIV., 
pp. 157-158. 

1 886. Capelli, a. Ueber die Zuriickfuhrung der Cayley'sciien 
Operation li auf geAvohnliche Polaroperationen. Math. 
Annalen, XXIX., pp. 331-338. 

1886. Netto, E. Ueber orthogonalen Substitutionen. Ada Math. 
IX., pp. 295-300. 

1886. DiCKSTEiN, S. (Proof of two formulae of Wronskis.) [In 

Polish.] Denkschr Akad. d. Wiss. (Cracovia.) 

XII. 

1886. Dickstein, S. (On certain properties of the Aleph func- 
tions.) [In PoHsh.] Denkschr Akad. d. Wiss. 

(Cracovia.) XII. 

1886. Dickstein. S. (On Crocchi's theorem.) [In Polish."! 

Denkschr. . . Akad. d. Wiss. (Cracovia.) XII. 

1887. DoLP, H. Die Determinanten, Dritte Auflage. 

-' Darmstadt. 

1887. Mackenzie, J. L. A theorem in algebra. Proceedings 
Edinburgh Math. Soc. V., pp. 59-61. 

1887. PoujADE, . Une propriete des determinants. Journ. de 

Math. Spec. XL, pp. 10-11. 

1887. BiEHLER, Ch. Sur I'elimination par la methode d'EuIer. 
Nouv. Annates de Math. (3) VI., pp. 67-75. 

1887. Desplanques, . Theoreme d'algebre. Journ. de Math. 
Spec. XL. pp. 12-13. 

J 887. BiEHLER. Ch. Sur la forme adjointe. Nouv. Aiinales 

de Math. (3) VI.. pp. 79-82. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 173 

1887. Drude, p. Ein Satz aus der Determinantentheorie. Nach- 

richten ... Ges. d. Wiss. ... (Gottingen), pp. 118-122. 
1887. Sharp, W. J. C. (An axisymmetric determinant whose 

elements are quadrics and bipartites). (Problem 8940, 

8970.) Math, from Educ. Times. XLIX., pp. 133- 

135' ^36-138- 
1887. ScHENDEL, L. Verschiedene Darstellungen dear Resultante 

zweier binaren Formen. Zeitschrift f. Math. u. Phys. 

XXXIIL, pp. 1-13, 65-77. 
1887. Peck, W. G. Elementar}- treatise on determinants. 

iv -f 47 pp. New- York. 
1887. Sharp, W. J. C. (Determinant expression for b{x-\-a)n). 

(Problem 8946.) Math, from Educ. Times, XLVII., 

p. 122. 
1887. Anglin, a. H. Theoremes sur les determinants. Bulletin 

Sac. IMath. de France, XV.. pp. 120-129. 
1887. Gordon, A. (A determinant connected with symmetric 

functions of the roots of an algebraic equation.) 

(Problem 9016.) Educ. Times, XL., p. 135; ^Lath. 

from Educ. Times, LIX.. pp. 78-79. 

1887. Russell, A. (A theorem connected with alternants.) 
(Problem 90x7.) Educ. Times, XL., p. 135; Math, 
from Educ. Times, XLVIL, p. 124. 

1887": Muir, Th. On the quotient of a simple alternant by the 
difference-product of the variables. Proceedings Roy. 
Soc. Edinburgh, XIV., pp. 433-445. 

1887. MuiR, Th. The theory of determinants in the historical order 
of its development. Part L Determinants in general. 
Hindenburg (1784) to Reiss (1829). Proceedings Roy. 
Soc. Edinburgh. XIV.. pp. 452-518. 

1887. MuiR, Th. On a class of alternating functions. J^ans. Roy. 
Soc. Edinburgh, XXXIIL, pp. 309-312. 

1887. Anglin, A. H. On the summation of a certain series of 
alternants. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XI'N^., 
pp. i94-::o3. 

1887. FouRET, G. Remarque sur certains determinants numeriques. 
Bulletin Soc. Math, de France, XV., pp. 146-147. 

1887. Marcolongo. R. Generalizzazione di un teorema sui 
determinants Giornalc di Mat. XXV., pp. 298- 

302. 

1887. MuiR, Th. Recent works on the theory- of determinants. 
Nature. XXXVI.. pp. 51-52. 

1887. Sporer, B. Ein Satz iiber Determinanten. illath.-naturw. 
Mitt. (Stuttgart.) II., pp. 103-106. 

^887. Sporer, B. Einiges iiber gewisse Determinanten. Ma/h^os /if\ ^ 
naturiv. Mitt. (Stuttgart.) IL, pp. 106-107. ^"^ •'•* "^ 



^\^'fi^; 




174 Report S.A.A. Advancement of vScience. 

1887. SiCKENBERGER, A. Die Determinanten in genetischen Be- 

handlung zur Einfuhrung fiir Anfiinger. Zweiter Ab- 

diTJck. viii + 80 pp. Miinchen. 

1887. Hattendorf, K. Einleitung in die Lehre von den Determin- 

• anten. Zweite Ausgabe. ^q pp Hannover. 

1887. Gegenbaur. L. Note iiber Determinanten. Sitzungsb 

Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien.) XCVI., 2A., pp. 5-7. 

1887. Anglin, a. H. Alternants which are constant multiples of 
the difference-product of the variables. Proceedings 
Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XV., pp. 468-476. 

1887. Valyi, J. Zur Lehre der quadratischen Formen. Arcliiv 
d. Math. u. Phys. (2)VL, pp. 445-448. 

1887. Baltzer, R. Ueber einen Satz aus der Determinanten- 
theorie. Nachrichtcn ... Gcs. d. Wiss. .. (Gottingen.) 

PP- 389-391- 
1887. Voss, A. Ueber bilineare Formen. IS! achrichten ... Ges. 

d. Wiss. ... (Gottingen.) pp. 424-433. 

1887. Gegenbaur, L. Ueber eine specielle Determinante. 

Sitzsnngsb Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien.) XCVI.. 2A., 

pp. 489-490. 
1887. Laurent, H. Sur le calcul d'une fonction symetrique. 

Nfluv. Annalcs de Math. (3) VL, pp. 416-419. 

1887. Forsyth, A. R. The differential equations satisfied by con- 
comitants of quantics. Proceedings London 
Math. Soc. XIX., pp. 24-45; P- 59'- 

1887. Tarleton, a. On a new method of ol)taining the conditions 
fulfilled when the harmonic determinant equation has 
equal roots. Proceedings Roy. Irish Acad. (3) 

I., pp. 10-15. 

1887. Weihrauch, K. Ueber gewisse Determinanten. Zcitschriff 
f. Math. u. Phys. XXXIII., pp. 126-128. 

1887. Mertens, F. Ueber windschiefe Determinanten. Sitzungsb. 
Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien.) XCV^I., 2A.. pp. 1245- 

1255- 
1887. Stieltjes, T. J. Sur une generalisation de la formule des 
accroissements finis. Bulletin Soc. Math, dc France. 
XVI., pp. 100-113. Nouv. Annalcs de Math. (3) VII.. 
pp. 26-31. 

1887. MuiR, Th. An incorrect footnote and its consequences. 

Nature, XXXVII., pp. 246-247, 438-9 (v. also pp. 343- 
344. 445)- 

1888. Itzigsohn, C. Abhandlungen aus der reinen Mathematik, 

von N. Vandermonde. In Deutscher Sprache. 

104 pp. Berlin. 

[N.B. The fourth memoir is that of 1771 "Sur 
I'^limination "]. 



List of Writings on Determinants. i75 

1888. MuiR, Th. On vanishing aggregates of determinants. Fro- 

cecdmgs Roy. Soc. Edinburgh. XV.. pp. 96-105. 
1888. Raimondi, . Un teorema sui determinanti di differenze. 

Giornalc di Mat. XXVI., pp. 185-187. 
1888. Sciieibner. W. Mathematische Bemerkungen. Berichie .... 

Ges. d. M'iss. (Leipzig.) XXIV., pp. 1-13. 
1888. Studnicka. F. J. Neue Transformation einer homogenen 

quadratischen Fonn von n Variabeln in die Summe 

von n Quadraten. SUzungsb Ges. d. Wiss. 

(Prag.) pp. 256-265. 
1888. Clasen. B. J. Sur une nouvelle methode de resolution des 

equations lineaires et sur I'application de cette methode 

au calcul des determinants. Aiinalcs soc. sci. 

(Bruxelles). XII., (i) pp. 50-59: (2) pp. 251-281; 

MatJicsis. IX.. Suppl. II., 40 pp. 
1888. Laurent, H. Sur la theorie de 1 elimination. Nouv. 

Annales de Math. (3) VII., pp. 60-65. 

1888. Pomev, E. Sur le plus grand commun diviseur de deux 
polynomes entiers. Notiv. Annales de Math. (3) 

VII.. pp. 66-90. 407-427. 

1888. Gegenbaur. L. Ueber Determinanten. Sitzungsb ... Akad. 
d. Wiss. (Wien.) XCVIL. Ahth. IIA., pp. 154-163. 

1888. Brunel. G. Sur les raciiaes des matrices zeroidales. 
Cotnpies Rcndns ... (Paris.) CVL. pp. 467-470. 

1888. Klevber, J. A. (Theory of the adjustment of series of ob- 

ser\-ations.) Phxs-maih. soc. ... (Kasan.) VI.. pp. 

148-239. 
1888. Gegenbaur, L. Ueber die Functionen Cn(x). Sitzungsb... 

Akad. d. Wiss (Wien.) XCVIL. Abth. IIA.. pp. 259 

270. 

1888. Hermes, J. Determinanten bei wiederholter Halbirung des 
ganzen Winkels. Archiv d. Math. u. Phys. 

(2) VI.. pp. 276-293. 

1888, PowEL, A. Anwendung der Determinanten in der Schule. 

(Sch. Progr.) Gumbinnen. 

1888. MuiR, Th. On a class of alternants expressible in terms of 
simple alternants. Proceedings Roy. Soc. 

Edinburgh, XV., pp. 298-308. 

1888. Haebler. T. Betrachtungen iiber Determinanten. 

(Sch. Progr.) Grimma. 
1888. Russell, A. (A special determinant of the fifth order.) 

(Problem 9556.) Educ. Times, XLL, p. 213; 

Math, front Educ. Times, L.. pp. 109- no. 

1888. DiCKSTEiN, S. WTasnosci e niektore zastowania wron 
skianow. Pracc tnath.-fiz. I., pp. 5-25. 



176 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1888. Amoketti F. y Morales, C. M. Teoria elemental de las 
determinantes, y sus principales aplicaciones al algebra 
y la geometria. xviii. + 180 pp. Buenos Ayre.s. 

1888. Anglin, a. H. On certain theorems mainly connected with 
alternants. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 

XV., pp. 381-396. 

1888. SzUTS, N. V. Zur Theorie der Determinanten. Math. 
Annalen, XXXIII., pp. 477-492. 

1888. MuiR, Til The theory of determinants in the historical 
order of its development. Part I. Determinants in 
general, 18 12-1827. Proceedings Roy. Soc, 

Edinburgh, XV., pp. 481-544. 

1888. LoRiA, G. Zur Eliminationstheorie. ZcUschrift f. Math, 

u. Phys. XXXIII.. pp. 357-358. 

1888. MoucHEL, J. Correspondence. Nouv. Anmi/es dc Math. 
(3) VII., p. 400. 

1888. Palmstrom. a. (Application of determinants to the multi- 
plication of imaginar)- quantities.) Archiv f. Math, 
og Naturv. XIII., pp. 128-132. 

1888. Studnicka, F. J. (New deduction of the third fundamental 

theorem of determinants.) [In Czech.] Casopis pro 

pestovdni math, a fys. XVII., pp. 193-199. 
1888. Weill, . Sur une forme du determinant de Vandermonde. 
Nouv. Annates de Math. (3) VII., pp. 4^7-429. 

1888. Marchand, . Discussion de I'dquation en ji. Nouv. 
Annalcs dc Math. (3) VII., pp. 431-435. 

1888. LoRiA, G. Nota su una classe di determinanti. Giornale 
^<i Mat. XXVI., pp. 329-333. 

1888. Rahnsen, a. E. Sur quelquts proprietes des determinants 
a une question de geometrie k n dimensions. Annates 
de Vec. polyt. (Delft). IV., pp. 104-139. 

1888. Stieltjes, T. J. Sur I'equation d'Euler. Butt, des set. 

math. (2) XII., pp. 222-227 ; Coviptes Rcndus 

(Paris.) CVII., pp. 617-618. 

1888. Sharp, W. J. C. (Three zero-axial axisymmetric determin- 
ants.) (Problem 9779.) Math, from Educ. Times, 
XLIX., pp. 141-142 ; (2> IV., pp. 83-86. 

1888. MuiR, Th. Nomenclature of determinants. Nature, 

XXXVIII., p. 589. 
1888. Newman. F. W. Mathematical Tracts. Part. I. Tract IV. 

On superlinears, pp. 35-53. go pp. Cambridge. 

1888. MuiR, Th.. Recent text-books of determinants. Phitos. 

Magazine, (5) XXVI., pp. 461-463. 
1888. Gegenbaur, L. Ueber windschiefe Determinanten hbheren 

Ranges. DentiscJir. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien) ; 

math.-Jtatiirw. CI. LV., pp. 39-48 



List of Writings on Determinants. i77 

2888. Emmerich, . (A determinant whose non-axial elements 
are all equal.) Educ. Times, XLL, p. 489 ; ^('if'- 

from Educ. Times, LI., p. 96. 

1888. Flint, A. S. A brief control for general solutions of normal 

equations. Annals of Math. IV., pp. 182-185. 

1889. Hermite. Ch. (A relation connecting four determinants of 

the third order.) (Problem 9930.) Educ. Times, 

XLIL, p. 37 ; Math, from Educ. Times, LI., pp. 

49-50- 
J 889. Stroh, E. Ueber das vollstandige Combinantensystem 
zweier binarer Formen. Math. Annalen, XXXIV., 

PP- 321-331- 
1889. Fouret, G. Sur deux determinants numeriques. Nouv. 
Annales de Math. (3) VIII.. pp. 82-85. 

1889. Brill, A. Ueber die reducierte Resultante. Abhandl 

richten Ges. d. Wiss (Gdttingeii). pp. 89-92. 

J 899. Brill, A. Ueber die reducierte Resultante. Abhandl 

Akad. d. Wiss. (Miinchen.) XVII., pp. 91-101. 

J 889. Laisant, C.-A. Sur un determinant remarquable. Bulletin 
Sac. Math, de France, XVII., pp. 104-107. 

1889. Stahl, W. Ueber eine neue Darstellung der Resultante 
zweier Formen gleicher Ordnung. Math. Annalen, 

XXXV., pp. 395-400. 

1889. Lucas, E. Sur le plus grand commun diviseur algebrique. 
J cum. de Math. Spec. (3) III., pp. 25-27, 49-50. 

4889. Weyr, Ed. (On the theory of bilinear forms.) [In Czech.] 

Jubildumsfond Ges. d. Wiss. (Prag) No. 2. 

no -f I pp. ; Monatshefte f. Math. u. Phys. I., pp. 
163-236. 

1889. Sylvester, J. J. A new proof that a general quadric may 
be reduced to its canonical form (that is, a linear 
function of squares) by means of a real orthogonal 
substitution. Messenger of Math. (2) XIX., pp. 

1-5- 
1889. MuiR, Th. Note on the relation between the mutual dis- 
tances of five points in space. Proceedings Roy. 
Soc, Edinburgh, XVI., pp. 86-88. 

1889. MuiR, Th. The theor) of determinants in the historical 

order of its development. Part I. Determinants in 

general, 182 9-1 835. Proceedings Roy. Soc, Edin- 
burgh, XVI., pp. 207-234. 

1889. Capelli, a. Sopra certi sviluppi di determinanti. Rcndi-c. 
Accad. (Napoli). (2) III., pp. 58-63. 

1S89. Sylvester, J. J. Sur la reduction biorthogonale dune forme 
lineo-lineaire a sa forme canonique. Comptcs 

Rendus (Paris.) CVIIL, pp. 651-653. 



178 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1889. Killing, W. De determinante quodam disquisitiones mathe- 

maticae. Brunsberg. 

1889. Peano. G. Sur le determinant wronskien. Malhesis, IX., 

PP- 75-76, 110-112. 
1889. Kronecker, L. Ueber symmetrische Systeme. Sitzungsb. 

Akad. d. Wiss. (Berlin), pp. 349-362. 

1899. Sylvester. J. J. On the reduction of a bilinear quantic of 

the «"' order to the form of a sum of ;/ products by a 

double orthogonal substitution. Messenger of 

Math. (2) XIX., pp. 42-46. 
1889. Kretkowski, W. (Contribution to the theory of elimina- 
tion.) [In Polish.] Prace mat.--fiz. (Warsaw) II., pp. 

21-32. 
1889. Demoulin, a. Remarque sur une propriete fondamentale 

des wronskiens. Mathesis, IX., p. 136. 

1889. Peano, G. Su d'una proposizione riferentesi ai determinant! 

jacobiani. Giornale di Mat. XXVII., pp. 226-228. 

1889. Hensel, K. Ueber die Darstellung der Determinante eines 

systems, welche aus zwei anderen componirt ist. 

Acta Math. XIV., pp. 317-319- 
1889. Voss, A. Ueber die conjugirte Transformation einer bilinear 

Form in sich selbst. Sitzungsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. 

(Miinchen). XIX.. pp. 175-211. 
1889. Kronecker, L. Die Deromjjosition der Systeme von n*' 

Grossen und ihre Anwendung auf die Theorie der 

Invarianten. Sitzungsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. 

(Berlin) pp. 479-505. 603-614. 
1889. Deruvts, F. Sur une propriete des determinants symetriques- 

gauches. Mem soc. ray. des sci. (Liege). (2) 

XVII., pp. 1-6. 
1889. Horta, F. p. Estudo elementar dos determinantes, seguido' 

de uma parte complementar relativa principalmente aos 

determinantes funccionaes. j-5 pp Lisboa. 

1889. Diekmann, J. Anwendung der Determinanten und Elemente 
der neueren Algebra auf dem Gebiet der niederen 
Mathematik. j^, pj, Leipzig. 

T889. Wentworth, McLellan, and Glashan. Algebraic 

Analysis. Part I. (pp. 3:5-418.) 

X -I- 418 pp. Boston, U.S.A.. 
1889. Voss, A. Ueber die mit einer bilinearen Form vertausch- 

baren bilinearen Formen. Sitzungsb Akad. d. 

Wiss. (Miinchen). XIX., pp. 283-300. 

1889. ^luiR, Til The theory of determinants in the historical 

order of its development. Part. I. Determinants in- 

general, 1836- 1841. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edin- 
burgh, XVI.. pp. 389-448. 



List of Writings on Determinants. i79' 

889. KoNiGSBERGER, L. Uebcr eine Determinantenbeziehung 
in der Theorie der Differentialgleichungen. Crdlcs 
Joiirn. CV.. pp. T 70-1 79. 

889. Robinson, L. W. (A circulant whose elements are coeffi- 
cients of the expansion of (i+.r)"- (Problem 10254.) 
Educ. Times, XLII.. \). 332 ; MaUi. from Edt4C. 

Times, LIV., p. 54. 

889. MuiR, Th. The theory of determinants in the historical 
order of its development. Part. I. Determinants in^ 
general. 1841 -1844. Proceedings Roy. Soc., Edin- 

burgh. XVI., pp. 748-772. 

889. MiTiR. Th. Note on Cayley's demonstration of Pascal's 
theorem. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XVII.,. 

pp. 18-22. 

889. MuiR, Th. On self-conjugate permutations. Proceedings 
Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XVII., pp. 7-13. 

889. Netto, E. Ueber den grossten gemeinsamen Teiler zweier 
ganzer Functionen. Mitt. d. math. Gcs. (Hamburg). 

II., pp. 36-43. 

889. MuiR, Th. On a rapidly converging series for the extraction 
of the square root. Proceedings Roy. Soc, Edin- 

burgh, XVII., pp. r4-i8. 

889. FiSKE, T. S. Notes on modem higher algebra. Mess- 

enger of Math. (2) XIX., pp. 89-91. 

889. How'SE, G. F. (Final expansion of a special persymmetric 
determinant.) (Problem 103^4.) Educ. Times, 

XLII., p. 483- 

889. Voss, A. Ueber einen Satz aus der Theorie der Determin- 
anten. Sitzungsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Miinchen).. 

XIX., pp. 329-339. 

889. Gambioli, D. Sulle frazioni continue. Rendic. ... Accad 

(Bologna), pp. 33-55. 

889. Croke, J. O'B. (A special determinant of the third order). 
(Problem 10404). Educ. Times, XLII., p. 523. 

889. Weihrauch, K. Ueber eine algebraische Determinante mit 
eigenthiimlichen Bildungsgesetz der Elemente. Zeit- 
schrift f. Math. u. Phys. XXXVI.. pp. 34-40. 

889. Weihrauch, K. Ueber gewisse goniometrische Determin- 
anten und damit zusammenhangende Systeme von 
lineare Gleichungen. Zeitschrift f. Math. u. 

Phys. XXXVI., pp. 71-77. 

889. CosSERAT. E. Sur les formes bilineaires. Annalcs 

Eaculte des Sci. (Toulouse). III., M., pp. 1-12. 

889. Mertens, F. (Ueber die Determinante, deren Elemente die 
Werthe sind. welche- n ! ganze Functionen von n Varia- 
beln .I'l, x.y, ...,.r„ in Folge aller moglichen Permutati- 
onen dieser Variabeln annehmen.) Denksch. ... 

Akad. d. Wiss. (Cracovia). XVI.. pp. 60-69. 



i8o Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

J 890. HowsE, G. F. (A determinant with equal diagonal elements 
and with the elements on either side of the diagonal all 
equal.) (Problem 10354). Educ. Times. XLIIL, 

p. 38; Math, from Educ. Times, LIIL, p. 38. 

1890. PoMEY, E. Sur un theorenie de determinants. Journ. 

de math. spec. (3) IV., pp. 3-4. 

1890. Netto, E. Ueber den gemeinsamen Teiler zweier ganzen 
Functionen einer Veranderlichen. Crelle's Journ. 

CVI., pp. 81-88. 

.4890. Voss, A. Ueber die cogredienten Transformationen einer 
bilinearen Form in sich selbst. Abhandl. .. Akad. 

d. Wiss. (Miinchen). XVII., 2. pp. -^35-356. 

2890. MuiR, Th. The theory of determinants in the historical 
order of its development. Part I. ; Determinants in 
general; Leibnitz (1693) to Cayley (1841). 

xii. + 278 pp. London. 
[A separate publication of contents of six above noted 
papers, from Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, dated Feb. 
1886. March 1887, Julv 1888, March^ Julv, August, 
1889.] 

3890. Franklin, F. On the Hessian of a product of linear func- 
tions. Annals of Math. V., pp. 103-105. 

11890. Koch, H. v. Om upplosningen af ett .system lineara likheter 

mellan ett oandligt antal obekanta. Ofversigt 

Vet. Akad. ... (Stockholm). XLVIL, pp. 109-129. 

11890. XovARESE, H. (Property of a continuant.) Mathesis, X., 
p. 72; (2) I., pp. 24-25; (2) II., pp. 5-12. 

,1890. Segar, H. W. Some inequalities. Messenger of Math. 

(2) XIX., pp. 189-192; XX., pp. 54-59. 

1890, Capelli, a. Sur les operations dans la theorie des formes 
algebriques. Math. Anna/en. XXXVII., pp. 1-37. 

.1890. Frobenius, G. Theorie der biquadrat'schen Formen. 
Crelte's Journ. CVL, pp. 125-188. 

X890. GuBLER, E. Ueber eine Determinante, welche bei der Be- 

rechnung symmetrischer Functionen vorkommt. Vier- 

teljahrsschr. d. naturf. Ges. (Zurich). XXXV., pp. 

79-82. 
11890. Lipschitz, R. Beitrjige zu der Theorie der gleichzeitigen 

Transformation von zwei quadratischen oder bilinearen 

Formen. Sitzungsb .A.kad. d. Wiss. (Berlin), pp. 

485-523- 
11890. Kronecker, L. Ueber orthogonale Systeme. Sitzungsb 

Akad. d. Wiss. (Berlin), pp. 525-541, 602-607, 691- 

699, 873-884. 1063-1080. 
11890. Keen, H. v. Sur une application des determinants infinis a 

la theorie des equations differentielles lineaires. Acta 

Math. XV., pp. 53-63. 



List of Writings on Determinants. i8i 

1890. Kronecker, L. Ueber die Comixjsition der Systeme von 
//- Grossen mit sich selbst. Siizimgsb. . . . Akad. d. 

Wiss. (Berlin), pp. 1081-1088. 

1890. Koch. H. v. Om anvandningen af oiindliga determinanter 
inom teorin for lineara homogena differential eqva- 

tioner. Ofversigt ... Vet. -Akad. ... (vStockholm)^ 

XLVIL. pp. 225-336. 
1890. Gegenbaur, L. Einige Satze liber Determinanten hoheren 

Ranges. Denkschr Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien)^ 

LVII., pp. 735-752- 
1890. Szi'TS, N. V. Zur Theorie der cubischen Determinanten. 

Math. H. nahirw. Bericlitc aus Uiigarn. VIII., pp. 199- 

217. 
1890. SzUTS, N. V. (On cubic determinants.) [In Mag\ar.] 

Math, es termeszett. er/esi/o, (Budapest.) VIII.. pp. 

220-237. 

1890. Brisse. Ch. Nouvelle methode de discussion de lequation 
en s. Nouv. Annales de Math. (3) IX.. pp. 367-372, 

1890. VivANTi, G. Alcune formole relative all' operazione ii. 
Rendic. ... Circolo Mai. (Palermo), IV., pp. 261-268. 

1890. Pasch, M. Ueber bilineare Formen und deren geometrische 
Anvvendung. Maih. Annalen, XXXVIII. , pp. 24-49. 

1890. Mertens, F. (On integral functions of a system of tun 
variables which form in rows and ;/ columns.) Denk- 
schr. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Cracovia). XVII., pp. 143- 
145- 

1890. Palmstrom, a. Determinantteoriens anvendel.se pa laeren 
om komple.xe storrelsers multiplikation. Archizr 

for Maih. og Naturvid. XIII., pp. 128-132. 

1890. TissoT, A. Sur la multiplication des determinants. J our it. 

de Math. Spec. (3) IV.. pp. 193-194. 
1890. HoRTA. F. P. Nota sobre os determinantes. Jam. de 

set. math. phys. e nat. (Lisboa). (2) II., pp. 67-73. 
1890. Koch, H. v. Bidrag till teorin for oiindliga determinanter. 

Ofversigt ... Vet.-Akad. ... (Stockholm). XLVIL, pp. 
411-431. 
1890. Kronecker, L. Reduction der Systeme von n- ganzzahligen 
Elementen. Crell&s foiirn. CVIL, pp. 135-136. 

1890. Prange, a. J. X^. Een en ander over nieuwere algebra naar 
aanleiding van een onlangs verschenen werk. Nieuw 
Archief v. Wish. XVII. , pp. 158-175. 

1890. Janisch, E. Bemerkungen zum Rationalmachen der Nenner. 
Archiv d. Math. it. Phvs. (2) X., pp. 420-440. 

1890. Sylvester, J. J. (A theorem connected with axisymmetric 
determinants). (Problem 1075 1). Educ. Times f 

XLIIL. p. 484. 



a 82 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

J 890. Kronecker, L. Algebraische Reduction der Scharr:n 
bilinearer Formen. Siizungsb. ... Akad. d. M' hs. 

(Berlin), pp. 1225-1237. 

1890, d'Ovidio, E. Altra addizione alia nota " Sui determinanti di 
determinanti."' Atti ... Accad (Torino). XXVI., 

PP- 131-133- 
1890. Sylvester, J. J. (A theorem connected with axisyrametric 

determinants). (Problem 10792). Educ. Times, 

XLIIL, p. 528. 
1890. Taber, H. On the application to matrices of any order of 

the quaternion symbols S and V. Proceedings 

London Math. Soc. XXII., pp. 67-79. 
1890. Kronecker, L. Algebraische Reduction der Scharen 

quadratischen Formen. Siizungsb Akad. d. 

Wiss (Berlin), pp. 1 375-1388. 

1890. Prado, G. F. de. Elementos de la teoria de las determin- 

antes. Madrid. 

1891. Kronecker, L. Anwendung der Modulsysteme auf Fragen 

der Determinanten-theorie. Crelle's Jonrn. CVII., 
pp. 254-261. 
1 89 1. Caylev, a. Note on the involutant of two binary matrices. 
Messenger of Math. (2) XX., pp. 136-137; Collected 
Math. Papers XIII., pp. 74-75. 

1 89 1. Cayley, a. On an algebraical identity relating to the .>i.\ 
co-ordinates of a line. Messenger of Math. (2) 

XX., pp. 138-140; Collected Math. Papers XIII., 

pp. 76-78. 

1 89 1. Segar, H. W. a theorem in determinants. Messenger 

of Math. (2) XX., pp. 141-142. 

1891. Baudrun, E. Sur la valeur necessairement positive dun 
certain determinant dont les elements sont composes au 
moyen de quantites positives et d'autres quantites 
positives ou negatives dont la valeur absolue ne depasse 
pas I'unite. Mathesis, (2) I., p. 24. 

1 89 1. Schendel, L. Mathematische Miscellen. Zcitschrift 

f. Math. u. Phys. XXXVI., pp. 302-308. 

1891. MuiR, Th. On some hitherto unproved theorems in 
determinants. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 

XVIIL, pp. 73-82. 

1891. Longchamps, G. de. Sur les determinants troues. Journ. 

de Math. Spec. (3) V., pp. 9-12, 29-32, 54-56. 85-87. 
1 89 1. BuscHE, E. Ueber Kronecker'sche Aequivalenzen. Mitt- 

eil. d. math. Ges. (Hamburg) III., pp. 3-7. 

1891. Sharp, W. J. C. (A determinant whose nonaxial elements 

are all unity). (Problem 10934.) Educ. Times, 

XLIV., p. 157; Math, from Educ. Times. LV., 
p. 123- 



List of Writesigs on Determinants. 183 

1891. Grusintzeff, a. p. (Contribution to the theory of adjugate 
determinants.) [In Russian.] Soc. math. (Kharkov). 
(2) III., pp. 94-102. 

1 89 1. Gambioli, D. Sopra alcune relazioni fra le funzioni 
simmetriche e sopra particolarl loro caratteri invari- 
antivi. Giornale di Mat. XXIX., pp. 41-60. 

1891. Sharp, W. J. C. (A determinant wiicse nonaxial elements 
are all unity.) (Problem 10977.) Educ. Times, 
XLIV., p. 199; Math, from Educ. Times, LV., 

p, 116. 

1 89 1. Rogers, L. J. (The complementary minor of the last ele- 
ment of a circulant.) (Problem 10992.) Educ. Times, 
XLIV., p. 199. 

1 89 1. Biermann, O. Ueber die Resultante ganzer Functionen. 
Monatshefte f. Math. u. Phys. II., pp. 143-146. 

1 89 1. MuiR, Th. Note on a peculiar determinant of the si.xth 
order. Philos. Magazine, (5) XXXI., pp. 429-430. 

1 89 1. Humbert, G. Sur la transformation d'une forme quad- 
ratique de n variables en une somme de carres au 
moyen d'une substitution orthogonale. Journ. de 
Math. Spec. (3) V., pp. 73-76. 

1891. Gerhardt, C. J. Leibniz iiber die Determinanten. 

SitzHHgsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Berlin), pp. 407-423. 

1 89 1. Grassmann, R. Die Ausdehnungslehre, oder die Wiss- 
enschaft von den extensiven Grossen in strenger For- 
melentwickelung. j^ ^ ^^2 pp. Stettin. 

1891. Martone, M. La funzione alef di Hoene Wronski. 

20 pp. Catanzaro. 

1 89 1. Martone, M. I determinanti Wronskiano e la legge 
suprema. Catanzaro. 

1891. Niemoller, F. Anwendung der liiitalen Ausdehnungslehre 
von Grassmann auf die Theorie der Determinanten. 
(Schul. Progr. No. 309) 22 pp. Osnabriick. 

1 89 1. Carvallo, E. Theorie des determinants dans I'esprit de 

Grassmann. Noiiv. Annales de Math. (3) X., 

pp. 219-224. 
1 89 1. Netto, E. Anwendung der Modulsysteme auf eine Frage 

der Determinantentheorie. CrelWs Jotirn. CVIII., 

pp. 144-146. 
1 89 1. Tyler, H. W. Beziehungen zwischen der Sylvester'schen 

und der Bezoutschen Determinante. Sitzimgsb. 

d. phys.-med. Soc. (Erlangen.) XXIII., pp. 33-128. 

[Probably published separately as a dissertation.] 

1 89 1. BuRNSiDE. W. Algebraical notes. Messenger of Math. 

(2) XXL, pp. 26-28. 



184 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1891. Taber, H. On certain properties of symmetric, skew 
symmetric, and orthogonal matrices. Proceeditigs 
London Math. Soc. XXII.. pp. 449-469. 

1891. Sharp, W. J. C. (A determinant whose non-axial elements 
are all unity.) (Problem 11 184.) Kduc. Tunes^ 

XLIV., p. 345- 

1891.' Carvallo, E. Multiplication des determinants. Nouv.. 

Annales de Math. (3) X. pp. 341-345. 

1891. Campbell, J. E. Note on the simultaneous transformation 

of two quadric functions. Messettgcr of Math. (2) 

XXI., pp. 78-83. 
1891. Netto. E. Zur Theorie der linearen Substitutionen. Acta 

Math. XVII.. pp. 265-280. 
1 89 1. Waelsch. E. Ein Satz iiber die Resultante algebraischer 

Gleichungen und seine geometrische Anwendung. 

Monaishefte f. Matli. u. Phys. IT., pp. 421-428. 

1891. Kneser. a. Ueber eine Methode zur Darstellung der 
Determinantentheorie. Naturf.-Ges. (Dorpat). IX.,. 

13 PP- 
1891. Laurent, H. Sur les formes quadratiques et sur I'equation 
dite en s. Nouv. Anna/es de Math. (3) X., pp. 503- 

507- 
1 89 1. Rados, G. Zur Theorie der orthogonalen Substitutionen. 
Math. II. naturiv. Berichte ans Uugarri, X., pp. 95-97. 

1891. Rados, G. Zur Theorie der adjungirten Substitutionen. 
Math. Annalen, XLVIIL, pp. 417-424; Math, cs 

ter?nessett. eriesito. (Budapest). X., pp. 34-42. 

1891. ScHENDEL, L. Mathematische Miscellen. Zeitschrift /. 
Math. H. Phys. XXXVIII., pp. 84-94. 

1 89 1. Rados, G. Die Theorie der adjungirten Substitutionen. 
Math. 71. naturiv. Berichte ans Ungarn, X., pp. 98-107. 

1 89 1. Garbieri, G. Introduzione ad una teorica dell' eliminazione. 
Giornale di Mat. XXX.. pp. 41-105. 

1 89 1. Laisant, C. a. Sur les permutations limitees. Comptes 

Rendus ... (Paris.) CXII., pp. 1047-1049. 

1892. Miller. G. A. An introduction to the study of determin- 

ants, with examples and applications. New York 

1892. EscHERiCH, G. V. Bestimmung einer Determinante. Man- 
atshcfte f. Math. n. Phys. III., pp. 19-20. 

1892. Igel, B. Zur Theorie der Determinanten. Monaishefte f^ 
Math. 11. Phys. III., pp. 56-67. 

1892. EscHERiCH, G. V. Ueber einige Determinanten. Monats- 
hefte f. Math. u. Phys. III., pp. 68-80. 

1892. Cayley, a. Note on a hyperdeterminant identity. Mess- 
enger of Math. (2) XXL, pp. 131-132. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 185 

1892. Cesaro, E. Remarques sur un continuant. Mathesis 

(2) II., pp. 5-12. 
1892. Capelli, a. Sopra la compatibilita o incompatibilita di piu 

equazioni di primo grado fra piii incognite. Rivisia 

di Mat. XL, pp. 54-58. 
1892. Laurent, H. Sur relimination. Nouv. Annales de 

Math. (3) XL, pp. 5-7. 
1892. Amigues, E. Demonstration analytique du theoreme de M. 

Rouche relatif a un systeme d'equations algebriques du 

premier degre. Nouv. Annales de Math. (3) XL, 

pp. 47-48. 
1892. MuiR, Th. Note on a theorem regarding a series of 

convergents to the roots of a number. Proceedings 

Roy. Sac. Edinburgli, XIX., pp. 15-19. 

1892. Mehmke, R. Ueber das Seidel'sche Verfahren um Hneare 
Gleichungen bei einer sehr grossen Anzahl der Unbe- 
kannten durch successive Annaherung aufzulosen. Mat. 
Sbornik ... (Moscow). XVI., pp. 342-346. 

1892. Segar, H. W. (An n-line determinant whose elements are 
differential-quotients of Bessel's functions). (Problem 
11434). Educ. Times, XLV., p. 82. 

1892. Prym, F. Ueber orthogonale, involutorische, und orthogonal- 
involutorische Substitutionen. Abhandl. ... Akad. d. 

Wiss. ... (Gottingen). XXXVIII. , pp. 3-42, 

1892. Segar, H. W. On a determinantal theorem due to Jacobi. 
Messenger of Math. (2) XXL, pp. 148-157. 

1892. Segar, H. W. (A special persymmetric determinant of the 
w"' order). (Problem 11 462). Educ. Times, XLV., 
P- 153- 

1892. ScHOUTE, P. H. Calcul d'un determinant. Journ. de Math. 
Spec. (4) I., pp. 54-56. 

1892. Gambioli, D. Le funzioni simmetriche, loro rappresentazione 
simbolica e loro caratteri invariantivi. Giornale di 
Mat. XXX., pp. 192-205. 

1892. Dittmar, O. Neue Permutationsverfahren und Determin- 
antenberechnungen. 

(Sch. Progr. No. 644) 19 pp. Wimpfen. 

1892. Echols, W. H. On certain determinant forms ?nd their ap- 
plications. Annals of Math. VI., pp. 105-126: 
VIL, pp. 11-59. 

1892. SCHAPIRA, H. Theorie allgemeiner Cofunctionen u. einige 

ihrer Anwendungen. I., Bd. 2 Th. i Hft. (v. under 

1881). T • • 

' Leipzig. 

1892. Landsrerg, G. Ueber relativ adjungirte Minoren. Crelle's. 
Journ. CIX., pp. 225-230. 

o 



[86 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

12. Gegenbaur, L. Ueber einige arithmetische. Determinaiiten 

hoheren Ranges. Sitzungsb Akad. d. Wiss. 

(Wien). C.I., 2A., pp. 425-484. 

12. Dickstein, S. Sur les decouvertes mathematiques de 
Wronski. Biblioiheca math: (2) VI., pp. 48-52, 85-90. 

»2. Segar, H. W. On the multinomial determinant. Mess- 

enger of Math. (2) XXL, pp. 177-188. 

)2. MuiR, Th. a problem of Sylvester's in elimination. Pro- 
ceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XX., pp. 300-305. 

)2. MuiR, Th. Note on Professor Cayley's proof that a triangle 
and its reciprocal are in perspective. Proceedings 

Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XX., pp. 298-299. 

)2. Metzler, W. H. On the roots of matrices. American 

Journ. of Math. XIV., pp. 326-377. 

)2. Mehmke, R. u. Nekrassof, p. a. Auflosung eines linearen 
Systems von Gleichungen durch successive Annaherung. 

[In German and Russian.] Mat. Sbornik 

(Moscow). XVI., pp. 437-460. 

1892. KoRCZYNSKi, J. Elementare Determinantentheorie. 

(Sch. Progr.) 42 pp. Krakau. 

1892. Carnoy, J. Cours d'algebre superieure. (See pp. 1-65 
which bears the title " Principes de la theorie des 
determinants.") xii 4- 537. Paris. 

1892. Deruyts, J. Sur les relations qui existent entre certains 
determinants. Bull. ... Acad. ... Belgique, XXIIl., 
PP- 507-521- 

1892. Russian, C. [K.] (Determination of the solutions common to 
n equations in «-i unknowns. [In Russian.] Mem. 
Univ. ... (Odessa). LVIL, pp. 313-346. 

1892. Koch, H. v. Sur les determinants mfinis, et les equations 
differentielles lineaires. Acta math. XVI., pp. [217- 
295], 219-249. 

1892. Philastre, . Solution de la question 298. Journ. de 

Math. Spec. (4) I., pp. 142-144. 

1892. Metzler, W. H. On certain properties of symmetric, skew 
symmetric, and orthogonal matrices. American Journ 
of Math. XV., pp. 274-282. 

1892. Gegenbaur, L. Ueber den grossten gemeinsamen Theiler. 
Sitzungsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien.) CI., 2A, pp. 1143- 
1221. 

1892. Worontzoff, . Sur I'elimination. Nouv. Annales de 
Math. (3) XL, pp. 291-299. 

1892. Haskell, M. W. Note on resultants. Bull. Math. Soc, 
New York. I., pp. 223-224. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 187 

1892, Sylvester, J. J. (Unaltered function of the elements of a 

variable matrix.) (Problem 11615.) Educ. Times, 

XLV., p. 347. 
1892. Prime, Mme. V«. F. Sur un determinant nul. Journ. de 

Math Spec. (4) I., pp. 177-179. 
1892. Segar, H. W. The deduction of certain determinants from 

others of indeterminate form. Messenger of 

Math. (2) XXII., pp. 57-71. 
1892. Hadamard, J. Resolution d'une question relative aux 

determinants. Bull, des sci. math. (2), XVII- 

pp. 240-246. 
1892. Brunn, H. Ein Satz fiber orthosymmetrische und verwandte 

Determinanten aus den fundamentalen symmetrischen 

Functionen. Zeitschrift f. Math. u. Phys. 

XXXVII., pp. 291-297. 
[892. Philippoff, M. Symbolische Zahlen und Doppelzahien. 

Zeitschrift f. Math. u. Phys. XXXVII., pp. 298-304. 

12. Kretkowski, W. (On an identity.) [In Polish.] Pamietnik 
Acad. ... (Cracovia.) XXVL, pp. 151-154. Bull. 
internal Acad, des sci. de Cracovie, p. 375. 

12. Prime, Mme. V©. F. Sur un theoreme de Jacobi. Mathesis, 
(2) II., p. 227. 

»2. ScHOUTE, P. H. (Case of Lagrange's determinantal equa- 
tion where the term independent of x is an ortho- 
gonant.) (Problem 11 731.) Educ. Times, XLV., 

p. 489. 

[892. Saalchutz, L. Kettenbriiche, Bernoulli'schen Zahlen und 
Determinanten. Sitzungsb. d. phys.-okon. Ges. 

(Kdnigsberg.) XXXIII. , pp. 44-47. 

)2. Campbell, J. E. Notes on determinants. Proceedings 

London Math. Soc. XXIV., pp. 67-79. 

)2. MoLLAME, V. Sviluppo di un determinante e relazioni 

notevoli che ne derivano. Rivista di Mat. III., 

PP- 47-53- 
)2. KuHNE, H. Beitrage zur Lehre von der «-fachen Mannig- 

faltigkeit. Archiv d. Math. u. Phys. (2) XL, pp. 

353-407- 
)2. Brown, E. W. The elliptic inequalities in the lunar theory. 

American Journ. of Math. XVI., pp. 244-263. 

)2. Weltzien, C. Ueber das product zweier Determinanten. 
Math. Annalen, XLIL, pp. 598-600. 
[893 Garbieri, G. Teoria ed applicazioni dei determinanti. 2^ 
ed. [Note former title.] Reeeio 

[893. Weichold, G. Lehrbuch der Determinanten und deren 
Anwendungen. Nach System Kleyer bearbeitet. 

xvi. + 380 pp. Stuttgart. 



1 88 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1893. Prime, Mme. Ve. F. Essai d'une demonstration de la for- 
mule de Laplace relative au developpement des deter- 
minants. Journ. de Math. Spec. (4) II., pp. 3-5. 

1893. Miller, E. Modern higher algebra. Kansas Univ. 
Quarterly, I., pp. 133-136. 

1893. Weld, L. G. A short course of the theory of determinants. 

xiv. + 238 pp. London. 

1893. Worontzoff, . Sur les fonctions symetriques. Nouv. 
Annales de Math. (3) XII., pp. 116-122. 

1893. Vautre, . (The alternant of the second simplest form 
as a multiple of the difference-product.) (Problem 
11858.) Educ. Times, XLVL, p. 157; Math, 
from Educ. Times, LX., p. 108. 

1893. Segar, H. W. On the roots of certain continuants. 
Messenger of Math (2) XXII., pp. 171-181. 

1893. Laurent, H. Sur les fonctions symetriques et I'elimination. 
Journ. de Math. Spec. (4) li., pp. 49-51, 217-220. 

1893. Echols, W. H. On the expansion of functions in infinite 

series. American Journ. of Math. XV., pp. 316- 

320. 
1893. Garbieri, G. Sulla teoria della eliminazione fra due equa- 

zioni. Atti Accad. Gioenia (Catania.) 

(4) VI., 9 pp. 
1893. Netto, E. Zwei Determinanten-Satze. Ada Math. 

XVII. , pp. 199-204. 
1893. ToRELLi, G. Sui determinanti di funzioni. Rendic 

Circolo Mat. (Palermo.) VII., pp. 75-84. 
1893. Teixeira, J. P. Processos expedites para achar os desen- 

volvimentos de alguns determinantes. Jorn. de set. 

math, e astron. XL, pp. 88-92. 
1893. Bang, A. S. Om en Trediegradsligning. Nyt Tidsskrift 

f. Math. IV. B., pp. 57-60. 
1893. Ott, a. Ueber Determinanten. 

(Sch. Progr. No. 673.) 26 pp. Weimar. 
1893. Teixeira, J. P. Sur les nombres Bernoulliens. Jorn. de 

sci. math., phys. c nat. (Lisboa.) (2) III., pp. 73-75. 

1893. Laurent, H. Sur la determination des facteurs etrangers 

introduits dans I'elimination. Journ. de Math. Spec. 

(4) II., pp. 97-98, 121-122. 
1893. Gegenbaur, L. Einige mathematische Theoreme. Sitz- 

ungsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien.) CIL, 2A, pp. 549- 

564- 
1893. Taber, H. On the linear transformations between two 

quadrics. Proceedings London Math. Soc. XXIV.,. 

pp. 290-306. 

1893. DoLP, H. Die Determinanten. 4 Aufl. 

iv. -H 95 pp. Darmstadt. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 189 

1893. Almeida, L. C. Novas regras para desenvolver os deter- 
minantes literaes do terceiro e quarto grao. Instituto 
de Coimbra. XL., pp. 763-765. 

1893. Segar, H. W. Proof of a theorem in the theory of numbers. 
Messenger of Math. XXIIL, pp. 31-36. 

1893. Hadamard, J. Sur le module maximum que puisse atteindre 

un determinant. Comptes Rendns (Paris.) 

CXVL, pp. 1500-1501. 

1893. (?) Collet, J. Les equations lineaires et leurs applications. 
Annates de Venseign. sup. (Grenoble.) V., pp. 351-364. 

1893. Leudesdorf, C. (A theorem in determinants concerning 
the elements of two axisymmetric determinants.) 
(Problem 12015.) Edtic. Times, XLVL, p. 305; 

Math, from Editc. Times, LX., p. 89. 

1893. Laurent, H. Demonstration d'une formule qui donne, sous 
forme explicite, la resultante de plusieurs equaticr.s 
algebriques. Nouv. Annates de Math. (3) XII., 

PP- 305-315- 

1893. Laurent, H. Sur I'elimination. Nouv. Attnates de 

Math. (3) XII., pp. 355-359. 

1893. Taber, H. On orthogonal substitution. Papers publ. 

by American Math. Soc. I., pp. 395-400. 

1893. GoRDAN, P. Ueber die Sylvester'sche Resultante. Verhandt. 
d. Ges. deutscher Naiurf II., i p. 4. 

1893 ScHAPiRA, H. Ueber symmetrische quadratische Formen. 
Tahresb. d. deutschen math. Verein, III., pp. 99-102. 

1893. Musso, G. Sui determinanti reciproci. Giornate di 

Mat. XXXI., pp. 201-209. 

1893. Liers, E. Ueber eine Analogie des Laplace'schen Deter- 

minantensatzes. Archiv d. Math. u. Phys. (2) XII., 

PP- 352-353- 
1893. Pasch, M. Verschwindende Determinante dritten Grades 

aus ternaren linearen Formen. Math. Annalen, 

XLIV., pp. 89-96. 

1893. Mansion, P. Sur I'eliminant de deux equations algebriques. 

Annates soc. sci. (Bruxelles.) XVIII., ire partie, 

pp. 5-8. 

1893. BuRNSiDE, W. On a property of certain determinants. 
Messenger of Math. (2) XXIIL, pp. 112-114. 

1893. Vahlen, K. Th. Ueber die Relationen zwischen den Deter- 
minanten einer Matrix. Crelle's Journ. CXIL, pp. 

306-310. 

1893. MacMahon, p. A. A certain class of generating functions 
in the theory of numbers. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

London, CLXXXV., pp. 110-160. 



ipo Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1893. Lerch, M. (Short proof of Borchardt's theorem in deter- 
minants. [In Czech.] Casopis pro pestovdni math, 
a fys. XXIII., pp. 76-78. 

1893. Teixeira, J. P. Novo methodo de desenvolver os deter- 
minantes. ] orn. de set. math, e astron. (Coimbra.) 

XL, pp. 173-186. 

1893. Gelin, E. Condition pour que deux equations du second 
degre aient une racine commune. Mathesis, (2) III., 
pp. 265-270. 

1893. Metzler, W. H. Compound determinants. American Jour, 
of Math. XVI., pp. 131-150. 

1893. Caldarera, G. Sviluppo di un determinante particolare ad 

n variabili. Aiii ... Accad. Gwenia ... (Catania.) 

(4) VIL, 15 pp. 

1894. Cesaro, E. Corso di analisi algebrica, con introduzione al 

calcolo infinitesimale .... ^jii + ^^q pp_ Torino. 

1894. Biermann, O. Ueber die Bildung der EUminanten eines 
Systems algebraischer Gleichungen. Monatshefte 

f. Math. II. Phys. V., pp. 17-32. 

1894. Meyer, A. Ligninger af iste Grad. Nyt Tidsskrift f. 

Math. B. v., pp. 4-17. 

1894. Zantschewsky, J. M. (Some theorems in determinants). 

[In Russian.] Mat. Sbornik ... (Moscow.) XVII., 

PP- 585-597- 
1894. Frobenius, G. Ueber die Elementarteiler der Determin- 

anten. Sitziingsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Berlin.) pp. 

31-44- 
1894. Hall, A. On Gauss' method of eHmination. Annals 

of Math. VIII., p. 64. 

1894. Hensel, K. Ueber regulare Determinanten und die aus 
ihnen abgeleiteten Systeme. Crelle s Journ. CXIV., 

pp. 25-30. 

1894. Musso, G. Ancora sui determinant! reciproci. Giornale di 
Mat. XXXII., pp. 81-85. 

1894. Musso, G. Sulle permutazioni relative ad una data. Rivista 
di Mat. IV., pp. 109-119. 

1894. Morley, F. Three notes on permutations. Bull. Math. 
Soc. New York, III., pp. 142-148. 

1894. Haussner, R. Independente Darstellung der Bernoulli'schen 
und Euler'schen Zahlen durch Determinanten. Zeit- 
schrift f. Math. u. Phys. XXXIX., pp. 183-188. 

1894. Schumacher, J. Ueber Determinanten. 

(Festschr.) Neustadt. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 191 

1894. Frobenius, G. Ueber etas Tragheitsgesetz der quadratischen 
Formen. Sitzungsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Berlin), pjx 
241-256, 407-431- 

1894. Hensel, K. Ueber die Elementartheiler componirter 
Systeme. Crelle's Journ. CXIV., pp. 109-115. 

1894. Sharp, W. J. C. (A determinant whose nonaxial elements 
are all unity). (Problem 12316). Educ. Times, 

XLVII., p. 199; Math, from Educ. Times, LXIIL, 
p. 36. 

1894. GoRDAN, P. Ueber die Resultante. Math. Annaun, 

XLV., pp. 405-409- 
1894. ScHLEGEL, V. Sur deux determinants identiquement nuls. 

El Progreso Mat. IV., pp. 176-177, 219. 

1894. Netto, E. Zur Theorie der orthogonalen Determinanten. 
Acta Math. XIX., pp. 105-114. 

1894. Neuberg, J. Sur les wronskiens. Mathesis (2) IV., p. 

165. 

1894. Tucker, R. (A three-line determinant with trigonometrical 
elements.) (Problem 12394.) Educ. Times, XLVII. 
p. 273; Math, from Educ. Times, LXIIL, pp. 83-84. 

1894. Net 10, E. Erweiterung des Laplace's Determinanten 

zerlegungssatzes. Crelle's Jour 71. CXIV., pp. 345- 

352- 
1894. Jarochenko, S. p. (Some theorems in determinants.) [In 

Russian]. Mem. Univ.... (Odessa). LXL, pp. 593- 

607. 
1894. WooDALL, H. J. (The multiplication of two circulants). 

(Problem 12426). Educ. Times, XLVII., p. 305; 

Math, from Educ. Times, LXIIL, pp. 35-36. 

1894. Painleve, p. Note sur une identite entre certains determin- 
ants. Bull. sac. math, de France, XXIL, pp. 116- 
119; Journ. de Liouville (4) X., p. 45. 

1894. Ravut, [L.] Resolution des equations des deuxieme, troisieme, 
et quatrieme degres en prenant pour point de depart 
I'equation identique de Cayley sur les matrices. Assoc, 
franqaisc ... (Congres de Caen). XXIIL, pp. 285-294. 

1894. Lecornu, L. Sur les determinants wronskiens. Assoc, 
franqaise ... (Congres de Caen). XXIIL, pp. 282-285. 

1894. MuiR, Th. On the expressibility of a determinant in terms 
of its coaxial minors. Philos. Magazine, (5) 

XXXVIIL, pp. 537-541- 

1894. MacMahon, p. H. Self-conjugate permutations. Mess- 

enger of Math. (2) XXIV., pp. 69-76. 

1894. Tucker, R. (A three-line axisymmetric determinant). 
(Problem 12532). Educ. Times, XLVII., p. 440; 

Math, from Educ. Times, LXIIL. p. 116. 



192 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1894. Maupin, G. Demonstration du theoreme : tout determinant 
symetrique gauche d'ordre pair est carre parfait. VI71- 
termediaire des Math. I., pp. 205-206. 

1894. PiCQUET, H. Sur I'application du calcul des combinaisons 
^ la theorie des determinants. Paris. 

1894. Koch, H. v. Sur les integrales regulieres des equations 
differentielles lineaires. Acta Math. XVIII., pp. 337- 
419. 

1894. Moore, E. H. Concerning triple systems. Rendic 

Circolo Mat. (Palermo.) IX., p. 86. 

1894. Neuberg, J. Theoreme sur les determinants. Maihesis, 
(2) IV., p. 251. 

1894. Cayley, a. Note on Dr. Muir's paper "A problem of Syl- 
vester's in elimination." Proceedings Roy. Sac. 
Edinburgh, XX., pp. 306-308. 

1894. MuiR, Th. On a theorem regarding the difference between 
any two terms of the adjugate determinant. Proceed- 
ings Roy. Soc, Edinburgh, XX., pp. 323-327. 

1894. Hadamard, J. Sur I'elimination. Comptes Rendus — 

(Paris.) CXIX., pp. 995-997. 

1894. Brown, E. W. Investigations in the lunar theory. Ameri- 

can Journ. of Math. XVII., pp. 318-358. 

1895. Koch, H. v. Sur la convergence des determinants d'ordre 

infini et des fractions continues. Comptes Rendus ... 
(Paris.) CXX., pp. 144-147. 

1895. LUROTH, J. Kurze Ableitung der Bedingungen, dass zwei 
algebraische Gleichungen mehrere Wurzeln gemein 
haben. Zeitschrift f. Math. u. Phys. XL., pp. 247- 

251. 

1895. Meyer, Fr. Ueber die Structur der Discriminanten und 

Resultanten binarer Formen. Nachrichten Akad. 

d. Wiss (Gottingen). pp. 119-121, 155-157; Acta 

Math. XIX., pp. 385-395. 

1895. GiLLET. J. Evaluation d'un determinant remarquable. Vln- 
termcdiaire des math. II., p. 127. 

1895. Capelli, a. Sur les determinants dont les elements princi- 
paux varient en progression arithmetique. Nouv. 

Annates de Math. (3) XIV., pp. (^z-d^. 

1895. Fehr, H. Sur I'emploi de la multiplication exterieure en 

algebre. Nouv. Annates de Math. (3) XIV., pp. 

74-79- 
1895. Andoyer, H. Sur la division algebrique appliquee aux 

polynomes homogenes. Journ. de Liouville (5) I., 

pp. 61-90. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 193 

1895. Koch, H. v. Quelques theoremes concernant la theorie 

generale des fractions continues. Ofversigt .... 

Vei.-Akad (Stockholm). LIL, pp. 101-112. 

1895. Jonquieres, E. de. Sur les dependances mutuelles des 

determinants potentiels. Comptes Rendus ... 

(Paris.) CXX., pp. 408-410. 
1895. Calo, B. Dimostrazione algebrica del teorema di Weierstrass 

suUe forme bilineari. Annali di Mat. (2) XXIII., 

PP- 159-179- 
1895. Crauford, G. E. (Factorisation of a five-line determinant.) 
(Problem 12684). Educ. Times, XLVIIL, p. 160; 

Math, from Educ. Times, LXIV., p. 38. 

1895. Ciamberlini, C. Intorno alia relazione tra le distanze di 5 
punti dello spazio. Giornale di Mat. XXXIV., 

pp. 279-289. 

1895. Taber, H. Note on the automorphic linear transformation 
of a bilinear form. American Acad. Proceedings, 

XXXI., pp. 181-193. 

1895. Szuts, N. v. Zur Theorie der Determinanten hoheren 
Ranges. Zeitschrift f. Math. u. Phys., XL., 

pp. 113-117. 

.295. Taber, H. On those orthogonal substitutions that can be 
generated by the repetition of an infinitesimal or- 
thogonal substitution. Proceedings London Math. 
Soc, XXVI., pp. 364-376. 

1895. MuiR, Th. Further note on a problem of Sylvester's in 
elimination. Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 

XX., pp. 371-382. 

1895. Hill, M. J. M. A property of skew determinants. Pro- 

ceedings London Math. Soc. XXVI., pp. 341-345. 

1895. Netto, E. Ueber die Structur der Re.sultanten binarer 
Formen. Nachrichten ... Akad. d. Wiss. ...; 

math.-phys. Kl. (Gottingen.) pp. 209-210. 

1895. Netto, E. Zur Theorie der Resultanten. Crelle's 

Journ. CXVL, pp. 33-49. 
1895. Capelli. a. Lezioni di algebra complementare, ad uso ... 

(Lap. 111.) ^jj ^ ^27 pp. Napoli. 

[A book with a slightly different title, viz. " Lezioni di 

algebra complementare, date nelV anno academico 188S- 

8g " is referred to bv Garbieri in Giornale di Mat. 

XXX., pp. 67-68.] 
1895. Weber. H. Lehrbuch der Algebra. In zwei Banden. Bd. I. 

^v + 653 pp. Braunschweig. 
1895. Tucker, R. (A three-line determinant with trigonometrical 

elements). (Problem 12828). Educ. Times, 

XLVIIL, p. 304. 



194 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1895. Sterneck, R. D. v. Beweis eines Satzes iiber Determin- 
anten. Monatshefte f. Math. u. Phys. VI., op. 

205-207. 

1895. Ahrens, W. Ein neuer Satz iiber die Determinanten einer 
Matrix. ZeitscJirift f. Malh. u. Phys. XL., pp 

177-180. 

1895. Sauvage, L, Note sur les equations en \ de la geometric. 
Nouv. Annates de Math. (3) XIV., pp. 369-385. 

1895. Humbert, E. Note sur le resultant de deux equations 
entieres. Revue de Math. Spec. III., (5^ annee) 

pp. 201-202. 

1895. Jenkins, M. On a shortened rule for ascertaining the sign 
of a given term of a determinant : and on some 
problems in which the application of the rule occurs. 
Messenger of Math. (2) XXV., pp. 60-68. 

1895. Landsberg, G. Ueber Fundamentalsysteme und bilineare 
Formen. Crelle's Journ. CXVL, pp. 331-349. 

1895. Brocard, H. Machines arithmetiques pour revaluation des 
determinants. VIntermediaire des math. II., p. 

392- 

1895. Brill, J. Note on matrices. Proceedings London Math. 

Soc. XXVIL, pp. 35-38. 

1895. Amigues, E. Theoreme d'algebre. TSIonv. Annates de 

Math. (3) XIV., pp. 496-497- 

1895. Booth, W. (A three-line determinant connected with a 
quaternary quadric.) (Problem 12952). Educ. Times, 
XLVL, p. 483. 

1895. NoTHER, M. Ueber den gemeinsamen Factor zweier binarer 
Formen. Sitzungsb. d. phys.-med. Soc. (Erlangen.'* 

XXVIL, pp. 110-115 (v. pp. 116-118, 119). 

1895. Taylor, W. W. Evaluation of a certain dialytic determinant. 
Proceedings London Math. Soc. XXVIL, pp. 60-66. 

1895. White, H. S. Kronecker's linear relation among minors of 

a symmetric determinant. BulL American Math. 

Soc. II., pp. 136-138. 

1896. Roberts, E. H. Note on infinite determinants. Annals of 

Math. X., pp. 35-49. 

1896. Nielsen, N. En Determinantformel. Nyt Tidsskrift f. 

Math. B. VII., pp. 59-62. 

1896. Gasco, L. G. Reglas practicas para el desarrollo de las 
determinantes -v'; cuarto grado. Archivo di Mat. I., 

pp. 11-15. 

J 896. Rados, G. Adjungieite quadratische Formen. Math. u. 
natiirw. Berichte aus Ungarn, XIV., pp. 85-91. 



List of Writings on Determinants.. 195 

1896. Elgc. Exercices sur les determinants. Journ. d. Math. 

Elem. (Vuibert.) XX., pp. 1 70-1 73' 198-201, 223-225, 
244-245. 

1896. Taber, H. On the group of linear transformations whose 
invariant is an alternate bilinear form. American 
Acad. Proceedings, XXXI., pp. 336-337. 

1896. Studnicka, F. J. Neuer Beitrag zur Theorie der Determin- 
anten. Sitzungsb. ... Akad. d. Wiss. (Prag.) No. 

6, 5 PP- 

1896. Pascal, E. Sulle varie forme che possono darsi alle 
relazioni fra i determinanti di una matrice rettangolari. 
Annali di Mat. (2) XXIV., pp. 241-253. 

1896. Stackel, p. Ueher die Bildung und die Eigenschaften 
der Determinanten. [Translation of two of C. G. J. 
Jacobi's memoirs of 1841.] ^^ pp_ Leipzig. 

1896. Stackel, P. Ueber die Functionaldeterminanten. [Trans- 
lation of C. G. J. Jacobi's memoir of 1841.] 

72 pp. Leipzig. 
1896. Jacobi, C. G. J. (See under Stackel, P.) 

1896. BoRTOLOTTi, E. Sui determinanti di funzioni nel calcola 
alle differenze finite. Rendic. ... Accad. dei Lined, 

(Roma.) (5) V. lo sem., pp. 254-261. 

1896. Pascal, E. Sopra le relazioni fra i determinanti formati 
coi medesimi elementi. Rendic. ... 1st. Lombardo^ 

(Milano.) (2) XXIX., pp. 436-438. 

1896. Cazzaniga, T. Sopra i determinanti di cui gli elementi 
principali variano in progressione arithmetica. Ren- 

dic. ... 1st. Lombardo, (Milano.) XXIX., pp. 541-548. 

1896 Pascal, E. Su di un teorema del sig. Netto relativo ai 
determinanti, e su di un altro teorema ad esso 
afiSne. Rendic. ... Accad. dei Lincei, (Roma) (5) 

v., pp. 188-191. 

1896. Lachlan, R. (On the condensation of a simple continuant.) 
(Problem 13117.) Educ. Times, XLIX., p. 227; 

Math, from Educ. Times, LXV., pp. 92-93. 

189(3. Rados, G. Zur Theorie der adjungierten bilinearen Formen. 
Math. u. naitirw. Berichte aus Ungarn, XIV., pp. 
116-127. 

1896. ScHiCHT, F. Beitrag zur Theorie der Determinanten. 

24 Jahresb. iiber das Staatsgymn in Prag-Altstadt. 

2 pp. 

1896. Brand, E. Derivee d'un determinant. Journ. de Math. 

Spec. XX., pp. 102-104. 

1896. Brand, E. Une propriete des mineurs des determinants 
nuls. Journ. de Math. Spec. XX., pp. 104-106. 



196 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1896. Pleskot, a. (On the theory of elimination.) [In Czech.] 

Rozpravy Ceske Akad. V. No. 25, 19 pp. 

1896. Frobenius, G. Ueber vertauschbare Matrizen. Siizungsb. 
... Akad. d. Wiss. (Berlin), pp. 601-614. 

1896. Netto, E. Vorlesungen iiber Algebra. Bd. I. 

X + 388 pp. Leipzig. 
1896. Michel, Ch. Le determinant symetrique gauche d'ordre 
pair. Joiirn. de Math. Spec. XX., pp. 127-129. 

1896. Andre, D. Theoreme nouveau de reversibilite algebrique. 
Bull. soc. math, de France, XXIV., pp. 136-139. 

1896. Studnicka, F. J. Ueber Potenzdeterminanten und deren 
wichtigste Eigenschaften. Sitzmigsb. ... Akad. d. 

Wiss. (Prag.) No. 22, 8 pp. 

1896. Studnicka, F. J. (Contribution to the theory of determin- 
ants. [In Czech.] Casopis pro pestovdni math, 
a fys. XXV., pp. 241-243. 

1896. JOLY, Ch. I. Quaternion invariants of linear vector functions 
and quaternion determinants. Proceedings Roy. 

Irish Acad. (3) IV., pp. 1-5. 

1896. Tait, p. G. On the linear and vector function. Proceedings 
Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXL, pp. 160-164, 310-312. 

1896. Taber, H. On a twofold generalisation of Stieltjes' theorem. 

Proceedings London Math. Soc. XXVIL, pp. 613-621. 
1896. Arnaldi, M. Sui determinanti orlati e sullo sviluppo di un 

determinante per determinanti orlati. Giornale di 

Mat. XXXIV., pp. 209-214. 

1896. Kneser, a. Bemerkungen zu der ausnahmlosen Auflosung 
des Problems, eine quadratische Form durch eine 
lineare orthogonale Substitution in eine Summ.e von 
Quadraten zu verwandeln. Archiv d. Math. u. Phys. 
(2) XV., pp. 225-231. 

1896. Welsch, . Determinants a terme general de la forme 
//,: — h-^ + I (i,j—i, 2, . . ., n). L'Intermediaire 

des Math. III., p. 191. 

1896. LoEWY, A. Zur Theorie der linearen Substitutionen. Math. 
Annalen, XLVIIL, pp. 97-1 10 j XLIX., pp. 448-452. 

1896. Netto, E. Zur Theorie der Resultanten. CrelWs 

Journ. CXVIL, pp. 57-71. 

1896. Hadamard, J. Memoire sur relimination. Acta Math. 

XX., pp. 201-238. 
1896. Cazzaniga, T. Sui determinant! d'ordine infinito. Annali 

di Mat., XX VI., pp. 143-217. 

1896. Lemeray, E. M. Sur deux relations dans la theorie des 
determinants. L'Intermediaire des Math. III., 

PP- 251, 253, 255. See p. 151. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 197 

1896. Koch, H. v. Sur la convergence des determinants d'ordre 

infini. Bihang ... Vet.-Akad. ... (Stockholm) 

XXII. Afd. I., No. 4, 31 pp. 
1896. BoNOLis, A. Sul prodotto delle matrici. Giornale di 

Mat. XXXIV., pp. 375-379- 
1896. Taber, H. Notes on the theory of bilinear forms. Bull. 

American Math. Soc. (2) III., pp. 156-164. 
1896. MuiR, Th. On Lagrange's determinantal equation. Philos. 

Magazine, XLIII., pp. 220-226. 

1896. MuiR, Th. On the eliminant of a set of ternary quadrics. 
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXL, pp. 220- 
234- 

1896. MuiR, Th. The eliminant of a set of quaternary quadrics. 
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Pldinhurgh, XXL, pp. 328- 
341- 

1896. MuiR, Th. On the eliminant of fix) — Q, f{i\x) — o. 
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXL, pp. 360- 
368. 

1896. MuiR, Th. On the resolution of circulants into rational 
factors. Proceedings Roy. Soc, Edinburgh, XXL, 

PP- 369-382. 

1896. MuiR, Th. On the expression of any bordered skew deter- 
minant as a sum of products of pfaffians. Proceed- 
ings Roy. Soc, Edinbiirgli, XXL, pp., 342-359. 

1896. Brill J. Supplementary note on matrices. Proceed- 

ings London Math. Soc, XXVIIL, pp. 368-370. 

1896. Laisant, C. a. Proprietes des coefficients du binome. 
Bull. soc. math, de France, XXIV., pp. 197-199. 

1896. GouRSAT, E. Legons sur I'integrations aux derivees partielles 

du second ordre a deux variables independantes. 
(See p. 25 of I. and p. 298 of II.) Paris. 

1897. Papelier, G. Note sur les equations lineaires. Revue 

de Math. Spec, IV. (7© annee), pp. 81-85. 

1897. Elge, . Sur le resultant de deux formes binaires. Journ. 
de Math. Spec, XaL, pp. 11-12. 

1897. Studnicka, F. J. Beitrag zur Theorie der Potenz- und Com- 

binations-Determinanten. Sitzungsb Akad. d. 

Wiss. (Prag.) No. i, 20 pp. 

1897. MuiR, Th. On Sylvester's proof of the reality of the roots 
of Lagrange's determinantal equation. American 
Journ. of Math., XIX., pp. 312-318. 

1897. Studnicka, F. J. (On the fundamental properties of alter- 
nants and their application in the theory of algebraic 

equations.) [In Czech.] Casopis pro pestovdni 

math, a fys. XXVI. , pp. 105-120. 



198 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1897. Demoulin, a. Demonstration de la propriete fondamentale 

des wronskiens. Mathesis, (2) VIL, pp. 62-63. 

1897. Brocard, H. Theorie des determinants a n indices et des 

products et des puissances infinis. VIntermediaire 

des Math., IV., p. 37. 
1897. LoRiA, G. Sopra certi determinant! i cui elementi sono 

funzioni trigonometriche. Periodico di Mat., XII., 

PP- 33-34- 
1897. Ahrens, W. Ueber Beziehungen zwischen den Determin- 

anten einer Matrix. Zeitschrift f. Math, u Phys. 

XLII., pp. 65-80. 
1897. Muir, Th. a reinvestigation of the problem of the auto- 

morphic linear transformation of a bipartite quadric. 

American Journ. of Math. XX., pp. 215-228. 

1897. Studnicka, F. J. Neuer Beitrag zur Theorie der Potenz-und 

Combinations-Determinanten. Sitzungsb Akad. 

d. Wiss. (Prag.) No. 16, 16 pp. 

1897. Caro, R. Determinante de {a + b)"K Archivo de Mai. 

II., pp. 68-70. 
1897. Weltzien, C. Ueber Potenzen von Determinanten. Math- 

Anfialen, L., pp. 282-284. 

1897. Weltzien, C. Ueber Producte und Potenzen von Determin- 
anten (odor iiber Composition von linearen Substitu- 
tionen.) (g^h. Progr. No. 114), 23 pp. Berlin. 

1897. Muir, Th. The automorphic linear transformation of a 
quadric. Trans. Roy. Soc., Edinburgh, XXXIX., 

pp. 209-230. 

1897. Russell, J. W. Certain concomitant determinants. Pro 
ceedings London Math. Soc, XXVIII. , pp. 430-439. 

1897. Sampson, R. A. A continuation of Gauss' ' Dioptrische Un- 
tersuchungen.' Proceedings London Math. Soc. 

XXIX., pp. 33-67. 

/897. Lovett, E. O. Note on the invariants of n points. Bull. 
American Math. Soc. IV., pp. 58-59. 

1897. Elfrinkhof, L. v. Eene eigenschap van de orthogonale 

substitutie van de vierde orde. Handelingen 

Natuur- en Geneesk. Congres (Delft), pp. 237-240. 

1897. Lagrange, A. Reduction simultanee de deux formes quad- 
ratiques a trois variables a des sommes de trois carres 
Revue de Math. Spec. IV., (7© annee), pp. 177-181. 

1897. Pincherle, S. Sulla generalizzazione della proprieta del 
determinante Wronskiano. Atti .... Accad. dei. 

Lincei, (Roma.) (5) VI., pp. 301-307. 

1897. Pascal, E. I determinanti. Teoria ed applicazioni. Con 

tutte le piu recente ricerche viii + 330 pp. Milano. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 199 

1897. Montessus, R. de. Fonctions sous forme de determinant. 
rintermediaire des Math. IV., pp. 132-133. 

1897. DiCKSTEiN, S. Propriedades y algunas relaciones de las 
wronskianas. Archivo de mat. II., pp. 102-108, 

128-132, 141-145. [Translation from Polish: probably 
from Prace mat.--fiz. I., pp. 5-25, year 1888.] 

1897. GORDAN, P. Le resultant de trois formes binaires 
quadratiques. Jonrn. de Liouville, (5; III., pp. 195- 

201. 

1897. Peano, G. Sul determinante Wronskiano. Aiti ... Accad. 
dei Lincei, (Roma). (5) VI., pp. 413-415. 

1897. Hathaway, A. S. Alternate processes. Proceedings 

Indiana Acad. Sci. pp. 11 7-1 2 7. 

1897. Davis, E. W. On the sign of a determinant's term. Amer- 
ican Journ. of Math. XIX., p. 383. 

1897. Gasco, L. G. Resolution por determinantes de los sistemas 
de ecuaciones lineales. Archivo de mat. II., pp. 

124-127. 

1897. Nanson, E. J. On the relations between the coaxial minors 
of a determinant. Philos. Magazine, XLIV., pp. 

362-367. 

1897. d'Avillez, J. F. Sobre algunas applicagones dos determin- 
antes a geometria de triangulo. Jorn. de sci. mat. 
phys. e nat. (Lisboa), XVII. , pp. 14-42. 

1897. Nanson, E. J. On determinant notation. Philos. Magazine, 
XLIV., pp. 396-400. 

1897. Gordan, p. Resultanten ternaren Formen. Math. Annalen, 
L., pp. 1 13-132. 

1897. Cazzaniga, T. Sopra i determinanti gobbi. Rendic 

1st. Lombdrdo, (Milano). (2) XXX., pp. 1 303-1 308. 

1897. Bourlet, C. Sur un determinant remarquable. Nouv. 
Annates de Math. (3) XVI., pp. 369-373. 

1897. AuTONNE, L. Sur un certain jacobien. Nouv. Annates de 
Math. XVI., pp. 376-379. 

1897. Reuschle, C. Konstituententheorie, eine neue, principielle 
und genetische Methode zur Invariantentheorie. Ver- 
handl. d. intern, math. Kongresses, (Zurich), pp. 122- 
140. 

1897. Rados, G. Zur Theorie der adjungierten quadratischen 
Formen. Verhandl. d. intern, math. Kongresses, 

(Zurich), pp. 163-165. 

1897. Gordan, P. Resultante ternarer Formen. Verhandl. d. 
intern, math. Kongresses, (Ziirich), pp. 143-144. 

1897. GuiMARAES, R. Regie pratique pour developper les deter- 
minants du 4i^« ordre. Assoc, franqaise 

(Congres de St. Etienne). II., pp. 1 29-131. 



200 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1897. Giordano, G. Sulla Jacobiana d'una biquadratica e d'una 
quadratica. Giornale di Mat. XXXV., pp. 349-353- 

1897. Cazzaniga, T. Relazioni fra i minori di un determinante di 
Hankel. Rendic. ... 1st. Lombardo, (Milaiio). 

(2) XXXI., pp. 610-614. 

1897. Metzler, W. H. Compound determinants. American 

Journ. of Math. XX., pp. 253-272. 

1897. Miller, W. J. C. (A three-line zero determinant with 

trigonometrical elements.) (Problem 13638.) Educ. 

Times, L., p. 433 ; Math, from Educ. Times, LXX., 

p. 128. 
1897. Muirhead, R. F. (On the three-line minors formed from 

a 4-by-5 array of elements.) (Problem 1365 1). Educ. 

Times, L., p. 434; Math, from Educ. Times, LXIX., 

pp. 52-54; LXXI., pp. 121-122. 

1897. Studnicka, F. J. (New general geometrical formulae.) [In 

Czech.] Vestnik Ceske Akad. VI., pp. 369-376. 

1897. Vivanti, G. Sulle trasformazioni infinitesime che lasciano 
invariata un' equazione pfaffiana. Rendic. ... Circola 
Mat. (Palermo), XII., pp. 1-20. 

1897. Russian, C. [K.]. (On the theory of the pfafiian transforma 
tion.) [In Polish.] Trace mat.-fiz. VIII. , pp. 

61-98; IX., pp. 61-102. 

1897. Nanson, E. J. A problem of Sylvester's in elimination. 
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXII., pp. 150-157. 

1897. Baker, H. F. Note on a property of Pfaffians. Proceed- 
ings London Math. Soc. XXIX., pp. 141-142. 

1897. Stoffaes, . Theorie des determinants. Lille 

1897. Muir, Th. a relation between permanents and determinants. 
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXII., pp. 134- 
136. 

1897. LoEWY, A. Ueber bilineare Formen mit conjugirt imaginaren 
Variabeln. Abhandl. ... Akad. d. Naturf. (Halle). 
LXXI., pp. 379-446; Math. Annalen. L., pp. 557- 
576 [a-^ extract merely]. 

1897. ScHULZE, E. Fine Determinantenformel. Zeitschrift f. 
Math. u. Phys. XLIL, pp. 313-322. 

1897. Studnicka, F. J. (On alternants and allied determinants.) 

[In Czech.] Vestnik Krdl. Ceske Spol. Nduk. No. 
IX., 75 pp. 

1898. BiCKMORE, C. E. (On the skew circulant of the fourth order.) 

(Problem 13748). Educ. Times, LL, p. 40; Math, 
from Educ. Times, LXIX., p. 85. 

1898. Valentiner, H. En Determinantenformel. N yt Tidsskrifi 
f. Mat. IX., pp. 15-16. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 201 

1898. Szl'Ts, N. V. Ueber die Bildung der Resultante und des 
grdssten gemeinsamen Theilers zweier ganzen rationale!- 
Functionen einer Variabeln. Monatshefte f. Math, 

u. Phys. IX.. pp. 34-4::. 

1898. Igel, B. Beweis einiger Determinantentheoreme von Sylves- 
ter. Monatshefte f. Math. u. Phys. IX., pp. 47-54. 

1898. Bortolotti, E. Sulla generalizzazione della proprieta del 

determinante Wronskiano. Rendic Accad. dei 

Lincei, (Roma). (5) VII., lo sem. pp. 45-50. 

1898. Nanson, E. J. On the ellipse-glissette elimination problem. 
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXII., pp. 1 58-161. 

1898. ^luiR, Th. The relations between the coaxial minors of a 
determinant of the fourth order. Transactions 

Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXXIX.. pp. 323-339. 

1898. Cazzaniga, T. Intorno ad un tipo di determinanti nulli 
d'ordine infinito. Annali di Mat. (3) I., pp. 83-94. 

1898. Anissimoff. W. Sur une formule nouvelle relative aux 
determinants et son application a la theorie des 
equations differentielles lineaires. Math. Annalen, 

I>I., pp. 388-400. 

1898. Studnicka, F. J. (On the symbolism of determinants in 
general, and that of the adjugate determinants of higher 

order in particular.) [In Czech]. Vestnik Ceske Akad. 
VII., pp. 73-81. 
1898. Metzler, W. H. a theorem in determinants. American 
Journ. of Math. XX., pp. 273-276. 

1898. Metzler, W. H. On the excess of the number of combina- 
tions in a set which have an even number of inversions 
over those which have an odd number. American 
Journ. of Math, XXII., pp. 55-59. 

1898. Laurent, H. Expose d'une theorie nouvelle de substitutions. 
Journ. de Liouville, (4) IV., pp. 75-1x9. 

1898. Massip, L. Demonstration du theoreme de Janni. Journ. 

de Math. Spec. XXII., pp. 102-103. 
1898. Ravut, L. Remarques sur une matrice. Nouv. Annates de 

Math. (3) XVII., pp. 1 1 8-1 20. 

1898. Studnicka, F. J. (On the symbolism of determinants. . . .) 
[In Czech]. Vestnik Ceskc Akad. VII.. pp. 159-164. 

1898. Studnicka. F. J. (A new theorem in the theory of integers.) 
[In Czech]. Vestnik Ceske Akad. VII., pp. 165-167. 

1898. Studnicka. F. J. (A new theorem in determinants.) [In 
Czech.] Vestnik Ceske Akad. VII.. pp. 167-169. 

1898. Burnside. W. On linear homogeneous continuous groups 
whose operations are permutable. Proceedings 

London Math. Soc. XXIX., pp. 3-5-352. 



302 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1898. Rados, G. Ueber die Bedingungsgleichungen zwischen den 
Coefficienten der orthogonalen Substitutionen. Math, 
u. natiirw. Berichtc aus Ungarn, XVI., pp. ;336-240. 

11898. Philippot, I. H. Sur quelques points de la theorie des 
transformations lineaires. Man. soc. roy. des sci. 
(Liege). XX., X^o. 9, 14 pp. 

J 898. Metzler, W. H. On the roots of a determinantal equation. 
American Joiirn. of Math. XXI., pp. 367-368. 

1898. Jamet, V. Sur la division des polynomes entiers. Ann- 
ales Facidte des sci. (Marseille). VIII., pp. 151- 

161. 

1898. Cazzaniga, T. Sul calculo di qualche determinante 
numerico. Giornale di Mat. XXXVI., pp. 362-367. 

^898. ViSNYA, A. Zur Theorie der inducierten linearen Substitutio- 
nen. Math. u. naturiv. Berichie aits Ungarn, 
XVI., pp. 187-193. 

1898. ViVANTi, G. Sul determinante wronskiano. Rendic 

Accad. dei Lincei, (Roma.)., (5) VII., pp. 194-197. 

1898. Cazzaniga, T. Precis d'une theorie elementaire des deter- 
minants cubiques d'ordre infini. Math. Annalen, LIII., 
pp. 272-288. 

1898. Studnicka, F. J. (Contribution to the theory of skew 
symmetric determinants.) [In Czech]. Vestnik Ccske 

Akad. VII., pp. 235-239. 

1898. Studnicka, F. J. (How to express a minor of the product of 
two determinants by means of their minors.) [In 
Czech]. Vestnik Ceske Akad. VII., pp. 239-247. 

1898. Studnicka, F. J. (On a new kind of adjugate determinants.) 
[In Czech]. Vestnik Ceske Akad. VII., pp. 283-291. 

1898. LovETT, E. O. On the general theory of anharmonics. Pro- 
ceedings London Math. Soc. XXIX., pp. 566-575. 

1898. BuDiSAVLjEVic, E. Grundziige der Determinantentheorie 
und der projectivischen Geometrie. Wien. 

J 898. KUHNE, H. Die Uebertragung eines geometrischen Lehr- 
satzes auf Mannigfaltigkeiten von geradem Ordnung 
als Beispiel der Anwendung einer schiefen Determin- 
ante. Crellcs Journ. CXIX., pp. 186-195. 

1898. Beez, . Ueber die automorphe Transformation einer Sum- 
me von Quadraten mit Hilfe infinitesimaler Trans- 
formationen und hoherer komplexer Zahlen. Zeit- 
schrift f. Math. 11. Phys'. XLIIL, pp. 65-79, 1 21-132. 

1898. Brambilla. a. Intomo ad alcuni determinanti. Periodica 

di Mat. XIII., pp. J 69-175. 

1898. Studnicka, F. J. (Considerations on the theory of altern- 
ants.) [In Czech]. Vestnik Ceske Akad. VII., 
PP- 350-358- 



List of Writings on Determinants. 203 

1898. Xanson. E. J. On partial compounds. Ulcssenger <?/ 

Ma//L XXVIII., pp. 17-19. 
1898. Capelli, a. Lezioni di algebra complementare. 2'' ediz. 

xvi + 680 pp. X^apoli. 

1898. Lieber. H., und Mqsebeck, C. Aufgaben iiber kubische und 
diophantische Gleichungen. Determinanten und Ket- 
tenbriiche, Combinationslehre und hohere Reihen. 

vi+ 129 pp. Berlin. 

1898. Roe, E. D. Die Entwickelung der Sylvester schen Determin- 
ante nach Xormal-Formen. vi+-2 pp. Leipzig. 

1898. Weber, H. Lehrbuch der Algebra. 2te Auflage. 

xvi + 704 pp. Braunschweig. 

1898. Loria. G. Sopra una classe notevole di alternanti d'ordine 
qualsivoglia. Periodico di Mat. XIII.. pp. 129-138; 

Vestnik Krdl. Ceskc Spot. Ndiik. Xo. 57, 13 pp. 

1898. 1'raverso, X. Sopra la differenza di due determinanti 
qualunque. Fcriodico di Mat. XIII., pp. 146-148. 

1898. FoNTENE, G. Sur un systeme remarquable de ti relations 
entre deux systemes de )i quantites. Nouv. AnnaUs 
de Math. XVII. . pp. 317-328. 

1898. LoEWY, A. Ueber die Charakteristik einer reellen quad- 
ratischen Form von nicht versch\\indender Deter- 
minanten. ^Lath. Annalen, LII.. pp. 588-592. 

1898. Waelsch, E. Ueber eine geometrische Behandlungsweise 
der Elemente der Determinantentheorie. Moiiats- 

hefte f. Math. n. Phvs. IX., pp. 207-214. 

1898. Nanson, E. J. (The equations connecting the two-line 
determinants formable from a 2-by-« array.) (Problem 
13925.) Ediic. Times, LI., p. 328. 

1898. Roe. E. D. On symmetric functions. American Math. 
Monthly, v., pp. 1-6, 25-30, 53-58, 103-107, 129-135, 
161-165. 

1898. Laisant, C. a. Application geometrique d'une proposition 

d'algebre. Assoc, francaise (Congres de 

Xantes.) IL, pp. 73-76. 

1898. Stephanos, C. Sur un mode de composition des determin- 
ants et des formes bilineaires. Giornalc di Mat. 
XXXVL, pp. 376-379- 

1898. Dickson, L. E. Concerning a linear homogeneous group in 
C,„,, variables isomorphic to the general linear 
homogeneous group in m variables. Brill. American 
Math. Soc. v.. pp. 120-135. 

1898. Beke, E. L'eber die Fundamentalgleichungen der homri- 
genen Hnearen Differentialgleirhungen. Math, 

u. nafiiriv. Berichte aiis Ungani. XV.. pp. 273-28 r. 



204 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1898. Nanson. E. J. (A series of vanishing pers\ mmetric deter- 
minants.) (Problem 13957.) Ediic. Times, LI., 
p. 389. 

1898. Dickson, L. E. The structure of certain linear groups with 
quadratic invariants. . Proceedings London Math. 

Soc. XXX., pp. 70-98. 

1898. Candioti, M. R. Fracciones continuas. Anales 

soc. cient. Argentina, XLVI., pp. 149-158. 

1898. Pringsheim, a. Irrationalzahlen und Convergenz unend- 
licher Prozesse. E}ic vkl. d. inaiJi. Wiss. 1., 

pp. [47-146] 141-146. 

1898. Netto, E. Combinatorik. Encvkl. d. math. Wiss. 1.. 

pp. 28-46. 

1898. ScARPis, U. Sui determinanti di valore massimo. Rendu. 

1st. Lombardo, (Milano.) {2) XXXI., pp. 1441- 

1446. 

1898. GoRDAN, P. Sur le resultant de deux equations. Comptes 
Rendus .... (Paris.) CXXVIL. pp. 539-541. 

1898. Rados, G. Inducierte lineare Substitutionen. Math. u. 
naturw. Berichte aus Ungarn, XVI., pp. 241-262. 

1898. Baur, L. Ueber die verschiedenen Wurzeln einer algebra- 
ischen Gleichung und deren Ordnungen. Math. 
Annalen, LIL, pp. 11 3- 119. 

1898. Berry, A. On the evaluation of a certain determinant 
which occurs in the mathematical theory of statistics, 
and in that of elliptic geometry of any number of 
dimensions. Proceedings Cambridge Phil. Soc. 

X., pp. 2-10. 

1898. Studnicka, F. J. {Kq-w theorems on certain special deter- 
minants.) [In Czech.] Vesinik Ceske Akad. VII.. 
PP- 477-493- 

1898. BiCKMORE. C. E. (Properties of a simple cont^uuant whose 
diagonal elements are all equal.) (Problem 14040.) 
Ednc. Times, LI., p. 472. 

1898. Bano, a. S. Om en Trediegradsligning. TSIxt Tidsskrift 

f. Mai. B. IX., pp. 94-96. 

1898. Young, W. H. On the null-spaces of a one-system and its 
associated complexes. Proceedings London Math. 

Soc. XXX., pp. 33-53. 

1898. Hadamard, J. Sur les conditions de decomposition des 

formes. Bull. soc. viath. de France, XXVIL. 

PP- 34-47- 
1898. Le Gr.\nd Roy, E. Sur Tapplication des determinants a la 

methride des moindres carre-r. Archives des pJiys. 

ei not. (Geneve.) (4) VII.. p. z,9>i^. 



List of Writings on Determinants. ::o5 

1898. LoEWY. A. Zur Theorie <ler Gruppen linearer Substitutionen. 
Math. Atinalen, LIIL. pp. 225-242. 

1898. Laisant. a. Determinant de quatre points dun plan par 

rapport a un cinquieme point. Jortt. de sci. 

math. phys. e nat. (Lisboa.) (2) V., pp. 205-206. 

1899. Gerhardt, C. J. Der Briefwechsel von Gottfried Wilhelm 

Leibnitz mit Mathematikern. L 

xxviii -1-760 pp. Berlin. 

1899. Studnicka, F. J. (Litroduction to the theor)^ of determin- 
ants.) [In Czech.] Sbornik Jednoty Ceskych 
'Math. (Prag.) Cislo 3 (1899), 230 pp. 

1899. ^L\NSiON, P. Introduction a la theorie des determinants. 
36 edition. 40 pp. Gand. 

1899. Mansion, P. Einleitung in die Theorie der Determinanten, 
fiir Gvmnasien und Realschiilen. Aus der dritten 
franzosischen Auflage ubersetzt von B. J. Clasen. 

40 pp. Leipzig. 

1899. Gavrilovitch, B. Teoria determinanata. 

xii-f278p[). Belgrade. 

1899. DoLP, H. Die Determinanten, nebst Anwendung auf die 
Losung algebraischer und analytischer Aufgaben. 
5*® -^ufl. iv + 95 pp. Darm.stadt. 

1899. Nanson, E. J. On the eliminant of a set of quadrics. ternary 
or quaternarv. Proceedings Roy. Sac.. Edinburgh, 

XXII.. pp. 353-358. 

1899. MuiR. Th. Determination of the sign of a single term of a 
determinant. Proceedings Rov. Sac. Edinburgh, 

XXIL, pp. 441-477- 

1899. Metzler, W. H. On a determinant each of whose elements 
is the product of k factors. American Math. Monthly, 
VII., pp. 151-153. 

1899. MCllek, E. Beweis einiger Determinantensatze mittels der 
Grassmann'sche Ausdehnungslehre. Zeitschrift f. 

Math. u. Phys. XLIV., pp. 28-40. 

1899. Lerch, M. (On certain formulae of the theory of deter- 
minants.) [In Czech.] Rozpravy Ceske Akad. 
VIIL, No. 12. 16 pp. 

1899. Studnicka, F. J. Beitrage zur Determinanten-Theorie. 
'Monatshefte f. Math. u. Phvs. X., pp. 1-17. 

1899. Burnside, W. On the reduction of a linear substitution 
to its canonical from. Proceedings London Math. 

Soc. XXX.. pp. [80-194. 



2o6 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1899. Brill, J. On the corai^Iete system of multilinear differen- 
tial covariants of a single pfaffian expression, and of a 
set of pfaffian expressions. Proceedings London 

ISlatli. Soc. XXX., pp. 263-271. 

1899. Nanson. E. J. (A .series of va,ni.shing persymmetric deter- 
minants.) (Problem 14 108.) Edtic. Times, \A1., 

V- 93- 
1899. Christie, R. W. D. (On the number of terms in a continu- 
ant.) (Problem 14 131.) Educ. Times, LII.,. 
p. 94 ; IMatli. from Ediic. Times. LXXIII., p. 71. 

1899. MuiR, Th. The multiplication of an alternant by a sym- 
metric function of the variables. Proceedings 
Roy. Soc, Edinburgh, XXII.. pp. 539-542. 

1899. Young, A. The irreducible concomitants of any number of 
binary qualities. Proceedi^igs London Math. Soc. 

XXX., pp. 290-307. 

1899. Studnicka, F. J. (New contributions tO' the theory of 
determinants and to the application of it.) [In Czech.] 

Vesinik Ceske Akad. VIII.. pp. 59-67. 197-208. 

1899. ScHLESiNGER, L. Ueber vertauschbare lineare Substitutionen. 
CreJle's Journ. CXXL. pp. 177-187. 

1899. Peirce, J. M. Determinants of quaternions. Bull. 
American Math. Soc. V., pp. 335-338. 

1899. Cazzaniga, T. Appunti sulla moltiplicazione dei deter- 

minanti normaloidi. Aunali di Mat. (3) II., i)p. 

229-238. 
1899. MuiR, Th. On a development of a determinant of the 

;H«th order. Transactions Row Soc. Edinburgh^ 

XXXIX., pp. 623-628. 

1899. Proubet, p. Note sur une formule qui renferme comme 
cas particulier la formule des accroissements finis. 
Revue de Math. Spec V (9^ annee) pp. 142-144. 

1899. Scarpis. U. Una proprieta dei determinanti dedotta dal 
concetto di sostituzione. Giornale di Mat. 

XXXVIL, pp. 73-79. 

1899. Neuberg, J. (The difference between two terms of the 
adjugate determinant.) (Problem 14167.) Educ. 
Times, LII., p. 199; Math, from Educ Times, 

LXXII.. pp. 39-40. 

1899. Russian, C. K. (Certain theorems on symbolic determin- 
ants.) [In Russian.] JMem Univ. (Odessa.) 

LXXVIL. pp. 323-348. 

1899. Hedrick, E. R. On three-dimensional determinants. Ann- 
als of Math. (2) I., pp. 49-67. 

1899. Cazzaniga, T. Intorno ai reciproci dei determinanti normali. 
Atti Accad. (Torino.) XXXIV., pp. 495-514. 



List of Writings ox Determinants. 207 

1899. Lewickv. W. Einige Eemerkungen zur Lagrange'schen 
Interpolationsformeil. Arcliiv d. Math. u. Phys. 

(2) XVIL. pp. 214-2J4. 

1899. EoRiNi, Yj. I continuanli. jj- pp Forli. 

1899. ScHULZE. E. Eine Determinantenformei. Zeiischrifi f. 
Math. II. Phvs. XLIV.. pp. 167-175. 

1899. Jung, V. (Contributions to the theory of alternants.) [In 

Czech.] Rozpravy Ceskc Akad. VIII., No. 38, 22 pp. 

1899. MuTH. P. Theorie und Anwendung der Elementartheiler. 

xvi. + 236. Leipzig. 

1899. Thyagaragaiyar, V. R. (A set of equations connected with 
circulants.) (Problem 14240.) Educ. Times, LIL, 

p. 270; Math, from Edtic. Times. LXXIII., p. 56. 

1899. MuiR, Th. Note on a persymmetric eliminant. Proceed- 
ings Roy. Sac. Edinburgh, XXII., pp. 543-546. 

1899. Koch. H. y. Sur les fonctions implicites definies par une 
infinite dequations siniultanees. Bull. soc. math, 

de France. XXVII.. pp. 215-227. 

1899. MuiR. Th. On the eliminant of a set of general ternary 
quadrics. Transactions Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 

XXXIX.. pp. 667-684. 

1899. Mkkay, Ch. Sur un determinant dont celui de Vandermonde 
n'est quun cas particulier. Revue de Math. Spec. 
IX., pp. 217-219. 

1899. McLaren, Lord. Symmetrical solution of the ellipse- 
glissette elimination prf)blem. Proceedings Roy. 

Soc. Edinburgh. XXIII.. pp. 379-387. 

1899. Lovett, E. O. a theorem in determinants. Annals of 

Math. XII.. pp. 161-163. 

1899. Nanson, E. J. (Condition for the Yanishing of all the ///-line 
minors of an «-line determinant.) (Problem 14258.) 
Educ. Times, LIL. p. 301. 

1899. BuRNSlDE, W. S. and Panton, A. W. An introduction to 
determinants, being a chapter from " The Theory of 
Equations.'' g^ pp Dublin. 

1899. Studnicka, F. J. Beitrag zur Theorie der cyclischen Deter- 
minanten. Monatshefte f. Math. u. Phys. X., 

PP- ^93-197- 

1899. Russian, C. K. (System of Pfaffian equations.) Mem. ... 
Univ. (Odessa.) LXXVIIL. pp. [385-576] 417-429. 

1899. Bes, K. Theorie generale de relimination, d'apres la 
methode Bezout, suiYant un nouveau procede. TVr- 
Iiajid. ... Akad. v. Wctensch. (Amsterdam.) VI., No. 
7. 121 pp. 



jo8 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

(899. Bes, K. The formation of the resultant. [In English.] 
Proceedings Roy. Acad. Amsterdam. II., pp. 85-88. 

1899. Koch, H. v. Sur une application des determinants infinis a 

la theorie des equations fonctionelles. Bihang ... 

Vtf.-Akad (Stockholm.). XXV., Afd. I., No. 5, 

-4 PP- 
1899. Jung, V. (Remark on an alternant.) [In Czech.] Casopis 

pro pestovdni math, a fys. XXIX., pp. 41-4:;. 

1899. Mathews, G. B. (Solution of an equation in matrices.) 

(Problem 14333.) Kduc. Times, LI I., p. 431. 

1900. Macloskie, G. a method of solving determinants. Ann- 

als of Math. (2) I., pp. 74-76. 
1899. Vleck, i^. B. V. On the determination of a series of Sturm's 

functions by the calculation of a single determinant. 

Annals of Math. (2) I., pp. 1-13. 
1899. Studnicka, F. J. Ueber eine neue Art von Derivation.s- 

determinanten, Monatsheftc f. Matli. u. Phys. 

X., pp. 338-342. 
1899. Ferber, . Sur mi symbole analogue aux determinants. 

Bull. Soc. Math, de France, XXVII., pp. 285-288. 

1899. MoNTESSUS, R. DE. Reduction d'un determinant. L'ln- 
iermediaire des Math. VI., p. 257. 

1899. Brill, J. Note on Clebsch's second method for the integra- 
tion of a Pfaffian equation. Proceedings London 
Math. Soc. XXX., pp. 315-332. 

1899. Mertens, Fr. Zur Theorie der Elimination. Sitzungsb 

Akad. d. Wiss. (Wien.) CVIIL, 2 A., pp. 1173-J238. 
J 344-1 386. 

1899. White. H. S. Two elementary geometrical applications of 
determinants. Annals of Math. (2) I., pp. 103-107. 

1899. MuiR, Th. On the eliminant of a set of general ternary 
quadrics. Transactions Roy. Soc. Kdinburgh, XL., 

PP- ^1-2^^- 

1899. Studnicka, F. J. (On summatory determinants in general 
and figurate determinants in particular.) [In Czech.] 
Rozpravy Ceske Akad. IX., No. 4, 8 pji. 

1899. Elliott, E. B. A simple proof of the reality of the roots 
of discriminating determinant equations, and of 
kindred facts. Quart, foiirn. of Math. XXXI., 

pp. 233-240. 

1899. Crawford, L. On the evaluation of a certain determinant. 

Proceedings Kdinhiirgh Math. Soc. XVIII., pp. 25-27. 

1900. Vivanti, G. Remarque sur un determinant .special. El 

Progreso Mat. (2) II., pp. 13-14. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 209 

1900. Schmidt, H. Beweis eines Determinantensatzes. Maili.- 

natiirw. Mitteil. (Stuttgart.) (2) II., pp. 20-21. 
1900. Kantor, S. Ein Theorem iiber Determinanten. Nachrichteti 

Akad. d. Wiss. ... (Gottingen.) pp. 272-281. 

1900. Studnicka, F. J. (On the co-efficients of faculties.) [In 

Czech.] Rozpravy Ccske Akad. No. 17,. 10 pp. 
1900. Moore, E. H. A fundamental remark concerning determin- 

antal notation, with the evaluation of an important 

determinant of special form. Annals of Math. 

(2) I., pp. 177-188. 
1900. Sibirani, F. Su alcuni determinant^ Periodico di Mat. 

(2) II., pp. 247-252. 
1900. Stephanos, C. Sur une extension du calcul des substitutions 

lineaires. Joiirn. de Lioiiville, (5) VI., pp. 73-128. 

1900. Mansion, P. Elements de la theorie des determinants, avec 
de nombreux exercice.s. 6me edition, revue et aug- 
"^entee. 1V. + 92 pp. Paris. 

1900. Muir, Th. On certain aggregates of determinant minors. 
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXIIL, pp. 142- 
154- 

a 900. Koch, H. v. Sur quelques points de la theorie des deter- 
minants infinis. Acta Math., XXIV., pp. 89-122. 

1900. Koch, H. v. Sur la transformation des formes bilineaires. 

Ofvcrsigt ... Vet.-Akad (Stockholm.) LVIL. pp. 

335-351- 
1900. Muir, Th. The theory of alternants in the historical c.rder 
of its development up to 1841. Proceedings Roy. 
Soc. Edinburgh, XXIIL, pp. 93-132. 

1900. Muir, Th. On Jacobi's expansion for the difference-product 
when the number of elements is even. Proceedings 
Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXIIL, pp. 133-141. 

1900. Muir, Th. A development of a Pfaffian having a vacant 
minor. Transactions Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XL., 

pp. 49-58. 

1900. Laurent, H. L'Elimination. 75 pp. Paris. 

1900. Gavrilovitch, B. (On Bernoulli's and Euler"s numbers.) [In 
Servian.] Proceedings Servian Acad. Sci. LXIIL, 

pp. 131-142. 

1900. (jIORdano, G. Sui determinanti funzionali e sulle matrici 
jacobiane. Giornale di Mat. XXXVIIL, pp. 210-216. 

1900. Miller, G. A. On the product of two substitutions. 
American Journ. of Math. XXIL, pp. 185-190. 

1900. Xeuberg, J. (The circulant whose elements are sines of 
angles in equidifferent progression.) Mathesis, 

(2) X., pp. 117-119, VIIL, p. 215, III., p. 192. 



2IO Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1900. BiLENKi, H. Note sur les permutants. Noitv. An)iale^ 

de Math. (3) XIX.. pp. 213-216. 

1900. Cazzaniga, T. Qualche complemento al teorema di 
Hunyady su certi deteiminanti. Periodico di mat. 

(2) III., pp. 17-22. 

1900. Koch, H. v. Remarques sur les facteurs de Mobius. Ofver- 

sigt .... Vct.-Akcid (Stockholm.) LVIL, pp. 659- 

668. 

1900. Gavrilovitch. B. (On an important property of determin- 
ants.) [In Servian.] {Proceedings Servian Acad. Sci.) 
LXIIL, pp. 1 15-130. 

1900 Le resultant de trois equations generates de 

coniques. VIntermediaire des Math. VII., p. 211. 

1900. BoTTCHER, L. Einige Hauptsatze aus der Theorie der 
Grevy'schen Determinanten. Bull. Intern. Acad. 

Sci. (Cracovia.) pp. 227-228. 

1900. LoEwy, A. Ueber die Transformation einer Hermite'schen 
Form von nicht verschwindender Determinante in sich, 

Nachrichtcn .... A had. d. Wiss (Gottingen.) pp. 

298-302. 

1900. Pascal. E. Die Determinanten. Eine Darstellung ihrer 
Theorie und Anwendungen mit Riicksicht auf die neu- 
eren Forschungen. I'erichtigte deutsche Ausgabe von 
H. Leitzmann. xvi-f266 pp. Leipzig. 

1900. Prang, C. Einfiihrung in die Theorie und den Gebrauch 
der Determinanten. j^.+ -^ pp ^^^y^^ 

1900. MuiR, Th. The theory of skew determinants and Pfaffian.s 
in the historical order of its development up to 1857. 
Proceedings Rov. Soc. Edinburgh, XXIII., pp. 181-207. 

1900. Ferber, . Application du symbole des determinants 
positifs. Bull. Soc. Math, de France, XXVIII., 

pp. 1 2 8- J 30. 

1900. Cadenat, a. Regie pratique pour obtenir le developpement 
d'un determinant de degre quelconque. Assoc. 

francaise (Congres de Paris.) pp. 241-247. 

1900. Rados, G. Note sur la theorie des substitutions orthogonales, 
Deuxietnc Congres Intern, des Math. (Paris). 

1900. Gavrilovitch, B. Sur une propriete remarquable des deter- 
minants. Deuxieme Congres Intern, des Math. (Paris). 

1900. Nanson, E. J. On certain determinant theorems. Crellis 
Journ. CXXIL, pp. 179-185. 

1900. Sainte-Marie, C. F. Relations entre les mineurs du second 
ordre d'un detenninant. L'lnierntidiaire des Math. 
VIL. pp. 326. 416-420. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 211 

1900. BoCHER, M. On linear independence of functions of one 
variable. Btdl. American ISLath. Soc. (2) VII., 

pp. 120-12 1. 

1900. Meyer, Fr. Ueber singulare bilineare Fornien und Relatio- 
nern zwischen Unterdeterniinanten. Jahresh. d. deut- 
schcn Math.-Verein. (Aachen.) IX.. (i) pp. 85-91. 

1900. JiiRGENS, . Numerische Berechnung von Determinanten. 
Jaltresb. d. deiUschen Math.-Verein. (Aachen.) IX.. (i) 
pp. 131-136. 

1900. MacMahon, p. a. a property of the characteristic symbolic 
determinant of ;/ quantics in n variables. Report 

British Assoc LXX.. p. 644. 

1900. BocHER, M. The theory of linear dependence. Annah 

of Math. (2) II., pp. 81-96. 

1900. Bendixson. L. Sur les racines d'une equation fondamentale. 

Ofversigt Vet.-Akad (Stockholm.) LVIL, 

pp. 1 099- II 03. 

1900. MuiR. Th. a peculiar set of linear equations. Proceed- 

ings Roy. Soc. Edinburgh. XXIII. , pp. 248-260. 

1900. MuiR, Th. Some identities connected with alternants and 
with elliptic functions. Transactions Rov. Soc. 

Edinburgh, XL., pp. 187-201. 

1900. TwEEDiE, Cii. Note on Dr. Muir's paper on a peculiar set 
of linear equations. Proceedings Rov. Soc. 

Edinburgh, XXIII. . pp. 261-268. 

1900. BoCHER, M. Certain cases in which the vanishing of the 
Wronskian is a sufficient condition for linear 
dependence. Transactions American Math. Soc. 

IL, pp. 139-149- 

1900. Gavrilovitch, B. O Pfafijanima. '^Rada" jngoslavenske 
acad. CXLIIL, pp. 1 61-170. 



21. 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Scifncf. 



AMENDMENTS TO FIRST LIST 

as printed in 
Quart. Joiirn. of Math., XVIII., pp. 110-149. 



P. 


no, I. 35- 




1. 36 


p- 


III, ]. 14 



p- 113. 

P- ii5> 

p. 118, 

p. 120, 



p. 124, 
p. 126, 



p. 127, 

p. 128, 

p. 129, 

P- i3o> 



P- i3^.- 

P- 133- 

P- 134. 

P- 135- 

P- 136, 

P- 137, 

P- 138, 

p. T40. 



21. 

32. 

13- 
20. 

38- 

21. 



34- 

4- 
21. 
12. 

n- 
24. 

9- 

3-'- 
23- 

17- 
25- 
32. 

7- 
10. 

38. 

15- 

12. 
6. 

. 5- 
16. 



Add "§257, p. 211; ^264, pp. 217, 218." 
Delete " ? ". 

The correct date is 15th Oct., 1810; .see Wronski's 
Refutation, p. 5. 

Add " ISIouv. Annates de Math. (2) XV., pp. 385- 
396. 433-451-" 

The line should read " Finck, P. T. E. Elements 
•I'Algebre (p. 95). iv. + 544 pp. Strasbourg." 
Add "■ (Euvres (i) XI., p. 439, XII., pp. 12-20." 
Add " Philos. Magazine (4) XIV., pp. 392- ." 
For " Schlafli ' read " Schlafli." 
After P'iedler insert "viii. + 271 pp." 
Delete " ? ", and before "Paris" insert "x + 224 
pp." 

For "Ferrari ' read "I'errara." 
P'or " Dodson " read " Dodgson." 
Add " Educ. Times, XIX., p. 280," the date being 
March, 1867. 

Add " Educ. Times. XXL. p. 139," the date l)eing 
Sept., J 868. 

For " p. 62 " read " 62 pp." 
Delete " ? ", and after "pp." in.sert " 144-146." 
Add " Educ. Times, XXIII., pp. 209, 259. ' 
For " pp. 22 " read "22 pp." 
For " LXXIII." read " LXXIV." 
For " Munro " read " Alonro." 

Add " Rendic 1st. Lombardo (Milano), 

V. fasc. 4." 

Add ''Educ. Times, XXIV., p. 296. XXV.. p. 18." 

Title begins with " Ein neuer." 

Add ''Educ. Times, XXVIL, pp. 45, 67.' 

Add "Educ. Times, XXVIL, pp. 45, 66.'" 

After " Comptes Rendus " in.sert " (Paris), 

LXXX., pp. 252-255," and delete the rest. 

Should be under 1878. 

Before " pp." insert " (5) 1." 

After " pp. " insert " 64." 

For " Teorie " read " Teorin," and for "pp. 121" 

read "121 pp." 

Before " Sui " insert " Nota." 

Add "Educ.Tvnes. XXVIIL. p. 252." 

Add "Educ. Times, XXX., p. 20." 

Add "Educ. Times, XXIX., p. 212," the date being 

Dec, 1876. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 



215 



p- 


141, 


1. 


9 

12 

13- 

17- 


p- 


142, 


1. 


4 






1. 


8. 






1. 


17 


p- 


143' 


1. 


16 


p- 


145- 


1. 


7 

38- 

40. 


p- 


146. 




10. 
12. 
20. 


p- 


147, 




13- 


p- 


148, 




41 



Delete " ? ". 

Delete " ? ". 

For " grad " read " graad." 

For " 3-31 " read " 31-33.' 

Before " pp.' insert "XVI.." and add "p. 344- 

Before " pp. " insert " LXXXVI." 

Add " Ed/ic. Times, XXXI., p. 161. " 

Perhaps wrongly placed ; the date of the fasciculus 

is 15th Feb., 1879. 

Add " Helsingfors Acta, XL, pp. 257-271." 

Delete the line. 

Add " Educ. Times, XXXIL, pp. 205. 268." 

For " 473 '" read " 463." 

Delete " ? ". 

After " pp " insert " 489-494." 

Add "Educ. Times, XXXIL, pp. 243. 315." 

For " Ventijol " read " Ventejol." 

Title should be " Een stelling omtrent determin- 

anten." 



AMENDMENTS TO SECOND LIST 

as printed in 
Quart. Journ. of Math.. XXL. pp. 299-320. 



P. 


301. 




36. 


p- 


302, 




37- 


p 


303> 




28. 


p- 


304, 




3°- 


p- 


311. 




24. 


p- 


312, 




I. 


p- 


313, 




22. 
41. 


p- 


314, 




38. 


p- 


315. 




18. 
19. 


p- 


316, 




22. 


p- 


320, 




22. 
27. 








41. 



Already given in first list. 

Add '^ Math, from Educ. Times, (2) IL, p. 95." 
Add "Educ. Times, LV.. p. 437; Math, from Educ 
Times, (2) III., p. 82." 
Add " Educ. Times, LI I., p. 338." 
Already given on p. 310. 

For " Sur " read " Sui '" ; 1. 2, for " de " read ' 
Add " Bull, dcs sci. math. (2) XL (2) pp. 10: 
After " Annales " insert " de Math.", and for 
410'"' read "401-409, 556-560." 
39, 40. Delete ; title already given. 
For " continuant " read " circulant." 
Add "VIIL, p. 215. X.. pp. 117-119.' 
Add "Educ. Times. L., p. 194." 
Add "Math, from Educ. Times. XLV.. pp. 8 
Add "Math, from Educ. Times, XLYIL, p. 
For " 44 " read " 560." 



di". 
-107.' 

"401- 



214 KEPORT S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

INDEX TO THE THREE LISTS. 



^bbadie, T. 


B 1852. 




Ahreas, W. 


C 1895, 


97- 


Albeggiani, M. 


A 1872, 


74, 75- 


Albuquerque, J. A. 


B 1884. 




Allegret, 


A 1857. 




AUersma, T. J. 


C 1884. 




A-lmeida, L. C. 


C 1893. 




Amanzio, D. 


B 1883. 




Amigues, E. 


C 1884, 


92, 95- 


Amoretti, V. 


C 1888. 




Andoyer, H. 


C 1895. 




Andre, D. 


A 1876; 


C 96. 


Andreief, C. 


C 1883. 




Anglin, A. H. 


C 1886(2), 87(3), 88. 


Anissimoff, W. 


C 1898. 




(Anonymous.) 


A 1854, 


57(2), 59, 60, 68; C 1900. 


Armenante, A. 


A 1866. 




Arnaldi, M. 


C 1896. 




Autonne, L, 


C 1897. 




.d'Avillez, J. F. 


C 1897. 




;Babczynski, 


A 1865. 




Bacas, D. 


B 1883. 




Baehr, G. F. 


A i860, 


61, 80. 


Bagnera, G. 


C 1886. 




Baker, H. F. 


C 1897. 




Baltzer, R. 


A 1857, 


61, 64. 70. 73, 7^ ; B 81 ; C 


Bang, A. S. 


C 1893. 


98. 


Baraniecki, M. A. 


A 1878. 


•» 


Barbier, Em. 


B 1883(2). 


Bardelli, [G?] 


A 1876. 




Bardey, E. 


B 1882. 




Bartl,"E. 


A 1878. 




Battaglini, G. 


A 1862, 


71- 


Battelli, S. 


C 1878. 




Bauer, G. 


C 1873. 




Baudrun, E. 


C 1891. 




Baur, C. W. 


C 1868. 




Baur, L. 


C 1898. 




Bazin, [H?] 


A i85r. 


54. 68 (under Salmon. G. 18 


Becker, J. C. 


A 187 r. 




Beez, . 


C T898. 




Beke. E. 


C 1898. 




Bellavitis, G. 


A 1857, 


62, 75- 


Beltrami, E. 


C 1873. 




Bendixson, L. 


C 1 900. 




Benoit, . 


C 7886. 




f!<Tg. F. J. V. d. 


B T879. 





2 87. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 215 



Berry, A. 


C 


1898. 






Bertrand, J. 


A 


1851; B ( 


54; C 70. 




Bes, K. 


C 


1899(2). 






Bezout, . 


A 


1764, 1779. 




Bhut, A. B. 


B 


1882. 






Bickmore, C. E. 


C 


1898(2). 






Biehler, Ch. 


A 


1880(2); 


C 80, 82, 87(2). 




Biermann, 0. 


C 


1891, 94. 






Bignon, 


A 


1870. 






Bilenki, H. 


C 


1 900. 






Binet, J. P. U. 


A 


181 2; C 


11(2), 37. 




Bocher, M. 


C 


1900(3). 






Borsch, A. 


C 


1879. 






Bonolis, A. 


A 


1867, 76; 


B 82; C 96. 




Boole, G. 


A 


1862. 






Booth, W. 


C 


1895. 






Borchardt, C. W. 


A 


1855, 59(2), 80: C 78. 




Bormi, B. 


C 


1899. 






Bortolotti, E. 


C 


1896, 98. 






Bourget, J. 


A 


1877; c 


71- 




Bourlet, C. 


C 


1897. 






Braasch, J. H. 


C 


1878. 






Brambilla, A. 


C 


1898. 






Brand, E. 


C 


1896(2). 






Brill, A. 


A 


1871; c 


89(2). 




Brill, J. 


C 


1895, 96, 


99(2). 




Bottcher, L. 


C 


1900. 






Brioschi, F. 


A 
C 


1852. 53> 
56. 


54(5). 55(3). 56(2), 


57(2;; 


Brisse, Ch. 


C 


1890. 






Brocard, H. 


C 


1895, 97- 






Brown, E. W. 


C 


1892, 94. 




/ 


Brunei, G. 


C 


1888. 






Brunn. H. 


C 


1892. 






Bruno, F. Faa de. 


A 


>8s2. S4- 
81; 
83. 


56, 59. 75, 76, 80 : 


B 59i 




C 






Buchheim, A. 


B 


1884. 






Buchwald, E. 


B 


1872. 






Budisavljevic, E. 


C 


1898. 






Bunkofer, W. 


B 


1883. 






Bumside, W. 


C 


^891, 93, 


98, 99. 




Bumside, W. S. 


c 


1899. 






Busche, E. 


c 


1891. 






Cadenat, A. 


c 


1900. 






Caldarera, F. 


A 


1871, 






Caldarera, G. 


C 


1893. 






Calo, B. 


C 


1895. 






Campbell. J. E. 


C 


1891, 92 . 







2i6 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Candioti, M. R. C 1898. 

Cantor, A 1855. 

Capelli, A. C 1886(3), ^P- 9°.- 9-> 95(-)- 9^- 

Carney, J. C 1892. 

Caro, R. C 1897. 

Carr, G. S. A 1879. 

Carvallo, E. C 1891(2). 

Casorati, F. A 1858, 72, 74, 80: i! 8j. 

Caspar}, F. B 1880, 81 ; C 80. 

Cassani, P. A 1872. 

Catalan, E. A 1839, 46, 58, 78(2); B 63. 78. 

Cauchy, A. L. A j8i2, 21, 40, 41(3). 47. 53; 

C 15. 29, 41(2), 85. 

Cayley, A. A 1841, 43(2), 44, 45(2). 46. 47(2), 48. 

5-- 53- 54- 56(3)- 5 7(-^)- 59(-^)- 60. 
6i. 7^- 73^ 74(2), 77; 

B 46, 52. 58; 

C 5I' 54, 55(2), 57> 60. 7J. 91(2), 92. 94. 

Cazzaniga. T. C 1896(2). 97(2), 98(3). 99(2), 1900. 

Ce.saro, E. A 1880(2): B 85(8); 

C 83, 8v 86. 92. 94. 

Cherriman, J. B. B 1882.' 

Chio, F. A 1853 ; B ^^. 

Chodnicek. J. C 1867. 

Christie, R. W. D. C 1899. 

Christoffel, E. B. B 1857. 

Chn,'Stal, G. B i88r. 

Ciamberlini, C. C 1895. 

Clasen. B. J. C 1888. 

Clebsch. A. A 1868(3). 

Clifford, W. K. B 1874. 

Cointe, I. L. A. le. A 1861. 

Colart, E. A 1880. 

Collet, J. C 1893. 

Combescure, E. A 1856, 67. 

Cosserat. E. C 1889. 

CotterilL T. A 1872 ; B 67 : C 75. 

Craig, Th. B 1883. 

Cramer, G. . A 1750. 

Crauford. G. E. C 189^. 

Crawfurd, A. Q. G. C 1841. 

Crawford, L. C 1899. 

Cremona. L. A 18^6. 60, 64. 

Crocchi. L. A 1878. 79; B 82. 8-, 

Croke, J. OB. C 1889. 

Cunningham, A. A 1874. 

Dahlander, G. R. A 1863. 

Darboux, G. A 1877 : (.' 76. 

David, . B 1882. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 217 



Davidov, 


A 1868. 




Davis, E. W. 


B 18823 C 97. 




Demoulin, A. 


C 1889, 97. 




Deruyts, F. 


C 1889. 




Deruyts, J. 


B 1881, 82; C 84, 92. 




Desnanot, P. 


B 1819. 




Desplanques, 


C 1887. 




Dick, G. R. 


A 1878. 




Dickson, J. D. H. 


A 1878, 79(2). 




Dickson, L.E. 


C 1898(2). 




Dickstein, S. 


C 1886(3), 88, 92, 97. 




Diekmann, J. 


A 1875, 76; B 80, 81; 


C 


Dietrich, M. 


A 1865, 68. 




Dittmar, 0. 


C 1892. 




Dodgson, C. L. 


A 1866, 67. 




Dolp, H. 


A 1866, 73, 77; C 87, 93, 


99 


Dotsch, G. 


B 1880. 




Donkin, W. F. 


A 1854; B 54. 




Donnini, P. 


C 1875. 




Dostor, G. 


A 1874, 77, 79; C 83. 




Drinkwater, J. E. 


A 1831. 




Drude, P. 


C 1887. 




Echols, W. H. 


C 1892, 93. 




Eddy, H. T. 


B 1882. 




Edwardes, D. 


B 1884; C 86. 




Egidi, G. 


C 1883. 




Elfrinkhof, L. v. 


C 1897. 




Elg6, . 


C 1896, 97. 




Elliott, E. B. 


B 1881 ; C 99. 




Emmerich, 


C 1888. 




Enneper, A. 


A 1861, 65. 




Erler, 


B 1880. 




Escandon, R. 


B 1883. 




Escherich, G. v. 


B 1880; C 92(2). 




Eugenio, V. 


A 1870, 71. 




Falk, M. 


A 1874, 76, 78(2); B 85 




Farkas, J. 


A 1880(2)3 C 81. 




Faure, . 


A 1855. 




Fehr, H. 


C 1895. 




Ferber, 


C 1899, 1900. 




Fergola, E. 


A 1863. 




Ferrara, L. 


A 1864. 




Ferrers, N. M. 


A 1855, 66; B 61. 




Ferussac, H. de. 


A 1845. 




Fiedler, W. 


A 1863, 77. 




Finck, P. T. E. 


A 1846. 




Fiore, V. 


A 1871.. 




Fiske, T. S. 


C 1889. 





89. 



C 79- 



2i8 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



Flint, A. S. 


C 1888. 


Fontaine, A. 


C 1748. 


Fontebasso, D. 


A 1873. 


Fontene, G. 


C 1875, 98. 


Forsyth, A. R. 


B 1884; C 87. 


Fouret, G. 


C 1886, 87, 89. 


Franke, E. 


A 1862, 76. 


Franklin, F. 


C 1890. 


Frascara, G. A. 


C 1880. 


Freuchen, P. 


A 1861, 63. 


Frobenius, G. 


A 1873, 76, n, 78(2), 79i B 7i; 




C 90, 94(2), 96. 


Fiirstenau, E. 


A i860, 72, 79; C 67. 


Gallenkamp, W. 


C 1858. 


Gambioli, D. 


C 1889, 91, 92. 


Garbieri, G. 


A 1874, 76, 78; B 78, 82; C 8A. 




C 91, 93(2). 


Garnier, J. G. 


C 1814. 


Gasco, L. G. 


B 1882; C 96, 97. 


Gasparis, A. de. 


A 1861, 68. 78. 


Gauss, C. F. 


A 1801. 


Gavrilovitch, B. 


C 1899, 1900(4). 


Geer, P. v. 


C 1875. 


Gegenbaur, L. 


A 1880; B 80, 82, 85; 




C 84, 87(2), 88(3), 90, 92(2), 93. 


Gelin, E. 


C 1893. 


Genese, R. W. 


B 1882. 


Gergonne, J. D. 


C 1813. 


Gerhardt. C. J. 


C 1891, 99. 


Gerlach, 


B 1882. 


Gerono, E. 


A 1870; C 72. 


Gibbs, J. W. 


C 1886. 


Gilbert, Ph. 


A 1869; B 80. 


Gillet, J. 


C 1895. 


Giordano, G. 


C 1897, 1900. 


Giudice, Fr. 


C 1883. 


Glaisher, J. W. L. 


A 1874(2), 76(3), 77, 78(3), 79(2), 8c(3); 




B 74, 84; C 78. 


Glashan, J. C. 


C 1889. 


Gomes-Teixeira (see 


Teixeira). 


Gordan. P. 


A 1868, 73, 75, 76; B 84, 85; 




C 70, 93. 94, 97(3), 98. 


Gordon, A. 


C 18&7. 


Goursat, E. 


C 1896. 


Grassmann. H. 


A 1844 ; C 61, 91. 


Gravelaar, N. L. W. 


A. A 1877; B 78. 


Groll, R. 


B 1881. 


Grosso, R. del. 


B 1857. 


Grunert, J. A. 


A 1842; B 36. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 219 



Grusintzeff, A. P. 


C 1891. 


Gubler, E. 


C 1890. 


Giinther, S. 


A 1873(3). 75(4), 76(2), 77, 78, 79 i 




B 80; C 73, 74. 


Guimaraes, R. 


C 1897. 


Gu]dberg, A. S. 


A 1876. 


Gundelfinger, S. 


A 1873. 


Hadamard, J. 


C 1892, 93, 94, 96, 98. 


Habler, T. 


C 1888. 


Haedenkamp, H. 


C 1841. 


Hagen, J. 


C 1882. 


Hahn, I. 


A 1879. 


Hall, A. 


C 1894. 


Hamburger, M. 


C 1885. 


Hammond, J. 


A 1875; B 79, 81, 82; C 82. 


Hankel, H. 


A 1861, 62, 65. 


Hansted, E. 


B 1880. 


Hanus, P. H. 


C 1886. 


Harang, G. 


A 1863. 


Harris, H. W. 


B 1877. 


Haskell, M. W. 


C 1892. 


Hathaway, A. S. 


C 1897. 


Hattendorf, K. 


A 1872; C 87. 


Haussner, R. 


C 1894. 


Hazzidakis, J. N. 


A 1880. 


Heal, W. E. 


C 1886. 


Hedrick, E. R. 


C 1899. 


Heger, I. 


A 1856. 


Heine, E. 


C 1858. 


Helmling, P. 


C 1876. 


Hensel, K. 


C 1889, 94(2). 


Hermes, J. 


C 1888. 


Hermite, Ch. 


A 1848, 49, 55, 63; C 54, 89. 


Hertzsprung, S. 


B 1879. 


Hesse, 0. 


A 1853, 58,68, 71(2), 72(3), 73; B 57; 




C 43. 44. 51. 58, 59. 80. 


Hemi, K. 


B 1881(2). 


H(i) 


A 1846. 


Hill, G. W. 


C 1877. 


Hill, M. J. M. 


C 1895. 


Hindenburg, C. F. 


B 1784. 


Hioux, V. 


C 1879. 


Hirsch, M. 


C 1809. 


Hirst, T. A. 


A 1859. 


Hoffmann, J. C. V. 


A 1880. 


Hoppe, R. 


A 1880; B 85. 


Horn, 


A 1875 (under Mansion, P.) 


Homer, J. 


A 1865. 



220 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Horta, F. P. C 1889, 90. 

Houel, J. . A 1861, 71. 

Howse, G. F. C 1889, 90, 

Hoza, F. A 1876(3); C 76(2). 

Humbert, E. B 1885; C 95. 

Humbert, G. C 1891. 

Hunyady, J. A 1866, 79, 80; B 75, 76, 77, 79(2), 

B 80(3), 81(3), 82(3); C 79- 

Igel, B. A 1877, 80; C 77. 92, 98- 

Isander, L. F. C i860. 

Ise, E. C 1873. 

Itzigsohn, C. C i885(unaer Cauchy), 88. 

Jacobi, C. G. J. A 1827, 33, 41(3), 45; 

B 30. 32, 35> 44; 

C 27(2), 29, 31, 33, 34, 45, 96(2). 

Jadanza, N. B 1882; C 84. 

Jamet, V. A 1877(2), 79; C 98. 

Janisch, E. C 1890. 

Janni, G. A 1858, 63(2). 

Janni, V. A 1873, 74, 79; B 78 ; C 76. 

Jarochenko, S. P. A 1871; C 94. 

Jenkins, M. C 1895. 

Jenrich, P. C 1882. 

Jezek, O. C 1884. 

Joachimsthal, F. A 1854, 56. 

Johnson, W. W. A 1876, 77; B 85(3); C 86. 

Joly, C. I. C 1896. 

Jonquieres, E. de C 1895. 

Jiirgens, E. C 1886. 1900. 

Jung, V. C 1899(2). 

Kaiser, H. B 1882, 84. 

Kantor, S. C 1900. 

Kapteyn, W. B 1881, 83. 

Kemper, D. A 1876. 

Killing, W. C 1889. 

Klempt, D. A. A 1880. 

Kleyber, J. A. C 1888. 

Klug, L. B 1881. 

Kneser, A. C 1891, 96. 

Koch, H. V. C 1890(4), 92, 94, 95(2), 96, 99(2), 

1900(3)- 
Kbhler, [C?] B 1884. 

Konig, J. A 1879. 

Kbnig, G. C 1877. 

Kbnigsberger, L. C 1889. 
Korczynski, J. C 1892. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 22 

Kostka, C. A 1875, 76, 77; B 81. 

Kraus, L. B 1884. 

Kretkowski, W. C 1882, 89, 92. 

Krober, . C 1883. 

Kronecker, L. A 1869; B 81, 82; 

C 81, 89(2), 90(5), 91. 

Kiihne, H. C 1892, 98. 

Iiachlan, R. C 1896. ' 

Lagrange, J. L. A 1772, 1773; C 1773. 

Lagrange, A. C 1897. 

Laguerre, E. A 1876. 

Laisant, A, C 1898. 

Laisant, C. A. C 1889, 91, 96, 98. 

Landre, C. L. A 1880. 

Landriani, A. A 1875. 

Landsberg, G. C 1892, 95. 

Laplace, . A 1772. 

Laquiere, , C 1881. 

Laurent, H. C 1886, 87, 88, 91, 92, 93(4), 98, 1900. 

Laverty, W. H. B 1866. 

Lebesgue, A 1837. 

Leboulleux, L. B 1884. 

Lecornu, L. C 1894. 

Legge, A. di. C 1874. 

Le Grand Roy, E. C 1898. 

Leibnitz, A 1693, 1700. 

Leitzmann, H. C 1900 (under Pascal, E.) 

Lemeray, E. M. C 1896. 

Lemonnier, H. A 1875(2), 79(2); C 79. 

Lengauer, B 1880. 

Lerch, M. C 1893, 99. 

Leudesdorf, C. B 1884, C 93. 

Levy, L. C 1881. 

LeAvicky, W. C 1899. 

Lieber, H. C 1898. 

Liers, E. C 1893. 

Ligowski, A 1861. 

Lindeloff, L. B 1880. 

Liouville, J. C 1846. 

Lipschitz, K. C 1873, 86, 90. 

Lit, R. R. B 1879. 

Lodge, A. C 1883. 

Loewy, A. C 1896, 97, 98(2), 1900. 

Longchamps, G. de. C 1883, 91. 

Loria, G. C 1886(3), 88(2), 97, 98. 

Lovett, E. O. • C 1897, 98, 99. 

Lucas, E. A 1870, 76, 77; B 77 ; C 89 

Liiroth, J. C 1895. 



222 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science, 



McKenzie, J. L. 


A 


1876; 


B 74, 78, 80; C 87. 


McLaren, Lord. 


C 


1899. 




McLellan, J. A. 


C 


1889. 




Macloskie, G. 


C 


1899. 




MacMahon, P. A. 


C 


i893> 


94, 1900. 


Madsen, V. H. 0. 


C 


1875- 




Mainardi, G. 


A 


1850; 


B 32, 58. 


Majo, L. de. 


C 


1854. 


' 


Malet, J. C. 


A 


1877; 


B 82; C 74. 


Malmsten, C. J. 


A 


1862; 


C 49- 


Mansion, P. 


A 


1874, 


75' 76, 77(2), 78(3), 79(5)' 80; 




B 


76, 8: 


I, 83, 84(2), 85 ; 




C 


77, 78(2), 82, 84, 86, 93, 99(2), 1901. 


Marchand, [E?] 


B 


1883; 


C 88. 


Marcolongo, R. 


C 


1887. 




Martin, A. 


A 


1867; 


B 77. 


Martone, M. 


C 


1891(2). 


Massip, L. 


C 


1898. 




Mathews, G. B. 


C 


1899. 




Mathieu, E. 


A 


1858. 




Matzka, W. 


A 


1877. 




Maupin, G. 


C 


1894. 




Maurer, F. 


C 


1872. 




Mehmke, R. 


B 


185; 


C 92(2). 


Meier, F. 


A 


i860. 




Meilink. B. 


A 


1865. 




Mellberg, E. J. 


A 


1876. 




Menesson, 


A 


1878. 




Meray, Ch. 


B 


1884; 


C 75> 85, 99. 


Merino, M. 


B 


1881. 




Mertens, F. 


A 


1876, 


77, 80; B 85; 




C 


72, 8^ 


, 89, 90, 99. 


Metzler, W. H. 


C 


189^(2), 93. 9h 98(3)» 99- 


Meyer, A. 


C 


1894. 




Meyer, Fr. 


C 


1895, 


1900. 


Meyer, U. H. 


A 


1849. 




Michel, Ch. 


C 


1896. 




Mikelli, A. 


A 


1863. 




Miller, E. 


C 


1893. 




Miller, G. A. 


C 


1892, 


1900. 


Miller, W. J. C. 


C 


1897. 




Minchin, G. M. 


A 


1871. 




Minding, [E.] F. [A.] 


C 


1829. 




Minozzi, A. 


A 


1878. 




Mirza-Nizam. 


A 


1865. 




Mitchell, 0. H. 


B 


1882. 




Mobius, A. F. 


B 


1834. 




Mogni, A. 


A 


1865. 




Mola, G. 


A 


1863, 


65- 


Molins, H. 


C 


1839. 





List of Writings on Determinants. 223 

Mollamc. V. A 1871, 78; C 81, 92. 

Monge, G. C 1809. 

Monro, C. J. A 1872. 

Montferrier, A. S. de. B 1844. 

Montessus, R. de. C 1897, 99. 

Moore, E. H. C 1894, 1900. 

Morales, C. M. C 1888. 

Moreno, G. A 1878(2). 

Morley, F. C 1894. 

Mouchel, J. C 1888. 

Miiller, E. C 1899. 

Miiller, H. A 1879. 

Miisebeck, C. C 1898. 

Muir, Th. A 1872, 73, 74, 77(2), 78, 79; 

B 77(2), 79, 81(11), 82(7), 83(5), 84(7), 

85(6); 
C 79, 81, 82(2), 84, 85, 86(4), 87(5), 
88(5), 89(7), 90, 91(2), 92(3), 94(2), 
95, 96(6), 97(4), 98, 99(6), 1900(7). 
Muirhead, R. F. C 1897. 

Musso, G. C 1893, 94(2). 

Muth, P. C 1899. 

Nachreiner, V. A 1872. 

Nagelsbach, H. A 1871, 72, 74, 76. 

Nanson, E. J. A 1877; C 97(3), 98(4), 99(3), 1900. 

Nekrassof, P. A. C 1886, 92. 

Netto, E. C 1886, 89, 90, 91(2), 93, 94(2), 95(2), 

96(2), 98. 

Neuberg, J. B 1883; C 94(2), 99, 1900. 

Neumann, C 1868. 

Neumann, C. A 1868. 

Newman, F. W. A 1857; C 88. 

Nielsen, N. C 1896. 

Niemoller, F. C 1891. 

Niven, C. A 1878. 

Noether, M. A 1876, 79(2),; C 95. 

Novarese, E. B 1882. 

Novarese, H. C 1890. 

Oliver, J. E. A i860. 

Onofrio, P. C 1872. 

Ott, A. C 1893. 

d'Ovidio, E. A 1863, 65, 76, 77; C 77, 90. 

Padova, E. A 1868. 

Paige, C. le. A 1877, 78(2), 79(4), 80(3),; 

B 80. 81(3), 82, 84; C 80. 
Painleve, P. C 1894. 

Painvin, L. A 1858(2), 74. 



224 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



Palmstrom, A. 


C i888, 90. [One paper entered twice. 


Panton, A. W. 


C 1899. 


Papelier, G. 


C 1897. 


Pascal, E. 


C 1896(3), 97, 1900. 


Pasch, M. 


A 1874(2), 79; C 81, 90, 93. 


Peana, G. 


C 1889(2), 97. 


Peck, W. G. 


C 1887. 


Peirce, J. M. 


A 1855; C 99. 


Pellet, A. E. 


C 1881. 


Pelnar, M. 


A 1877. 


Philastre, 


C 1892. 


PhilippoflF, M. 


C 1892. 


Philippot, I. H. 


C 1898. 


Picquet, E. 


A 1875, 78(3), 80. 


Picquet, H. 


C 1894. 


Pincherle, S. 


B 1881 ; C 83, 97. 


Pleskot, A. 


C 1896. 


Poincare, H. 


C 1886. 


Pokomy, M. 


A 1865. 


Polignac, Prince C. da. 


A 1868. 


Pomey, E. 


C 1888, 90. 


Posse, C. 


B 1883. 


Poujade, 


C 1887. 


Powel, A. 


C 1888. 


Prado, G. F. de 


C 1890. 


Prang, C. 


C 1900. 


Prange, A. J. N. 


C 1890. 


Prasse, M. v. 


C 1811. 


Pratt, 0. 


A 1878. 


Presle, A. de. 


C 1886. 


Prime, F. Mme. Ve. 


C 1898(2), 93. [Real name A. Mineur. 


Pringsheim, A. 


C 1898. 


Prony, R. 


C 1795- 


Proubet, P. 


C 1899. 


Prouhet, E. 


A 1852, 56, 57. 


Prym, F. 


C 1892. 


Puchta, A. 


A 1877; B 81. 


Raabe, J. L. 


C 1858. 


Rados, G. 


C 1886(2), 91(3), 96(2), 97, 98(2), 1900 


Rahnsen, A. E. 


C 1888. 


Raimondi, 


C 1888. 


Rajola, L. 


A 1864, 66. 


Ramus, Ch. 


A 1856. 


Raschi, E. 


B 1872. 


Ravut, L. 


C 1894, 98. 


Re, A. de. 


B 1881. 


Rehorovsky, V. 


B 1882. 


Reidt, F. 


A 1874. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 225 



Reiss, M. 


A 1829, 38, 67. 


Renshaw, A. 


A 1866; C 66. 


Reuschle, C. 


B 1884; C 97. 


Richelot, F. J. 


C 1840. 


Ritsert, E. 


A 1872. 


Roberts, E. H. 


C 1896. 


Roberts, M. 


A 1859(2), 61, 64. 


Roberts, S. 


A 1874, 79. 


Robinson, L. W. 


C 1889. 


Roe, E. D. 


C 1898(2). 


Rogers, L. J. 


C 1886, 91. 


Rosanes, J. 


A 1872. 


Rosenhain, G. 


A 1847; C 44, 45. 


Rothe, H. A. 


A 1800. 


Rouche, E. 


B 1858; C 75, 77, 80. 


Roussiane, (See Russian.) 




Rubini, R. 


A 1857, 66, 78; C67, 73. 


Runge, C. 


B 1882. 


Rusjan. (See Russian.) 




Russell, A. 


C 1887, 88. 


Russell, J. W. 


C 1897. 


Russell, W. H. L. 


C 1885. 


Russian, C. K. 


C 1892, 97, 99(2). 


Saalschiitz, L. 


C 1892. 


Sachse, A. 


B 1882. 


Sainte-Marie, C. F. 


C 1900. 


Saint- Venant, de. 


A 1853. 


Salmon, G. 


A 1859, 63, 66, 68, 76, 77; 


Sampson, R. A. 


C 1897. 


Sardi, C. 


A 1864(2), 65, 66, 67, 68. 


Sauvage, L. 


C 1895. 


Scarpis, U. 


C 1898, 99. 


Schapira, H. 


B 1881(2); C 81, 92, 93. 


Scheibner, W. 


A 1859; C 88. 


Schellbach, K. H. 


A 1856. 


Schendel, L. 


C 1885(2), 87, 91(2). 


Schering, E. 


A 1877; C 78. 


Scherk, H. F. 


C 1825. 


Schicht, F. 


C 1896. 


Schlafli, L. 


A 1851, 55, 59. 


Schlegel, V. 


C 1894. 


Schlesinger, L. 


C 1899. 


Schlomilch, 0. 


A 1856. 


Schmidt, H. 


C 1900. 


Schmitz, A. 


C 1880. 


Scholtz, A. 


C 1877, 78. 


Schoute, P. H. 


C 1892(2). 


Schrader, W. 


B 1884; C 86. 


Schroder, E. 


A 1875. 



226 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



Schulze, E. 


A 1871; C 97, 99. 


Schumacher, J. 


C 1894. 


Schwarz, H. A. 


B 1880. 


Schweins, F. 


B 1825. 


Scott, R. F. 


A 1878, 79(4), 80(2); B 81(3), 82(3), 


Seehger, H. 


A 1875. 


Segar, H. W. 


C 1890, 91, 92(5), 93(2). 


Serdobinsky, V. E. 


C 1877. 


Sersawy, V. 


A 1878. 


Sharp, W J. C. 


C 1887(2), 88, 91(3), 94. 


Siacci, F. 


A 1865, 72(4). 


Sibirani, F. 


C 1900. 


Sickenberger, A. 


B 1885; C 87. 


Siebeck, F. H. 


A 1862. 


Simmons, T. C. 


C 1885. 


Simomiet, . 


C 1879. 


Smet-Jamar, 


A 1864. 


Smith, H. J. S. 


A 1861, 73, 76; C 62. 


Soldan, W. 


A 1877 (see Dolp, 1873). 


Souillart, C. 


A 1858, 60. 


Sourander, E. 


A 1879. 


SperUng, J. F. de. 


A 1858, 60. 


Sporer, B. 


C 1887(2). 


Spottiswoode, W. 


A 1851, 53, 72, 76. 


Stackel, P. 


C 1896(2). 


Stahl, W. 


C 1889. 


Starkoff, A. 


C 1884. 


Stephanos, C. 


C 1898, 1900. 


Stern, M. A. 


A 1865, 71. 


Sterneck, R. D. v. 


C 1895.. 


Stickelberger, L. 


A 1877. 


Stieltjes, T. J. 


C 1884, 8s, 87, 88. 


Stockwell, J. N. 


A i860. 


Stodockiewicz, J. 


C 1879. 


Stoffaes, . 


C 1897. 


Stroh, E. 


C 1889. 


Studnicka, F. J. 


A 1869, 72(4), 73(2), 74, 75, 76(4), 




77(3)> 78, 79; 



B 78, 79, 80(2), 84(2); 
C 86(3), 88(2), 96(3), 97(5), 98(9), 99(6), 
1900. 
Suarez, A. B 1882. 

Sylvester, J. J. A 1840, 50(3), 51(4), 52(3), 53(4), 55, 

63(3)' 67, 78, 79(4), 80; 
B 52, 78, 80, 81, 82(5), 83(3), 84, 85(2); 

C 39. 41, 51. 53> 19, 84(2)' 86, 89(3), 
90(2), 92. 
Sziits, N. V. C 1888, 90(2), 95, 98. 



List of Writings on Determinants. 227 

Taber, H. C 1890, 91, 93(2), 95(2), 96(3). 

Tait, P. G. A 1861, 66; C 96. 

Tanner, H. W. L. A 1877, 78, 79; B 79; C 78. 

Tarleton, A. A 1868; C 87. 

Tartinville, A. C 1885, 86. 

Taylor, W. W. C 1895. 

Teixeira, F. G. A 1877; B 80, 81. 

Teixeira, J. P. C 1893(3). 

Terquem, O. A 1842, 46, 51, 60, 64; C 46. 

Thiele, T. N. A 1869, 70. 

Thomson, W. B 1881. 

Thyagaragaiyar, V. R. C 1899. 

Tirelli, F. A 1874, 75. 

Tissot, A. A 1852; C 90. 

Todhunter, I. A 1861 ; C 67. 

Torelli, G. A 1864, 65, 66; B 82 ; C 64, 86(2). 

93- 

Transon, A. A 1874. 

Traverso, N. C 1898. 

Trudi, N. A 1862(2), 64. 

Trzaska, W. A 1870; B 71; C 70. 

Tucker, R. C 86, 94(2), 95. 

Tweedie, Ch. C 1900. 

Tyler, H. W. C 1891. 

XJnterhuber, . A1872; C70. 

Vahlen, K. T. C 1893. 

Valentiner, H. C 1898. 

Valeriano, V. A 1871, 76 ; C 71. 

Valyi, J. C 1887. 

Vandermonde, N. A 1771 ; C 1770, 1888 (under Itzigsohn). 

Van Velzer, C. A. B 1882(2), 83. 

Vautre, [L?] C 1893. 

Veltmann, W. A 1871; C 86. 

Ventejols. A 1880; C 77. 

Versluys, J. C 1870, 71. 

Visnya, A. C 1898. 

Vivanti, G. C 1890, 97, 98, 1900. 

Vleck, E. B. V. C 1899. 

Voigt, W. C 1882. 

Voss, A. A 1877(2); C 84, 85, 86, 87, 89(3), 90. 

Waelsch, E. C 1891, 98. 

Wageningen, v. A 1871 (under Hesse, O.). 

Walecki, B 1882, 84. 

Walker, J. J. A 1865, 69, 72, 79. 

Ward, P. C. B 1885(2); C 86. 

Warner, J. D. C 1881. 

Weber, H. C 1895, 98. 



2 28 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



Weichhold, G. C 

Weihrauch, K. A 

Weill, [G.]. C 

Weld, L. G. C 

Welsch, C 

Weltzien, C. C 

Wentworth, G. A. C 

West, E. C 

Weyr, Ed. B 

Weyrauch, J. J. A 

White, H. S. C 

Whitworth, W. A. A 

Williamson, B. A 

Wisselink, D. B. A 

Wolstenholme, J. A 

Woodall, H. J. C 

Woolhouse, W. S. B. A 

Worontzoff, C 

Worpitzky, J. B 

Wright, W. J. A 

Wronski, H. A 

Young, A. C 

Young, W. H. C 

Zahradnik, K. A 

Zajackowski, W. v. A 

Zantschewsky, J. M. C 

Zbrozek, D. C 

Zehfuss, G. A 

Zeipel, V. v. A 

Zelewski, A. v. A 

Zeuthen, H. G. C 

Zmufko, L. A 



893- 

871, 74, 76, 80(2),; C 87, 89(2). 

888. 

893- 
896. 

892, 97(2). 

889. 

886. 

880; C 84, 89. 

871. 

895. 99- 

865, 72. 

872. 

877. 

870, 74, 79; B 84; C 86. 

894. 

876. 

892, 93. 

865. 

875- 

811, 15; C 12. 

899. 



878. 

866, 80; C 80(2). 

894. 

884. 

858(4), 59, 62(2), 68. 

858, 62, 65, 71. 

870, 77. 

874. 

866, 71. 



i3._A GENERAL THEOREM GIVING EXPRESSIONS FOR 
CERTAIN POWERS OF A DETERMINANT. 

By Thomas Mum. LL.D. 



1. In the "Philosophical Magazine" for October, 1902, use 
was made of an unproved theorem giving the («+i)th power of 
any determinant of the nth order in the form of a determinant of 
the order hii{ii + i), any reference to the proof being purposely 
delayed because of uncertainty as to the history of the theorem. 
The object of the present note is to remove this uncertainty, and at 
the same time to merge the theorem in a much more general one 
the demonstration of which is given. 

2. It would appear that the first noted case of the theorem, 
viz., that in which /z=3, is due to A. Brill, who in his paper " Ueber 
diejenigen Curven eines Biischels, welche eine gegebene Curve 
zweipunktig beriihren," {Math. Annalen, III., pp. 459-468, year 
1870-1) made use of it for the purpose of effecting a transformation 
upon a certain covariant intimately bound up with the geometrical 
subject he was dealing with. Denoting the determinant 



a,' 


a,' 


az' 


2ih^h 


2^3^! 


2a la^ 


h,' 


6/ 


bz' 


26263 


26361 


26162 


c,' 


C2' 


cz' 


2C2C3 


2C3C1 


2tiC-2 


61C1 


&2'^2 


hcz 


b^c^ + 63^2 


6301+ 61C3 


61C2 + 62^ 1 


Cl^l 


C2'^2 


Q«3 


CiG^ + C^Hi 


c^ai 4- CiUz 


Cifl2 + C2C7i 



rti6i ^262 i^zbz ^70634-^362 ^361 -1-^7163 67162 + ^7961 
by Ag, and multiplying row-wise by 



2I62C3I . . . I61C2I I63C1I 

2I63C1I . I61C2I . I62C3I 



2\biC2\ J63C1I 1626-3! 

2ai|ai62C3| 2a2\aib2Cz\ 2«3|ai62f3| 



C\ i ^162^3 1 C2 1 a-JjiCz I C3 1 ^162^3 1 

rtl6i (7262 ^7363 6i|rti62C3| 62|rti62C3! 63|rti62r3| 



obtained 




a^ ^2^ 


^'3^ 


6r 62^ 


63^ 


C{' C2^ 


cz' 


61C1 62r2 


63C3 


Ci^i ^2^2 


^z'-H 



23© 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



and thus arrived at the equation 
Ae- 2. 1 biC2 1 . 1 &2C3 1 • ! h^i ! = 



^hhcs I 



h' 


b,' 


h' 


c/ 


ci 


cz' 


bici 


b2C2 


hcz 



whence, on account of the determinant on the extreme right being 
equal to | &1C2I. | Vsl- 1 ^s^'il , it followed that 

Ae = j'hVsi^- 

3. About seven and a half years later the same special case 
was utilized by A. Scholtz, of Buda-Pest, in his paper " Sechs 
Punkte eines Kegelschnittes " {Airhiv d. Math. 11. Phys. LXII., pp. 
317-324, year 1878). Scholtz gave no reference to Brill, of whose 
paper he was most probably unaware, but established the result for 
himself. The first row of the determinant he modified by 
multiplying each element of it by jVsl and adding to the 
product {a^b^l times the corresponding element of the fifth 
row and |f2^3| times the corresponding element of the sixth 
row ; the second and third rows were modified in like manner. 
This, on putting 

D = l^iVsl, 
led to 



As- I &2C3 I • I ^2^3 I • I «2^3 I = 



rtiD 


. 






azB 


«2D 


61D 








&3D 


62D 


ciD 


. 






fsD 


C2D 


bici 


^2^2 


&3C3 


V3+&3C2 


63C1 + 61C3 


biC2 + ^2^1 


ci«i 


02(12 


^3^3 


f 2*^3 + f"3«2 


c^ai + Cifl3 


("l«2 + ^2^1 


aibi 


^2^2 


^3^3 


a2h + (hb2 


a^bi + Oibs 


Oibs + aQbi 






^2^2 


bs^s boCz + 63C2 






^ 


-D* 


("2'^ 2 
<72^2 


t3<'3 'y?3 + 

«3^3 <^2^3 + 


c%a2 


) 





and all that remained was to show that the three-line determinant 
on the right is equal to — \ 63^3 1 . | ^■2^3 1 . | ^2^3 1 • 

4. Strictly speaking the difference between the two proofs is 
less even than might at first appear, for the modification effected by 
Scholtz upon the first three rows can be accomplished exactly after 
Brill's fashion, viz., by multiplying column- wise by 



V3I 



I «2&3 I 
I '-"2«3 I 



C2«3 I 

I «2^3 ! 

; ^2^3 1 



i «2&3 I 
I ^2'^3 I 
I &2C3 1 



Powers of a Determinant. 231 

and, if this change were made, we might contrast them by saying 
that while the one reduces to zero 3^ elements in the last three 
columns, the other does the same in the first three rows. 

5. The third paper which concerns our subject emanated from 
the same city as the second, viz., Buda-Pest, its author being 
Hunyady, and its title " Beitrag zur Theorie des Flachen zweiten 
Grades."' It appeared in Crelle's Journal, LXXXIX., pp. 47-69, 
about the beginning of 1880, but is dated July, 1879, so that it must 
have been written about a year after the publication of Scholtz's 
results. It is in part merely the natural extension to three- 
dimensional space of Scholtz's theorems in plane geometry, and 
there are features of it which suggest acquaintance with what 
Scholtz had done, but, although references to previous workers are 
numerous, the name of Scholtz is not anywhere mentioned in it. 

The determinant, Aio say, to which Hunyady was, of course, 
led, is 

2rtia3 2aia4 2a2as 2«2^4 2a^a^ 



a-^ a^ a^ a 


i^ 2rtlrt2 


bi' b,^ : 


26162 


ci' c,^ : 


2t"if2 


ch' ch^ 


2^/1^2 


a]hi a^b^ 


aib2 + a2bi 


rtici : 


aiC2 + a2Ci 


<7i(/i : 


aid2 + a2^h 


bicx 


biC2+h2Ci 


b,ch 


bici2 + both 


cYh 


t"i ^2 + t'2'^1 



This he treats in exactly the same manner as Scholtz had treated 
Afi, the penultimate equation of the process being 

Aio- ! 62f3<^4 i • 1 (J2^Yh ! • I (^2bslfi i . I ^72636-4 I = — I ^162^3^/4 I ^.P, 

where P stands for the determinant 



^062 


i^b^ 


^hbi 


(^2b3 + thb2 


a2bi-{-aib2 


a^bi + ciibz 


^2^2 


^HCz 


lliCi 


rt2C3 + rt3C2 


IHC^ + Cl^C2 


a^Ci + a^ci 


(i2^h 


ih^s 


^h'h 


a2dz + fi3d2 


«2^4 + «4^2 


asdi + a^ds 


62C2 


b^cs 


biCi 


62C3 + 63C2 


62C4 + 64C2 


63C4 + 64C3 


62^/2 


63^/3 


b,ch 


62(/3 + 63(/2 


62^4 + ^4^2 


63^4 + bids 


c^ih 


C3(h 


c'idi 


'-"2'/3 + t"3'/2 


C.2d^ -f C4^2 


csdi + Cids 



which he says can be shown to be equal to 

I 62C3C/4 j . I a2Czdi I . I rt2^3^^4 I • I «2^3Q I 



2^2 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

6. The general theorem which includes Hunyady's case 
regarding Aio, Brill's and Scholtz's regarding Ae, and the still 
simpler case 

A3= ni^ a^ 2a^a2 = |«l62|^ 



^h' 


a,' 


2aia2 


b,' 


h' 


261&2 


a^bi 


«2^2 


aib2 + a2bi 



is formally enunciated by Pascal in his text-book "I Determinanti," 
published at Milan in 1897 {see pp. 134-137). A separate section 
(§ 26) is devoted to it ; but, strange to say, the heading of the 
section is "Teorema di Hunyady," a name which apparently* he 
has taken over from Igel and Escherich, but which in view of what 
precedes he will surely reconsider. 

7. Be this as it may, let it now be noted that if the point of 
view in regard to the theorem be entirely changed, so that we look 
upon the determinants in question as eliiiiiiianis, a striking advantage 
is gained, the following general theorem being at once reached : — 

// a set of n homogeneous equations of the first degree in n 
unknowns be given, the determinant of the set being A, and there be 
formed another set consisting of all equations of the p^^ degree derivable 
from the equations of the given set bx niulliplication among themselves, 
the determinant of the latter set is equal to 

.Cfi + n-l. n 

By way of proof we note in the first place that the number 
specifying the order of the derived determinant is the number of 
arrangements of n things taken p at a time with repetitions allowed^ 
and therefore is Cn+p-i,p : secondly, that the degree of each element 
of this determinant is p : and consequently that the degree of each 
term of the finally expanded determinant is 

p . Cn^p-ip . 

Further we note that on account of the mode in which the second 
set of equations is derived from the original set, the eliminant of the 
second set cannot contain any factor extraneous to the eliminant of 
the first set nor give prominence to any factor of the first set over 
any other, and consequently that the former eliminant must be an 
integral power of the latter. As the degree of each term of the 
latter is n and of the former p . Cn+p-i,p, the index of the power 
referred to must therefore be 

P C 

~ . *-'?/+ p-i,p 

n '^ 

I.e. — . C-7J j.p_i »i_i 
n '^ 

I.e. (^i,+p-l,n, 

as was to be shown. 

The theorem used in the Phil. ]\Iag. for October, 1902, and 
formulated by Pascal in his text-book is the case of this where p=2. 

* Their papers in the Monatshefte f. Math. u. Phys. III. pp. 55-67, 68-80, 
I have not been able to see. 



14— THEOREMS REGARDING AGGREGATES 
DETERMINANTS AND PFAFFIANS. 

By Thomas Muir, LL.D. 



OF 



I. Of several familiar results, each of which may be made the 
starting point for an exposition of the theorems here to be dealt 
Avith, the least likelv, in view of the title, is the identity 






^^) 



where U is anv homogeneous function of .v, \', .z of the second 
degree. Nevertheless, if for U we take 

ax' + hy'^ + cz- + 2fyz + 2ozx + 2lixy 

or. as it is best written in order to show its discriminant, 

X y z 



a h 


i\^ 


h h 


f\y 


:< f 


c z. 



it will be found that each of the terms on the right of (A) may be 
expressed as a determinant : the unlikelihood is thus at once 
considerably diminished. The identity then becomes 



X 


y 


z 


a 


h 




h 


b 


/: 


d 


f 


C ' 



= \ a z —y 
■^ h . X 

y \i^ -X . 



+ 




h 


-y 


+ 




— z 


b 


X 






y 


f 







y -X 



Avhere. be it observed, each of the three determinants is formable 
by taking two columns from the zero-axial skew determinant 

~ -y 

-z . X 

y —X 

and one from the discriminant of the quadric. 

2. // P be any n-liiie dcteniiinaiit, O a zero-axial skew detenninanl 
•of the same order, and Ar a determinant formed by replacing the r^^ 
jrolnmn of O bv the r^^ cohimn ofV, then, ivhen n is odd. 



:S4.= 



^1. — /Z2, /^s. 



-A^4, 






234 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



ivhere /xi, //o- ••• i^ re the minors obtained by deleting the i^^, 2^^, ... 
frame-lines of the qiiasi-pfaffian of O. 

For the sake of shortness in writing let the given determinants 
be of the fifth order, viz. : — 



ai a2 CZ3 a^ a^ 

bi bo bs bi 65 

C\ C2 ^3 Q ^5 

di ^2 ^^3 '^4 '4 

ei e.2 t's t'4 er. 



■ /32 /33 /34 /35 

— /32 • 73 74 75 

— fis —73 • ^4 ^5 

— fii —74—^4 • £5 

— A5 —75 —^5 — E5 



1/33 /34 /35 


1/32 /34 /35 


^4 ^5 


74 75 


f5 


£5 



/33 /35 


1/32 /33 /34 


73 75 
.^5 


73 74 

, ^4 



and let the pfafiian minors of the latter, 



1 73 74 75 

^4 ^5 



be denoted by fii, jx^, •••, /"5 ; then the hrst term of the aggre- 
gate referred to in the enunciation is 

(i\ ih iH fii fto 
bi ■ 73 74 75 

Cl —73 • ^4 ^5 

di —74 —^4 . £5 

t'l —75 —^5 —£5 

which being a " bordered " skew determinant is by reason of 
Cayley's theorem resolvable into 



«1 ^1 ("1 '^1 t'l 


• I73 74 75 


/32 /33 /34 /35 


h ^5 


73 74 75 


£5 


O4 ^5 





f5 

and therefore into 

(ai/iti — 61^0 + ti//3 — dim + ^1^5) Hi- 

The other terms are similarly shown to be equal to 

{—ao/ni + ho^i — Cii^z + d^jJ-i — C2fXr^-iX2, 

( CZs/ii — 63/X2 + <-3/i3 — i-hl^i + ^S^^b)■^^S> 
{ — aifii + 64^2 — Qi"3 + <i'4A'4 — t'4/X5)-/^4, 
( ^5/^1 — 65/^2 + ''5iU3 — '^5^4 + ^5A'5) • M5 = 



Determinants and Pfaffians. 



235 



and thus the sum of them all is 



ill 


61 


'1 


'^h 


^1 


^h 


62 


<^"2 


(h 


^2 


ih 


&3 


^"3 


'■h 


t'3 


^4 


b. 


Q 


"4 


^4 


«5 


h 


^'5 


^4 


^5 



— ^2 

— hi 
"5, 



as was to be proved. 



3. // P be any n-liiie detenninant, Q a zero-axial skew determinant 
of the same order, and Ar a determinant formed by replacing the r^^ 
column of Q by the r^^ column of P, then when n /5 even 



r=l 
S being an aggregate which vanishes when P is axisymmetiic. 

If for the purpose of illustrative proof we take 



P = I rti 62 fs di e^ /e 



and Q = I «2 "3 "4 "5 "6 

/33 /34 /35 /Se 

74 75 76 

^5 ^6 



the first term of SAr- is 



«6 



«i «2 "3 04 05 ae 

61 • /33 /34 A5 /36 

<:i —fiz ■ 74 75 76 

di — /34 — 74 . O5 ^6 

£\ —Po —75 —4 • f6 

/l — /^6 —76 —^6 — f6 



which by Cayley's theorem previously referred to is resolvable into 



and therefore 



I "2 "3 "4 as "6 

/33 /34 /35 /36 
74 7o 76 

f6 



^'1 



Ih fh 1% l\ 

74 Jb 76 
^6 



+ ^1#12 — Cl#13 + ih-ffu — f]#i, + ./l#16J 

R 2 



236 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

where /7i2, #13, ••• are the cofactors of ao, a^, ... in ^T). Similarly 
it is found that 



Consequently we have 



i-=5 



1 = 1 
where S stands for 

#12 (^'i-''2) - #13 ki— rts) + + #16 {A—ih) 

+ #23 (^■2-^3) -....- #6 {f2-K) 



— an expression which manifestly vanishes when P is axisynimetric. 
The theorem is thus established. 

4. It will be observed that in the case of both theorems (§§2, 3) 
each term of the aggregate SAr is expressible as the product of two 
pfafftans, one of which is dependent only on the elements of 0, and 
the other has a frame line of elements taken from P and the rest 
from O. When n is odd (§2) the pfaffian which is free of the 
elements of P is of lower order than the other ; when n is even it 
is of the same order as the other and besides does not vary for 
different values of /■. 

5. The portion of the theorem of §3 which relates to the vanishing 
of the aggregate SA can be readily established, without previously 
removing the factor \/ Q from Ar, by showing that the cof actor of 
any one of P's elements differs only in sign from the cofactor of the 
conjugate element. 

It is also worthy of note that the same result follows from the 
general theorem* that if D^ denote the determinant formed by 
replacing the 7'*^ roiv (not column) of any determinant O by the 
,-th ;-()2f, Qf ^i^Y other determinant P, then 



Sa„ = ;SA. 



for, in the special case before us, the two equals can be shown to 
differ in sign and must therefore both vanish. 

* See Proc. Roy. Soc, Edinburgh, vol. xv., pp. 96-105. 



Determinants and Pfaffians. 



-37 



6. A little examination of the first form of the expression 
denoted by S in §3 leads to an important theorem concerning 
pfaffians only, viz. : — 

// P and Q be any 2n-linc pfaffians, and ffV be the pfaffian icJiosc 
first frame-line is the v^^ frame-line of P and wJiose remaining portion 
is tliat got by deleting the r^^ frame-line of Q, then 



2 (-I)^#r = O. 



For examp 


e, taking 














P = \I 


m 


n 


Q = \^ fi 


»' 






r 


s 

i \, 


p 


r 


> 


we have 












1 / m n 


- \i '- 


s 


+ 


m r t 


— 


1" 


s /I = 


P <^ 


f^ 


V 




X V 






X /xj 


r 




T 




(T 






t 
P ! 



o. 



The basis of the theorem is the fact that each element of P occurs 
twice in '^{—lY'ffr and that its cofactor in one place differs only in 
sign from its cofactor in the other. 



7. If now we reverse the positions of P and Q in the theorems 
of §§2, 3 we arrive at analogous results which can be combined in 
one enunciation, there being no need to distinguish the case where 
// is even from that in which /; is odd. This single theorem may be 
expressed as follows : — 

// P be any n-line determinant, Q a zero-axial sf^eio determinant 
of the same order, and if Ar be the determinaid foimed by replacing 
the rt^ column of P by the r^^ colnmn of Q, tlien 



r=i 

can be so tiansforined as to shoii) that it vanishes ivhen P is a.visvmmetri 
For example, if P and be 



ai 


(J'i 


iH 


«4 


b. 


h-2 


^3 


b. 


Cl 


C.2 


<"3 


Q 


d. 


d-2 


^/3 


ch 



1 m 

-I . p 
— /// — p 

—n — q —r 



238 

we have 



Report S.A.x\. Advancement of Science. 



1=4 
r=l 



■/ 



— 111 <-2 

— 11 d.2 






d. 



+ 



^n 


I 


"3 


Cli 


bi 




Ih 


h 


^1 


-P 


f's 


Q 


ch 


-'7 


'/3 


cU 



+ 



= I{A,-B^) + iii{A^-C^) + u{A^-D^) 
+ t{Bz-C,) + q{B,-D,) 

where Ai, A2, ... stand for the cofactors of cii, a^, ... in P. The 
vanishing of this expression when | aib^CzcU \ is axisymmetric is 
assured by the fact that then \AiB2CzDi\ is axisymmetric also. 



8. As an example of the application of such theorems as the 
preceding let us take the problem of evaluating the determinant of 
a matrix which is the sum of two vanishing matrices, say the 
determinant 



62 + (-2 
■ba-{-y 

■ca—a 



— ab + y 

c^ + a' 

— cb + a 



where 



— ca 



-cb ^2 + 62 



— ca + P 

— be— a 
ir- + b^ 



/,2_j_^2 —ab — ca \ 
— ba c^ + a^ —be = o 



—7 i^ 



Calling: these vanishing determinants P and O and viewing the 
given determinant as having binomial elements in accordance with 
the composition of its matrix, we may partition it into eight 
determinants. Of these the first and last being P and O may be 
neglected. Taking next the three, each of which contains two 
columns of P and one of Q, we know that their sum vanishes by 
reason of the theorem of §7. There thus only remains to be 
considered the sum of the three, each of which contains two 
columns of Q and one of P, and this sum by §2 is equal to 



a 


/8 


7 


62 + ,-2 


-ab 


— ae 


-ba 


c^ + a^ 


-be 


— ca 


-cb 


a^ + b^ 



An equivalent of the given determinant is thus found. 



Determinants and Pfaffians. 



239 



As we know otherwise* that the vakie of the determinant is 

la (3 \ \ a yl |y3 y!, 

an expression which is symmetrical with respect to the interchange 

fab c 
^ a /3 y 

we arrive at the following curious series of identities 

or 



a b c- 2 
a li y 



62 + C-2 —ab—y —ac + ^ 

— ba + y c^ + a^ —be — a = 
-ca-l3 -cb + u a^ + b- [ 

« ^ 7 _ 

b^ + c^ — ab —ac I o 

— ba c^ + a^ —be (3 
— ca —eb a^ + b' y 



fie — by a a 
ya — Ca (3 b 

ab—aji y c 

/32 + y2 _^a — C —ya-\-b 

—I3a + C y^ + a^ —f3y — a 

— ya — b —y^+a a^ + fi^ 

a be 



/32 + y2 


-a/3 


—ay 


-/3a 


y- + a2 


-(3y 


— yo 


-y/3 


a' + t^' 



* Performing the operations : 
b 



, h . c 

row J +— rowj + -row 3. 



coll +— C0I2 + — coL, 
a a 

and denoting 

^c — by. yd — ta, ab — aji by A, B, C 

so that aA + 6S + cC = o = aA -\- fiB -\- yC we obtain 

B C 



B 



c--\-a'- — be — « 



-bc-\-a a--\-b- 1, 



which 



= A j 2bcBC + C'(c-+a") + Br-(a-+b-) \ 
a- '■ ' 

= l^iE±^y + c- + B^ 






= .4- + B- + C-. 




15— THE DEVELOPMENT OF GOLD EXTRACTION 
METHODS ON THE WITWATERSRAND. 

By W. a. Caldecott, B.A., F.C.S. 



The general principles upon which gold extraction work upon 
the Rand is carried out are so simple, and some acquaintance with 
them so common, that only a brief outline of the operations as at 
present conducted will be given. Following upon this, some 
features in the development of Rand practice, and the considerations 
which have led to the adoption of present methods will be discussed. 
Messrs. Williams, Reuneit, Yates, and Goldmann have all dealt in 
some detail with recovery methods as practised on the Rand, and 
to the works of these members of our Association I would refer any- 
one desirous of further information. 

The ore as it comes from the mine is mechanically tipped over 
a " grizzly " or inclined screen composed of parallel bars at short 
distances apart. By this means it is separated into " fines " and 
" coarse." The former pass at once to the mill, whilst the latter, 
after washing by a spray of water, gravitates to a belt or rotating 
circular table, where the pieces of rock other than banket are picked 
out by hand, and eventually find their way to a waste dump. The 
auriferous banket is delivered automatically to huge breakers, which 
reduce it to pieces not exceeding 2|" in diameter, and it then passes 
into trucks, which convey it to the mill bins. From the bins it 
gravitates through automatic feeders into the batteries, where it is 
crushed. The mill consists of a series of 5-stamp batteries ; a 
battery comprises five stamps, each weighing one-half to two-thirds 
of a ton. Each stamp is lifted and allowed to fall from a height 
of about eight inches nearly a hundred times a minute upon the ore 
resting on the dies, contained in what is called a mortar-box. As 
the ore is automatically delivered into the mortar-box about seven 
times its weight of water is also allowed to flow in, and the pulp 
produced by crushing is splashed against a screen of 600 to 1,000 
holes per square inch in the front of the mortar-box. As may be 
imagined the noise in a stamp mill is tremendous and all conversa- 
tion in the building impossible. Heard from a distance it much 
resembles the roar of breakers on the sea-shore. As the ore is gradu- 
ally reduced to a sufficient degree of fineness it is carried by the 
water through the screen and travels as pulp over inclined amalgamat- 
ed copper plates, to which the liberated coarser metallic gold adheres 
and is periodically scraped off as amalgam. The amalgam contains 
about two-thirds of its weight of mercury which is recovered for re- 
use by retorting, and the spongy metallic gold left after this operation 
cast into bars. The bullion thus obtained usually contains about 



Methods of Gold Extraction. 241 

87 % to 88 % fine gold, 10 % to 12 % silver and a little copper or 
other traces of base metal. By means of the amalgamation process 
above described 50 % to 60 % of the gold contents of the ore is 
recovered, and the remainder contained in the tailings flows as pulp 
to the cyanide plant. What is now considered a modem Rand 
stamp-mill contains 200 stamps, and each stamp crushes about 5^ 
tons of ore per 24 hours, so that, allowing for stoppages, upwards of 
30,000 tons of ore are crushed per month. Before the war about 
6,000 stamps were erected on the Witwatersrand, and this number is 
likely to be doubled in a few years, if a sufficient supply of cheap 
unskilled labour is forthcoming. 

The pulp leaving the mill is elevated by a tailings wheel or 
pump and then flows into a spitzlutte or crude hydraulic classifier, 
which separates out the heavier and richer pyritic material. The 
concentrates thus produced are settled in vats, the poorer finer 
sands remaining are collected in other vats, and the residual 
slimes or unpalpably fine portion of the crushed ore is collected, 
after mixing with lime to assist settlement, in still a third set of 
vats with conical bottoms. The water only remains and is returned 
to the mill for re-use. The tailings from typical half-ounce Rand 
ore thus treated would yield about 10 % of 12 dwt. concentrates, 
65 % of 4 dwt. sands, and 25 % of 2^ dwt. slimes. The concentrates 
and sands, being porous permeable products, are treated by leaching 
for several days will dilute cyanide solution in vats provided with 
false filter-cloth bottoms. The cyanide solution gradually dissolves 
and washes out the gold, and the drainings are passed through long 
rectangular zinc boxes provided with several compartments contain- 
ing lead-coated zinc shavings upon which the gold is precipitated. 
The solution flows on into sumps, where it is made up to the requisite 
strength by addition of solid cyanide and used again for fresh charges. 
The slimes being non-leachable are treated by mixing with very 
dilute cyanide solution, allowing to settle, decanting off the clear 
supernatant gold-bearing solution and repeating this operation as 
often as their richness warrants. The gold is precipitated from the 
auriferous slimes solution in the same way as that from the sands or 
concentrates. The finely divided metallic gold precipitated on the 
zinc shavings is periodically washed off through a screen and, after 
treating with dilute sulphuric acid to- remove the fine zinc mixed 
with it, is calcined, smelted with flux and refining agents, and cast 
into bars. 

The percentage recovery in the cyanide plant depends tO' some 
extent upon how much gold has already been removed by the mill, 
but assuming that 57 % of the total gold has been recovered by 
amalgamation about 33 % further is recovered by cyaniding. Hence 
the combined extraction by the mill and cyanide plant is about 90 %, 
or 9 dwts. per ton from half-ounce ore and this is effected in a 
modern plant at a total cost for all reduction and recovery charges 
of about 6/- to 7/- per ton, or less than the value of 2 dwts. of bullion. 

The tailings after their treatment as described are called residues, 
and their accumulation in immense piles of sand after removal from 



242 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

the plant constitutes a prominent feature on the surface of all mining 
properties. 

To illustrate the advances made in methods of gold extraction 
on the Rand since its early days, the plant and methods employed 
during 1889, the year immediately preceding the introduction of the 
cyanide process by John Stewart MacArthur, may be compared with 
the present state of affairs. The comparison more than justifies his 
prophecy, made at a meeting of the Society of Chemical Industry 
on March 31st, 1890, that "cyanide of potassium, hitherto used 
only to polish amalgamated plates, will take a front rank as chief 
agent in gold extraction." In 1889 the average mill contained say 
twenty 750 lb. stamps, and was usually located so near the neighbour- 
ing creek that the tailings from even the small amount of ore crushed 
up to that date had from want of fall to be periodically removed 
from the collecting dams and piled up in heaps. These piles of 
sands and slimes around the battery were regarded simply as a source 
of annoyance and expense, and so little was the latent wealth they 
contained realized that anyone desirous of removing them was wel- 
come to do so. Owing to the scarcity of water the very turbid over- 
flow from the tailings dam was used over and over again in the mill. 
The constant loss of water from soakage and evaporation was of 
■course very heavy. The average recovery by amalgamation was 
50 % to 60 %, and in addition in some few Companies concentration 
was practised to a limited extent by means of vanners or buddies or 
blankets, with subsequent treatment of the concentrates in amalama- 
ting pans or by chlorination. Many Companies were without assay 
offices, and in fact assaying, owing to defective sampling, was not 
in much repute, the " pan " being usually taken as a safer guide. At 
this time also the enormous extent and regularity of the banket reefs 
and the possibilities of profitable mining to great depths were by 
no means realized ; many doubts were expressed as to the possibility 
of successfully treating unweathered pyritic ore as compared with 
the high-grade oxidized banket then usually milled. This lack of 
confidence in the future of the fields was doubtless responsible by 
restricting the investment of capital for many imperfections in the 
equipment of the mines; and, whilst the working costs were so high 
and the percentage of gold in the ore actually recovered so low a^ 
compared with present figures, the average ore now milled could 
then only have been handled at a loss. 

The first introduction of the cyanide process was made in May, 
1890, at the Salisbury battery, where trials were made on parcels of 
tailings and concentrates for the mining Companies and the results 
published. The plant consisted of small vats of about i| tons capaci- 
ty fitted with stirring gear, the charge being lowered after a certain 
period of agitation with 0.5 % to 2 % cyanide solution into leaching 
filter vats below. The precipitation of the gold was carried out as 
at present with zinc shavings. The incredulity with which the results 
claimed were first received and the classification of the MacArthur- 
Forrest process with other competing but now forgotten methods, were 
soon changed to a general acceptance of the merits of the new process. 



Methods of Gold Extraction. 243 

In principle the process has remained practically unchanged to 
the present date, the chief advances made being mechanical devices 
and arrangements of plant for reducing cost of handling on a 
large scale, the gradual reduction of strength of working solu- 
tions combined with the adoption of leaching in place of agitation 
for all products through which solutions could percolate, the introduc- 
tion of the decantation method of slimes treatment, the recognition 
of the part oxygen plays in the solution of the gold and the use of 
zinc couples for facilitating the precipitation of gold from weak solu- 
tions. The net result has been that the process now costs to operate 
hardly more pence per ton than it originally did shillings. Though 
gradually increasing knowledge has developed greater efficiency in 
all departments, yet even at the present day the saying is fully 
justified that a Company relies upon its battery returns for its work- 
inT costs and upon its cyanide plant for its profits. Simple and gener- 
ally uniform as is the composition of banket ore from a metallurgical 
standpoint, in that besides a minute proportion of metallic gold it is 
practically composed of silica and a little iron pyrites, yet the average 
value is so low that even with the 90% recovery' from all sources now 
attainable, the margin between profit and loss is by no means great. 
Owing to the comparatively fine nature of the gold and its distribution 
in banket it is hardly likely that any improvements possible in amalga- 
mation, concentration and chlorination methods would have rendered 
it possible to work the present grade of ore at an appreciable profit. 
From the imperfect fluidity of mercury the recovery by amalgamation 
cannot be compared with that of a liquid solvent which dissolves gold 
even when only partially exposed. Close concentration is costly as 
well as the subsequent roasting of the concentrates ; it may be noted 
that after roasting cyaniding yields as good an ultimate extraction 
as chlorination though about double the time of treatment is required. 
Many unsuccessful attempts have been made to concentrate the gold 
values of the battery pulp so as to discard a worthless gangue, as is 
done in treating the ores of many base metals. Owing to the 
distribution of the gold through the quartzose as well as pyritic por- 
tion of the crushed ore these attempts have failed, with the result 
that as described the whole of the ore now undergoes double treat- 
ment, first by amalgamation and then by leaching. 

After the period of demonstration was complete, the Robinson 
cyanide plant started work on a large scale at the end of December, 
1890, and the results obtained therefrom and those from the Sheba 
plant, which began work a couple of months later, caused any linger- 
ing doubts as to the importance of the new factor in the metallurgy 
of gold to be dispelled. At once the erection of plants composed 
of square wooden vats was begun by various Companies for the 
treatment of their tailings heaps and the current tailings collecting 
in dams. The heavy cyanide consumption caused by the acid nature 
of this accumulated material was reduced by the use of lime. Gradu- 
ally further improvements were made; large circular wooden vats 
were successfully constructed and used in spite of the fears expressed 
that on account of their large diameter the staves would collapse. 



244 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Cement vats succeeded wooden ones in some instances, but after ai 
few years steel vats, already common in the United States, took their 
place. The collection by means of hoses or rotating distributors of 
the sands and concentrates in vats supported on masonry and provided 
with bottom discharge doors, instead of in dams or pits, previous to 
transfer to the leaching or treatment vats, was universally adopted. 
During all this time plants were steadily increased in size and vats 
of larger d-ameter were adopted until at the present time a 400-ton 
vat forty feet in diameter has become a standard size unit. Separa- 
tion of the coarser and richer pyritic portion of the pulp by means, 
of crude spitzlutte for longer treatment than the sands became com- 
mon, and within the last few years the decantation process of treat- 
ing the low-grade Rand slimes was developed and accepted as profit- 
able practice. The use of lime for settling current slimes led to two< 
unexpected advantages in amalgamation; first in allowing a prompt 
return to the mill of nearly all the water in the battery pulp, and 
secondly in improving the percentage recovery of gold on the plates. 
The precipitation of gold from the extremely dilute cyanide solu- 
tions used in slime treatment was first practically accomplished by 
the Siemens-Halske process, to be followed in turn by the lead-zinc 
couple, which had been originally patented by J. S. MacArthur ni 
connection with the cyaniding of cupriferous gold ores. 

Besides the direct help cyaniding has been to milling, it has 
materially modified the view that the percentage recovery of gold 
on the plates is the main point. Now the value of the residues 
ultimately discarded forms the criterion, and no manager hesitates 
to sacrifice a slight extra recovery in the mill, if reduction costs can 
be thereby reduced and no higher residues are ultimately discharged 
from the cyanide plant. In fact, the function of the mill has become 
that of an ore reduction machine for the subsequent operations of 
amalgamation and cyaniding, and questions of screens, height of 
discharge, ratio of water to ore are all considered in reference to 
their influence on the total extraction. Combined with all the main 
principles which have thus crystallized out have come endless im- 
provements in detail. Cyanide bullion was at one time not worth 
more than ;^3 per ounce, but the introduction of acid treatment and 
manganese dioxide refining rendered any fineness desired obtain- 
able, and of late the lead smelting of zinc gold slimes promises to 
supersede this on the score of economy. 

The metal lead is playing an increasingly important part in the 
metallurgy of gold. In addition to the use of the lead-zinc couple 
for precipitation and lead smelting of zinc gold slimes above referred 
to, it is becoming the practice in some plants to add lead salts to 
all leaching and dissolving solutions with considerable advantage in 
assisting the solution of the gold and ensuring lengthy efficiency of 
gold precipitation by the zinc shavings from all weak solutions. 

The chemistry of the cyanide process has been the subject of 
much research and speculation and is even now in many respects 
obscure. It is probable, however, that the solution of gold is really 
an oxidation process and its precipitation one of reduction. In the 



Methods of Gold Extraction. 245 

former case some oxidizer, usually oxygen from the atmosphere, lib- 
erates nascent cyanogen which has the property of combining with 
metallic gold, and in the latter case nascent hydrogen, liberated by 
the combination of zinc with the oxygen of water, owing to oxygen 
having a greater affinity for zinc than for hydrogen, replaces the 
gold existing in the solution as potassium auro-cyanide and causes 
its precipitation in the metallic state. 

The chief feature of Rand practice is as indicated the carrying 
out of comparatively cheap and simple methods on a very large scale. 
The bulk of the improvements resulting in reduction of working costs 
may be attributed to mechanical advances in plant and appliances. 
In fact the metallurgy of gold, like any other applied scientific 
process, is carried out very largely by mechanical means, and the 
qualifications for successful work, beyond the individuality of the 
operator, depend at least as much upon his acquaintance with 
engineering possibilities and processes as upon purely chemical or 
abstract knowledge. Since ver}' large amounts of low-grade ore have 
to be handled at a low working cost to be profitable, complex and 
expensive methods whatever the ultimate extraction are impractic- 
able, though in other countries where richer and more refractory 
material is handled they may be economically sound. For instance, 
there is no doubt that the method of treating slimes by filter-presses, 
as developed in Westralia, yields a considerably higher percentage 
extraction than is common on the Rand by decantation methods. 
But in Westralia the ore treated is so high grade that, in spite of the 
high percentage extractions obtained by filter-pressing, the slimes 
residues discharged after treatment frequently carry more gold per 
ton than does our product before any treatment at all. 

Concurrent with progress in actual recovery methods sampling 
and assaying have been developed to a high pitch of accuracy, and 
every stage of the recovery work is daily checked ; to such an extent 
is this carried that one grain of gold per ton in the cyanide solutions 
(or one part in fourteen millions) is determined, and a close watch 
even kept on the assay value of the mill water, lest it become con- 
taminated with cyanide and consequently gold. At the same time 
elaborate and detailed systems of costs on each of the Companies 
are kept in the head offices of the mining corporations, so that by 
comparison any favourable results may be investigated and generally 
adopted when practicable, whilst any unduly high expenditure on 
working costs is similarly checked. The immense scale of operations 
renders this close attention to and watch upon details of the greatest 
importance, since in a modern 200-stamp mill one grain of gold or 
twopence per ton of ore amounts to ^£3,000 per annum. The " group 
system " renders the systematizing and comparing of results possible, 
whilst each department of a subsidiary Company has the assistance 
in any difficulty of the knowledge and experience of a consulting" 
specialist. Another factor in the rapid development of Rand metal- 
lurgy is the fact that owing to the price of gold being fixed there is 
no inducement for the keeping of " trade secrets " such as exist in 
the metallurgy of a metal like copper, whose value depends upon 



246 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

supply and demand and whose sale may be hampered by compe- 
tition. The result is that a free exchange of ideas and information, 
much fostered by the local technical Societies and the close proximi- 
ty of any mining companies to each other, exists among workers, and 
details of practice in any plant are open to inspection without difficul- 
ty. The workers in the metallurgy of gold being drawn from all 
parts of the world, conservative prejudices disappear by mental at- 
trition amid the new surroundings and continual advances in practice, 
whilst advancements in knowledge elsewhere are contributed to the 
general stock and rapidly adopted when applicable. It is observable 
nowadays that many of the younger men engaging in gold extraction 
work are possessed of considerably more technical training than was 
common in the past. This tendency promises to increase and is of 
good augury for future progress and effective specialization. Cheap 
fuel and labour have been important factors of progress, and also 
the liberal supplies of money which investors, actuated by enlightened 
self-interest and with a confidence strengthened by past experience 
of the capacity of their technical advisers, have provided for the 
development and exploitation on an enormous scale of the mining 
properties. The actual scale of these operations is also much in- 
creased by the recognition of the fact that if a mine will supply ore 
for a hundred stamps for say forty years or more, it is profitable 
practice to put up at least double that number of stamps so as to 
exhaust the ore in half that time ; on the ground that the ultimate 
profit is realized more cheaply and quickly and that the equipment of 
the mine will in any case be obsolete in twenty years. 

In one respect these fields differ from most goldfields in other 
countries, which lies in the absence of customs mills or smelters. 
On the Rand all metallurgical as well as mining operations are car- 
ried out by each individual company, except as regards the minor 
matter of by-products. The absence of small private enterprises, 
the comparatively simple and uniform nature of the recovery work, 
and the adequate working capital possessed by the mining companies 
no doubt account for each mine having its own complete equipment. 

In reference to the future it hardly seems likely that any radical 
changes in methods will take place. Good modern practice of wet 
crushing, amalgamation and subsequent cyaniding the whole of the 
crushed ore yields 90 % recovery on half-ounce ore at a low cost. 
The bulk of the gold in this remaining pennyweight is encased in 
the matrix and hence inaccessible to any solvent without further 
crushing. Whilst if reduction be carried to a sufficient degree of 
fineness almost 100 % recovery can be secured, the economic limit, 
when more gold is won than money expended in obtaining it, is at 
present considerably below, and likely always to be below the extrac- 
tions obtainable in trials where no account is taken of cost. The 
scope for higher economic recovery is consequently limited to a 
fraction of a pennyweight per ton, and probably reduction in working 
costs to an equivalent value. It hardly seems probable that recovery 
working costs will decrease materially, any saving over present fig- 
ures beirig ofif-set by an increased expenditure necessitated in obtain- 



Methods of Gold Extraction. 247 

ing the small percentage additional recover)- economically possible- 
While the extra recovery^ may be small measured in percentage, its 
absolute amount may be very large on the aggregate existing and 
future stamping power of these fields. But though the main lines 
of practice may remain unchanged there will doubtless, as in the 
past, be many changes in detail by process of steady growth and 
evolution. Among foreshadowed improvements is finer crushing 
before cyaniding of the coarse pyritic portion, separated by spitzlutte, 
of the pulp leavin'^ the plates. This would appear more necessary 
the deeper the level from which the ore is mined, as such ore, possibly 
being more compacted from the greater pressure, seems to require 
finer reduction in general than ore from nearer the surface, with which 
in appearance and composition it otherwise corresponds. The 
encased gold contents of this material after cyaniding are at present 
considerable, the clean pyrites of course containing the most gold per 
ton, whilst the quartzose portion, mechanically separated, contains 
even a greater percentage of the gold contents of the charge. 

With a more assured political future increase of leaching plant 
capacity is justifiable so that treatment can be continued until, on 
the lines of old chlorination practice, no more gold can be profitably 
washed out of the charge. The recent revival of schemes for the 
treatment of old residue dumps, and the improved results obtained 
since the war by the longer cyanide treatment allowed by the limited 
number of stamps running, have both emphasized the fact that past 
practice did not usually provide plants of sufficient leaching capacity. 

The same reasoning applies to slimes treatment by the only 
process, that of decantation, hitherto demonstrated conomically 
profitable with our low-grade product. Here extension of plant and 
design of future plants on a more generous scale is likewise becoming 
generally recognized as desirable, and the fact that with a 200-stamp 
mill a vat fifty feet in diameter is becoming a standard size for slime 
treatment indicates the scale on which this portion of the treatment 
is carried out. Spitzkasten were at one time in general use for 
thickening the slime-pulp before collection in a settling vat, but now 
the entire slime-pulp is run direct into collecting vats with peripheral 
overflow for the clear water. Possibly continuous slime treatment, 
using exaggerated spitzkasten in the shape of vats with steeply in- 
clined conical bottoms, may become adopted in certain cases; it 
has often been discussed and experimented on and attempts are now- 
being made to develop it on a large scale. 

The treatment of drainage from residue dumps has already been 
referred to, and waste and surplus solutions from this and other 
sources as well as by-products of every kind will as time goes on 
be still more carefully watched and treated when of sufficient value. 

There still remains one class of material on the Rand whose 
economic treatment is not yet possible, and this consists of the mil- 
lions of tons of low-grade slimes accumulated in dams. Very ap- 
preciable profits are derived by treating current slimes of low assay 
value, but when slimes have once been stored the extra cost of 
handling, the lime required to neutralize acid compounds formed by 



248 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

partial weathering of the pyrites, the difficulty of dissolving the gold 
owing to the lower oxygen-absorbing compounds of iron present, the 
extra cyanide these compounds consume, and the trouble, owing to 
the excess of lime salts in solution, of maintaining an efficient pre- 
cipitation of the gold when it has been dissolved all combine to 
render the treatment of this class of material unprofitable up to the 
present. 

The disposal of cyanide residues will as time goes on become 
an increasingly important problem. Improved methods are under 
■discussion of transfer from collecting to leaching vats and of final 
discharge to the dumps, in which conveyor belts and mechanical vat 
discharging appliances play an important part and permit of relative- 
ly cheap forms of plant construction. Since labour has never been 
too abundant on the Witwatersrand, and its lack at the present time 
is more seriously felt than ever, it is probable that in the future the 
use of labour saving appliances such as the above will be greatly 
stimulated. In view of the very small percentage of the total ore 
available on these fields which has been crushed to date, it is doubt- 
ful whether available sites on producing properties will serve for 
more than a portion of future sand and slime residues, and the 
question of cheap removal to a distance will in time become imper- 
ative. The matter of covering the surface of the dumps with soil 
and cultivating suitable grasses and plants thereon — as is done to 
prevent the shifting of sand dunes on the French coast — has been 
discussed, and it would certainly be desirable to minimize the nui- 
sance at present caused by the wind-blown sands from these deposits. 

Among the desiderata of the present time is that of an improved 
elevator for battery pulp ; tailings wheels while simple and cheap to 
run are costly to erect and not capable of increase when a few feet 
more fall is wanted ; on the other hand, ordinary plunger pumps suffer 
terribly from wear and involve heavy maintenance charges. 

There is an element of progress whose lack has often been felt 
by workers on these fields, and this is a metallurgical testing plant, 
consisting of say a 20-stamp mill and cyanide plant, with assay offices 
and technical laboratory attached, and with a competent staff. To 
make any radical change in the methods employed in a 200-stamp 
mill or plant is a very serious and expensive matter, and the progress 
of experimental work is hampered by its subordination to the carr}- 
ing out of routine work, for the very natural reason that shareholders 
do not wish valuable and instructive information but regular monthly 
profits. With such an institution, supported by the Chamber of 
Mines and with an advisory technical board of management, experi- 
ments of great value to the mining industry could be continually 
carried out. New machinery and methods of handling material, and 
promising new processes and devices could be tested, and at the 
same time such an institution might serve as a reference assay office 
and laboratory for all Rand mining companies. Here trial crush' .igs 
could be made, the value of ore samples or bullion could be determin- 
ed and analyses of minerals, boiler water, coal, oil, steel, cyanide, 



Methods of Gold Extraction. ^49 

and iniiumeral)]e other products made. Possibly with such an institu- 
tion might be incorjiorated a physical testing labaratory. 

But the dominating feature of the future will be the extent to 
which this already vast industry will grow. Up to the present time 
about eighty-five million pounds worth of gold has been produced. 
The greatest rate of production hitherto was during 1899 when gold 
was won at the rate of nineteen million pounds worth yier annum. 
By late conservative estimates it is anticipated that in a few years 
twelve thousand stamps should be at work, crushing about twenty 
million tons of ore per annum with a gold yield valued at forty 
million pounds, and that this production should increase rather than 
decrease as time goes on. Already nearly two-thirds of the world's 
gol<l is produced within the limits of the British Empire, and for 
many years to come the narrow seventy mile strip of land forming the 
Witwatersrand proper should alone yielfl gold which will go far to 
maintain this proportion. 



16.— THE SOLOR CORONA. 
By Profhssor J. T. Morrisox, M.A., B.Sc. F.R.S.E. 



N'OT PRIMED. 



17— THE ELilORK ORE COXCEXTRATIOX RROCESS. 
Bv E. A. Blumk. 



Briefly the process is : — The ore to be concentrated is crnshed 
by means of any wet crushing mill and the resulting pulp is sub- 
jected to a process of agitation with a quantity of mineral oil. The 
oil has the property of attaching to itself the particles of minerals 
in the pulp whilst leaving the gangue untouched. The oil, carrying 
its load of concentrate, is then removed and the concentrate is re- 
covered by a centrifugal machine. The process, however, has so 
far hardly been tried in South Africa. 



SECTION B. 



I S— PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 
By R. Marloth Ph.D.. M.A. 



Thk Historical Devllopment of the Geographical Botany 
OF Southern Africa. 

Among the various branches of botanical research, which recent- 
ly have received special attention, is hardly one which has develop- 
ed itself more rapidly than Geographical Botany. The principal 
reason for this rapid growth of interest in this special study is the 
recognition, that the field is a much wider one than was generally 
thought. It appears to me therefore desirable to indicate from the 
outset the range of the subject as understood by modern botanists. 

The various tasks, which the geographical botany of a country 
comprise may be arranged in three groups. The first step is the 
study of the distribution of the plants as we find them at present. 
For this purfKDse collections of plants have to be made in the various 
districts and these results have to be tabulated according to orders, 
genera and species, and to be compared with each other and those 
of other regions. The range of species, genera, orders and classes 
has to be ascertained, and the conclusions drawn from these observa- 
tions concerning the relationship of the vegetation of the country 
compared with that of other regions. 

Although this studv will reveal many interesting facts, it can- 
not give us a true insight into the character of the vegetation. The 
next step will be the studv of the societies of plants as we find them 
in nature. One has to examine these natural associations, which 
mav occur in different jiarts of the country, not only with regard to 
the elements that form them, with regard to the various species that 
occur in them, but specially with regard to the conditions under 
which they exist. The influence of soil and climate, of heat and 
cold, of rain and drought, of light and shade, of insects and other 
animals, of human interference and of all other causes, which are 
liable to affect the life of a plant, have to be studied. When all 
these conditions are known, which is hardly ever the case, we shall 
be able to understand, whv a certain plant occurs in one locality and 
not in another. 

We shall, however, not yet know how it came there. In order 
to gain an insight into the life-histon,- of a particular species of 
plants, it would be necessar\- to know something aliout its ancestors. 
In countries with younger geological formations a good deal of 
information of this kind has been ol)tained from jjaiaeontological 



2^2 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

studies; but in South Africa, unfurtunaleh . alnicist nu records ot" ihis 
kind exist. The scanty information in this direction which we 
possess is obtained from geological records of other countries, where 
fragments of plants allied to those of South Africa have been found. 

If we examine the state of our knowledge of the vegetation of 
South Africa in these three directions we find, that a considerable 
amount of work has been done with regard to the first branch of this 
study, an account of which will be the main object of this address, for 
little only can be said with regard to the other points mentioned, 
few men having devoted themselves to the study of these questions. 

The older collectors of plants at the Cape paid very little atten- 
tion to the questi(jns under discussion. They contented themselves 
with gathering the more remarkable plants of the country and sent 
them home, in many ca.ses with no other designation than " from 
the Cape." The names and details of life of these men are given in 
the Presidential Address which Prof. MacOwan read before the 
S.A. Philosophical Society in 1886. 

Some of the more prominent of these botanists are : Carl Pehr 
Thunberg, who arrived at the Cape in 177.; and travelled here for 
three years collecting many thousands of plants. Prof. MacOwan calls 
him the father of Cape Botany. The first Flora of the Cape bears 
his name, although it was not ccjmpletexl by him. 

Apart from the remarks attached tO' many of the plants, he 
gives a general account of the nature of the country, which is highlv 
interesting to the modern reader, as it was written more than 100 
years ago. As an example of it I may mention his <lescription of the 
Cape Flats. " Covered with deep and mostly moving sand, inundated 
in autumn and dried up in spring, devoid of water and inhabitants."' 

A companion of Thunberg was Francis Masson, who remained at 
the Cape, when the former left for Sweden, his native country. During 
the many years of his life at the Cape he paid special attention to 
the numerous .succulents of our flora, and published a work on the 
Stapeliae. which contains many beautiful illustrations of these curious 
plants, it is remarkable that several plants figured by him have 
never been found again since that time. 

Although the labours of these two men and of their predecessors 
had brought a large number of Ca[je plants to the knowledge of 
Science, no attempt was made to discuss the distribution of these 
plants or to describe the influence which thev had on llie character 
of the landscape. 

The first traveller who ])aid considerable attention to these 
matters Avas Burchell, who arrived at the Cape in 181 1 with the 
intention of penetrating into the unknown North in order to reach 
the Zambesi. Although he did not succeed in this attempt, he was 
able to carry out some most valuable explorations. Possessing a 
comprehensive training in all the supplementary sciences required 
by a geographical explorer, and being gifted with a poetical 
language and a skilful brush, he has given us a highlv scientific and 
at the same time most attractive account of his travels. Here we 
find the first description of the botanical features of various ])arts 



Geographical Botany. 253 

of South Africa and the peculiar characters of some of the more 
prominent plants. Whether he describes the beauty of the Acacia 
groves on the banks of the Gariep, the wide stretches of grassland 
of the Kalihari. or the barren hills of the Karroo, he does it in 
charming language. He notices where certain kinds of plants are 
common, and when and where they disappear or are displaced by 
others. 

As an example of his style. 1 may quote the description which 
he gives of the plants which he collected when he crossed the 
Witsenbergen Pass for the first time : — " On the rocky summit of 
this mountain I found a great variety of plants, a large proportion 
of which I had not met with before. The beautiful nodding red 
flowers of L'rolca nana immediately caught my eye ; and a multitude 
of new and interesting objects .seemed as if soliciting me to admire 
them. 1 fancied they were crowding round me with complaints 
against the want of taste, the cold indifference towards them and the 
apathy which they experienced from everybody who passed their 
wav. Some 1 fancied represented their having for many years pro- 
duced blossoms of the most charming hues, and shed the softest 
perfumes without any penson having deigned even to cast an eye 
upon them. . . . Loaded on all sides with flowers and branches 
of shrul)s. we descended to the plain ; and those who met us as we 
were returning to Tulbagh might have thought, as in Macbeth, 
that ' Birnam-wood was come to Dunsinane.' '" 

Not less beautiful is the account he gives of the impression 
which the first glimpse of the Orange River made upon him. " The 
first view to which 1 happened to turn myself, in looking up the 
stream, realised those ideas of elegant and classic scenery which 
are created in the minds of ix)ets, those alluring fancies of a fair\- 
tale, or the fa.scinating imagery of a romance. The waters of the 
majestic river, flowing in a broad expanse resembling a smooth 
translucent lake, seemed, with their gentle waves, to kiss the shore 
and bid farewell for ever, as they glided past in their way to the rest- 
less ocean, bearing on their limpid bosom the image of their wood- 
clothed banks, while the drooping willows leaned over the tide as if 
unwilling to lose them."" 

That mav appear sentimental to some of us, but we must re- 
member that he had crossed the arid regions between Karroopoort 
and the Ciariep, and that his cattle had suffered much through want 
of water. On the other hand, the poet in him never interfered with 
his painstaking accuracy in recording every plant. It is for this 
reason that his Calalogus Geographicus has always been and is still 
a most valuable .source of information. 

Shortlv after Burchell had left the Cape a new era of Cape 
Botany commenced, for in the next decade we find three able, 
enthusiastic and most energetic botanists scouring the country and 
collecting many thousands of plants. These three men were: 
Ecklon, Zeyher, and Drege. 

Ecklon as well as Zeyher concentrated their energy on the 
collecting and distributing of plants. One of Ecklon's collection.'^ 



254 Report S.A.A. Advancemeni' of Science. 

contained 3,000 species, besides which he sent home many Hving 
succulents, bulbs, and seeds, depending tor his maintenance entirely 
upon the proceeds of the.se collections. 

Drege, on the other hand, undertook the work at once from a 
higher point of view. On his extensive travels, which took him to 
Namaqualand, the Orange River, the Karroo, the coast-belt, the 
Eastern Province, and Natal, he recorded carefully the peculiarities 
of each locality where he collected. A.s his collections were esti- 
mated to have comprised 8,000 species, represented by 200,000 
specimens, it is obvious that, as Thunberg is called the father of 
Cape Botany, Drege is the founfler of .South African (leographical 
Botany. 

In 1843 he pul)lished the results of the.se laltours at Regensburg 
in a work entitled " Zwei Pflanzen-Cleographischei Dokumente,"' 
giving not only the lists of the plants collected in various parts, but 
also grouping them into geographical regions, which he showed tm 
a ma}). Although minor modifications of some of his boundaries 
were found to be necessary, and although some of his regions had 
to be combined into larger units, the principal distinctions recog- 
nised by him were so correct and natural, that subsequent investiga- 
tors could onlv confirm them. 

Shortly afterwards a descripti(jn of the forest-regions oi the 
South Coast was given Ijy Bunbur\ in the Journal of Botany 
(1843-44); while Krauss published an excellent account of the 
vegetation of the three main regions of South Africa in his 
'• Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Flora des Kap-und Natal-landes " 
(Regensburg, 1846). Having explored the Southern Coast districts 
from Cape Town to Uitenhage, and afterwards the greater part of 
Natal, he describes in graphic language the contrast between the 
forest lands of George and the desert-like nature of the Karroo on the 
one hand, and the tropical character of the Natal flora on the other 
hand. 

The botanist whose name is prol)al)!v most familiar to every one 
who takes an interest in the vegetation of this countr)' is Harve)', 
and although he difl not pay special attention to phyto-geographical 
questions, he added many notes of this kind to the descriptions in 
his " Genera of South African Plants,' and in the three volumes of 
the Flora Capensis edited under his care. 

The first comprehensive description of South African vegeta- 
tion from a phyto-geographical point of view was given by Gri.sebach 
in his "Vegetation der Erde," published in 1871. Based upon the 
foundations laid by Drege. Grisebach divided South Africa into 
three large regions. One. called the Cape region, comprised the 
Cape Colony south of the Orange River, the other one, called the 
Kalihari region, the country north of the Orange River from the 
West Coast to the Drakensbergen in the East, and the third one 
was the Southern extension of tropical -Africa called the Soudan. 
This he brought down as far as the Great l^'ish River. 

.\lthough Griseljach's arrangements and descriptions cannot be 
admitted as correct in every respect, his work is a masterly account 



Geographical IJoia.nv. -55 

of the vegetation of South Africa. In the 47 pages which he 
devotes to the Kalihari and the Cape regions, he discusses the 
topography of the countn, the climatic conditions, the (iistribution 
of a number of orders and genera, the various forms of plant lite, 
e.g., succulents, heath-formation, grassy plains, forests, etc., the 
origin of some of the larger systematic groujDS, the connections with 
other floras, and many other points. If one considers that he had to 
treat in this way the vegetation of the whole globe, and that he had 
not visited South Africa, but had to depend entirely upon the writ- 
ings of others, one cannot but admire the genius who i)erf()rmed 
this task. 

A different arrangement was adopted by Rehmann, who. having 
travelled in South Africa, and made large collections of plants, pub- 
lished his results in 1880 at Krakow. 

One of the errors into which (iri.seljach was led is the view that 
the Orange River forms a natural boundary lietween the Kalihari 
and the Cape floras. That error was rectitied by Dr. H. Holus in a 
contribution to the Journal of the Linnean Society (vol. j 4, p. 482), 
and more fullv later on in his " Sketch of the Flora of South Africa " 
(1886). In this treatise, which is modestly called a sketch, the 
floral regions of South Africa are arranged more in accordance with 
Drege's original divisions and subsequent observations. Jt is shown 
that the so-called Cape flora of Grisebach consists of two. or perhaps 
three, quite distinct regions, and that the Orange River flows through 
the southern extension of the Kalihari vegetation, the portion which 
lies to the south of the river being known as Kushmanland. .Special 
stress is laid upon the great difference which exists between the 
South Western corner of the Cape and the other portions of the 
country, the typical Cape flora being confined to the narrow sickle- 
shaped strip between the coast and the mountain ranges which form 
the Western and Southern boundaries of the Karroo, viz.. the Cedar- 
bergen and the Zwartebergen. 

The country to the north of the Zwarteliergen is (Jivided into 
two regions, viz.. the Karroo and the composite region, the latter 
comprising the Xieuwveldt and the high plains to the north of 
Beaufort West. 

A somewhat dift'erent view of the relation of our various regions 
to each other is adopted by Engler in his "'Versuch einer 
Entwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt.' Part II., which' appeared 
a feAv years before Dr. Bolus' sketch, viz.. in 1882. Engler' adopts 
the South We.stern region of Bolus, and calls it the Cape flora, but 
all the others, inclusive of the Karroo, he finds so closely related to 
the large tropical and sub-tropical area of Central Africa, that he 
considers the Karroo simply as " the last outlayer and the poorest 
tiranch of this vast region." Some modifications of these various 
views are adopted bv two other works on general geogra[)hical botanv, 
viz., by Drude in his " Handbu<:h der Pflanzengeographie "" (1890), 
and by Warming in his " Oekologische Pflanzengeographie "' (1896). 
I^rude combines Rehmanns and Bolus" plans, and goes even a step 
further by sub-dividing the latter's South Western region into two 



256 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

areas. In thi.s way he oIjUuiis seven regions, viz.. the Kalihari, the 
Transvaal Hoogeveld. the Sul>-ln)[)ical Eastern Region, the Central 
Hip;h Veld (corresponding to Bolus' (Composite Region), the Karroo, 
the forest districts of the coast, of which Knvsna would be the 
centre, and the small South-Western corner extending fnjni Mossel 
Bay to the Northern end of the Cedarhergen. The forest districts form 
a kind of intermediate zone between the sub-tropical forests of Natal 
and the evergreen shrubs of the Cape, man\ of the trees being com- 
mon to l)oth. It is in this remaining little corner of the Cape where 
as he exjjresses it. " that famous Cape vegetation asserts itself in its 
jHirest ff)rm."' which is characterised by almost innumerable kinds 
ot little shrubs and shrublets of Proteaceae. Bruniaceae. and Eri- 
caceae, of Phylica. Geranium. Rhus, and many others, and where 
few real trees occur, mostly in the ravines and gorges of the moun 
tains onlv. 

A ver\ remarkable view of the origin of our flora is a<lvanced 
by Professor H. Christ, of Basel, in his paper entitled, " Ueber 
Afrikanische Bestandteile der Schweizer Flora ' (1897). He con- 
siders that at some remote period the whole or the greater part of 
Africa was occupied by a xeroi)hilous flora of the nature of the 
present vegetation of South Africa. 

" This flora is an old one, and deserves the name ' The Old 
African Floral Its present distribution shows that it has been pre- 
served in all those regions, where the xerophilous character of the 
country remained the same, while it was displaced bv other elements, 
wherever the desert advanced, or where moist depressions favoured 
the development of the equatorial forest flora. The xerophilous 
flora is the primarj one, the others are of secondary origin."' 

Quite a number of essays and larger works deal with various 
parts of South Africa. Foremost among them being the following : 

Schinz : The vegetation of German South-West Africa. 

Sim : Flora of Caflfraria and Ferns of South Africa. 

Wood : Natal plants. 

Thode ; Account of the coast regions of Caffraria and Natal. 

Unfortunately, a few only of all these works contain any illus- 
trations. It is. however, quite impossible for the non-botanical 
reader to realise the salient features of a vegetation from flescriptions 
only. Hence it was a great step in advance when Schimj)er's 
" Pflanzen-Geographie auf physiologischer Grundlage " appeared in 
1899, for this work is i)rovided with a large number of illustrations 
of native vegetaticm. The chapters dealing with South Africa are 
unfortunatelv somewhat condensed, but the figures of many of our 
dwarf shnibs and shrul)lets give a very good idea of the appearance 
of our vegetation to the reader, who has not seen it him.self. 

Schimper contemplated a large increase of the South African 
part of his work in the .second edition, and as he had visited the 
Cape in 1898 this revision would have been of the highest value 
to the student of Cape Botany. To our deep regret, however, this 
cannot be, for Schimper died in 1 90 [ in the midst of his labours. 



Geographical Hotanv. 2^-j 

No larger foiilribution tu the knowledge of our vegetation has 
been published since then, but a very interesting paper by F. C. 
Clarke deals with another feature of this study. In the " Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society of Great Britain " (vol. 70) he gives an 
account of the distribution of the tribe Schoeneae. which forms a 
section of the order Cyperaceae. This account demonstrates beauti- 
fuiiy how large the number of .species of this tribe is in the Southern 
extremities of the three continents, and how rapidly they decrease in 
number further North. The obvious conclusion being, that the com- 
mon origin ma\ have l)een in .some Antarctic region, which has 
either disappeared in the ocean, or is now covered by eternal ice. 
The importance of this paper lies in the bearing which it has on the 
question of the origin of this " famous flora," which predominates in 
the little South-Western comer of the Cape. 

Let us hope that the expeditions which are at present exploring 
the Antarctics mav discover .some geological records, that will throw 
some more light on this question. 



u;.— ox THE OCCTRRENXE OF AX EPIDEMIC AMOXG 
THE DOMESTICATED AXIMALS IX MAURITIUS, 
IX WHICH TRYPAXOSOMATA WERE F^Ol'XD IX 
THE BLOOD. 

By Alkxaxdkk Edixcitox, M.D., F.R.S.E.. Diki-xtor of the 
CuLoxiAL Bacteri()loc;ical IxsTiTi tk, Cai'I-; Coloxv. 



[ABSTRACT.^ 

During the year 1902 an alarming mortality occurred in the 
cattle, horses, mules, donkeys, and oxen in Mauritius. 

Drs. Lesur and Lorans, after finding Trypanosomes in the blood 
judged it to be Surra, and, as some Indian bullocks had been re- 
cently imported, it was believerl that the malady had been brought 
with them. 

The Go\ernor of the Island having aijplied to the Governor of 
the Cape for my services, i arrived there in July. 

Investigation then made showed me that not only had the 
disease been existent on the Island previous to the arrival of the 
Indiail bullocks. l)ut that these animals themselves died of it. 

The Trypanosomes found in the blood are about 15 microns 
in length. One end is .somewhat blunt, while the other is long, 
tapering, and ends in a long flagellum. Along one side there runs 
a wavy membrane, which is attached near the blunt extremity and 
extends to the tapering end. 

Xear the blunt end there is a small spot, which stains red with 
the Romanowsky method. Xearer the centre, or just behind this 
spot, there is a larger sj^herical clear spot, which may be regarded 
as a vacuole. In some this vacuole is not visible, but in such there 
is a second small spot staining brighllv. and situated just behind 
the other one. This may be either a stage of division, or mav be a 
sexual characteristic. 

The protoplasm, alxiut the centre of the parasite, is somewhat 
'•ondensed, Init does not take on the red staining. 

Movement is effected bv the flagellum, by a vermicular move- 
ment of the parasite s liodv and bv the wavv motion rif the undulat- 
ing memVjrane. 

Transmission of the disease is effected bv a fl\ , which is some- 
what like the ordinary house fiy, but is called there the mouche- 
Ifoeuf. It is believed to be a variety of Stomoxvs. 



Epidemic among Ammals. -59 

I believe, however, that there are other methods of iransmission, 
and. in particular, I cannot overlook the fact that animals live near 
the docks, where the fl} also is found, whereas the infection is 
greatest in marshy areas. 

The disease has been [produced experimentalh in ihe Bacterio- 
logical Institute. 

Young cattle withstand huge doses, and while the parasites ap- 
pear in the blood the animals manv months later are still in good 
health. 

A pig has entirely resisted inoculation. 

Two goats were inoculated with large doses without showing 
infection of the blood microscopically, nevertheless, the blood of 
these goats .served to produce the disea.se in clean dogs inoculated 
with it. 

Pigeons entirely resist infection. 

Guinea-pigs shew great differences in resistance, some dying 
after a few weeks, others living for months. 

Rabbits behave somewhat similarly, but death is almost certain 
to occur in these animals with great emaciation shewing itself pre- 
viously, and in many cases a i)rogressive panophthalmitis is found. 

In horses, dogs and rats and mice the malady runs a \ery acute 
course. Horses which have been " salted '' to horsesickness are as 
susceptible as clean horses. From the point of view of its in- 
fectiveness it is not vet clear that its affinities are either with the 
Tset.se parasite or the Surra. 



0.— NOTE OX thp: co-relatiox of several dis- 
eases OCCUKKINCi AMONG ANIMALS IN SOUTH 
AFRICA. 

Bv Ar.KXAXDKu Edingtox, i\I.D., F.R.S.E., Dikkctok of thk 
Colonial Bactkkiological Ixstitutk, Capk Coloxv. 



Ill South Africa one finds quite a number of ailments occurring 
in tile domesticated animals and, while the onset, symptoms and 
morbid anatomy of those affected shew the ailments to be peculiar 
to Africa, the names j^iven to the maladies are unknown in any other 
country. 

Horses and mules are liable to the enormously fatal malad\ 
known as Horse-sickness. 

The mode (if onset, symptoms and morbid anatom\ of this 
disease have been already fully described.* 

High-bred goats and .sheep are exceedingly liable, in certain 
areas of (^ape Colony, to a disease known as Heart-water. The 
areas within which this disea.se exists begin at the coast in the 
Eastern Province and extend inland irregularly for some distance. 

In the animals which die of this disease it is common to find 
a considerable quantity of pale yellow serous effusion in the 
pericardium. 

The epi, m\<) and endocardium commonlv shew little or no 
departure from the normal. 

The pleural I'avitv mav contain some vellow serous fluid or ma\ 
be empty. 

The lungs mav be almost normal or there mav be some exudation 
found into the inlerlobuiar tissue. 

While the lungs as a whole may be quite pale in colour there 
may be found irregular sharply defined chocolate-coloured patches of 
congestion. 

There may also be found more or less of gastroenteritis and. in 
cases running to the full term, the gall bladder may be distended with 
more or less in.spi.ssated bile which, while usually of a deep bottle 
green, may be sometimes brown in colour. 

The incubation period after the intravenous inoculation of a 
clean goat with 5 c.c. to 30 c.c. of the blood of an animal dying of 
the malady is as a rule about ten days. This period, however, may 
be greatly diminished or extended ; from a few days up to nearly 
three weeks in some cases. 

From the point of view of experimental infection the results, 
which I have obtained from experiments conducted on nearly five 
hundred goals, are paradoxical in the extreme. 

VVhen 1 first liegan my investigations I u.sed goals which were 
born and reared on a farm, near Grahamstown. which was believed 
to be outside of the area infested with the disease. 



Vide reports of the Director of the Bacteriological Institute, 



Animal Diseases. ^^i 

On infested farms the niortaliis during the summer season is 
ver} high, but no unnatural mortality had occurred on this farm during 
the past ten years at least. 

The material used for purposes of infection was the blood taken 
from animals dying of the disease at Koonap and at Somerset East. 
The blood was either simply defibrinated or mixed with a small 
quantity of a solution of neutral citrate of potash. I was unable to 
tnid that either had anv advantage over the other as an infecting 
agent. 

Subcutaneous injection of doses as large as 40 c.c. almost al- 
ways failed to produce death, although some oscillation of the tem- 
perature of the inoculated animals was observed. 

Intravenous inoculations of doses up to 30 c.c. were uncertain. 

Where the animals inoculated in this way developed the disease 
and died, there was no certainty that their blood would produce the 
virulent disease in others. Failures have occurred even with the 
injection of 100 c.c. into the jugular vein. 

In some cases blood which was drawn from inoculated animals, 
which did not themselves die, proved capable of setting up the 
virulent disease in others. 

As further indicating the parado.\ical nature of the malady I 
may add that in by far the greater number of these goats which had 
resisted inoculation it was proved that an inoculation of even a much 
smaller dose of blood at a later date or exposure of the animals in 
an infested veld was attended with the production of the malady 
followed by death. 

I felt, therefore, that these goats, which largely resisted infection, 
although being not immune, had acquired what one might term a 
modified resistance or acclimatization. 

This is the more probable from the following circumstance. Mr. 
Thomas Hoole. a well-known breeder at Highlands, made a ],)urchase 
of a considerable number of goats fn^m a district of Somerset where 
the disease is known to l)e absent. After purchasing he sold part to 
Mr. L. White, whose farm lies many miles distant. .\fter these 
goats had been placed on the respective farms thev liegan to die of 
Heart -water, while contrarily the animals belonging to the place did 
not die. (3n both farms Heart-water occurs. 

I may further add that the ordinary Boer goat is practically in- 
su.sceptible to the malady, and that the pure bred Persian goats pos- 
sess " high degree of insusceptibility to natural infection. 

In some parts where the disease only occurs to a slight extent 
I have had it reported to me by the farmer as Ijeing flail-sickness, 
thus called as the gall bladder is often very much distended with bile. 

Since that time I have imported all goats by train from a clean 
area in Somerset and in these animals I have found it much easier 
to keep up a strain of infection from animal to ajiimal. 

Still, however, inoculation frequently fails and I fell constrained 
to report to my Government that goats evidently were not the proper 
animal host for the contagium of this mala<lv. 

in sheep the conditions are practically the same. 



26z Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

In cattle a number of names are applied to diseases by the 
farmers, which ha^e given me immense trouble in the attempt to 
identif}. The names with which 1 shall now deal are: 

1. Imapunga (Kafir: "Lung"'). 

2. Boschziekte (Hush sickness). 

3. Gall-sickness. 

4. Veld-sickness. 

5. Black Lung-sickness. 

6. Rivierziekte (River sickness). 

There is no official work which enables anyone to identify the 
maladies above named but, since my own work has been completed. 
I have obtained, a few weeks ago, a cop\ of the " Report of the 
Commission appointed to enquire into Disease in Cattle in the 
Colon},"' dated 1877. 

Among the numerous minutes of evidence 1 desire in particular 
to refer to the very valual)le and strikingly accurate observations of 
the late IVlr. J. Webb, who owned then a farm near Graham.stown, 
consisting of sour \el(l as contrasted with the sweet veld of the 
Karroi). 

"(Question -705. Have vou noticed anv change in the veld 
during the last few vears ? 

Yes. slock of all kinds have been doing badly and sheep and 
goats it is now iiniiossible to keep on farms which at one time were 
considered to be the best grazing farms in this neighbourhood. 

2706. ^^'hat do vou think is the cause of it? 

My ojHnion is we have a tick which made its appearance ni the 
last 8 or 9 \ears. I suffered from them then, a bontetick. small like 
a ladvbird. 1 was farming on a farm without ticks; directlv this tick 
appeared all mv stock did badly, calves died of gall-sickness, bo.sch- 
sickness. one man lost 2.000 or 3.000 sheep and goats; I believe the 
tick caused it. I have also shot bush bucks suffering from the same 
ttau.ses. this was at Southey's Poort. Fish River. As this tick increases 
so diseases increase, for wherever the tick is found there are the 
same diseases : the tick has now travelled over 60 miles. 

2710. Did \ou o|)en and examine them? .\ few sheej), not 
often. 

2711. What (lid \(iu notice?- The Heart bag and chest full 
of water. 

2716. Vdu have had large experience in c-attle? — Yes. 

2717. What do they die of? — Below Grahamstown of Gall-sick- 
ness. \orlh \er\ few die ccjmpared to the south. We have three 
sicknesses here called by the farmers : Gall-sickness. l)Osch-sickness. 
and sweet veld-sickness; I believe they are all the same."' 

It is generalK known to farmers that if Kanjo cattle are brought 
down to the coast areas of the Eastern Province the greater number 
will die. 

For re-stocking the northern territories large numbers of cattle 
have been bought, of which great part are Karof) animals. Of these 
many have been grazing on the same farm which Mr. Webb spoke 
(~if. and of the Karof) cattle a verv large number are alrea<lv dead. 



Animal Diseases. 263 

HORSE-SICKNESS CO-RELATED TO VELD-SICKXESS. 

During the earlier pari of nn work in this Colony 1 endeavoured 
without success to transfer the (hsease known as Horse-sickness from 
the horse to cattle. 

The cattle used in these exi)erimenls were of the class known 
as Zuurs-eld cattle. 

It has been known during several generations of farmers that it 
cattle living in sweet veld areas are brought to zuurveld areas ihey 
are exceedinglv liable to die very soon after their arrival. 

Owing to this the Zuurveld cattle, sold on the Grahamstown 
market, fetch higher prices than those from sweet veld and. indeed, 
most farmers, in this area, refuse to purchase sweet veld cattle at 
anv price owing to the area being a Zuurveld one. 

If then sweet veld cattle die when transferrerl to sour veld, what 
is the nature of the disease produced in them ? 

After inoculation for Rinderpest had been well advanced in 
the Eastern Province, it vas found necessary to be exceedingly care- 
ful of the kind of animals, used to produce virulent blood, and a 
large number of animals were conve\ed from sweet veld areas to a 
camp at Waai Nek. about two miles from this Institute. 

Of these considerable numbers died, but the cause of their death 
was not understood and the enormous pressure of work connected 
with Rinderpest prevented definite investigations being taken up for 
this purpose and we had to content ourselves with attempting, by 
treatment, to save as many as possil)le. 

Most of the deaths were reported to me by Mr. Robertson as 
belonging to Steynsburg cattle and he emphasized the fact of their 
being sweet veld cattle while our veld was zuurveld. 

While this condition of things was in progress, a Bechuana boy 
(a herd brought from Taungs wht) had wcirked with me there) living 
at the camp, came in and reported to my veterinary assistant, Mr. 
William Robertson. M.R.C.V.S. (now assistant to the Colonial 
Veterinary Surgeon) that one of the cows had died of " Paardeziekte." 
As a result of this rejxjrt Mr. RoberLson rode to the camp and 
returning almost immediately stated to me that an animal had just 
died and that it had a cloud of white foam Iving around the nostrils 
and mouth. 

1 immediately proceeded with him to the camp and saw the 
animal lying dead. It had a large quantity of white foam King 
around the nose and mouth exactly as one sees so frequentiv in the 
cases of horses which have died of Horse-sickness. 

On making a post-mortem examination the similarity to Horse- 
sickness was extended since we found the following conditions. 

The lungs shewed an exceedingly well-marked interlobular exuda- 
tion of yellow serous exudation. This was so characteristic, that, had 
the lungs only been shewn to me, I should have believed they had 
been taken from a horse that had died from Horse-sickness. In 
another ca.se f)f the same sort which had been dead some hours before 



264 Report S.A.A. Advan'cement of Science. 

the post-mortem examination was made, there was in addition some 
emphysema of the apices and free edges of the Imigs. 

The pericardium contained an excessive amount of yellow serous 
fluid. 

No abnormal condition was seen in the abdominal ca\ity except 
the spleens which were slightly enlarged, the liver which was in 
both cases congested and friable, and some exudation of serous 
material into the omentum and mesentery. 

No micro-organisms of any kind were found in the blood. 
This occurrence was somewhat surprising to us both and I there- 
upon determined upon attempting once more the infection of clean 
cattle with Horse-sickness from the horse. 

Accordingly I took several animals of a new consignment to the 
Institute and then under rareful conditions carried out the experi- 
ments. 

On the 4th February 1898, Mr. Robertson and 1 inoculated a 
clean young ox with 30 c.c. of fresh Horse-sickness blood which we 
injected into the jugular vein. Some reaction occurred during the 
first few days after which the temperature fell, but on the i6th day 
it rose. The maxima were as follows till the moment of death. 

J 6th day 106' 4 

i7th .. io6'6 

i8th loy'o 

19th .. 107*2 

20th 106' 2 

-ist died. 

"The post-mortem was of iiiierest inasmuch as nearly ever)' 
s\mptom of Horse-sickness was rejjroduced, the interlobular pul- 
monary effusi(jn. the pleural and pericardial effusions. " (Vide Report 
of the Director of the Colonial Bacteriological Institute for the Year 
1898.) 

Ten c.c. oi the Ijlood of this ox wa.s used to inoculate 1)\ sub- 
cutaneous injection, horse No. 122. After an incubation j)eriod of 
eight days, the temperature rose, and the animal died, on the 13th 
day, of typical Horse-sickness. 

'Ten c.c. of the l)lood of this ox was al.so u.sed, bv intravenous 
injection, t(j inoculate a second ox, in which the temperature rose 
-to 106.4 ("1 the Jith day, to 107.4 un the 12th. and which we killed 
when dying of the disease on the 16th day. 

At that time, having succeeded so completelv in transferring 
the disease to cattle, I tried also to infect goat.s. 

The goats, however, were bt»rn in this area, and are more 
insusceptible than goats taken from other areas. 

Of the several goats inoculated none died but most had severe 
reactions. 

One of these goats, which had been ino<nilate(l with jo r.v.. sub- 
cutaneously, of ]>reserved horse-sickness l)lood, and developed a high 
temperature as a result, was bled on the roth dav after inoculation. 

A \oung ox was inoculated with 30 c.c of "this blood l)v intra- 
venous inoculation on the i8th Febniarv. 1808. 



Animal Diseases. 265 

During the first few days the temperature was irregular, and then 
took a normal course, but thereafter the following temperatures were 
recorded : — 

loth day 1046 

nth „ io6'6 

i2th „ io6"6 

13th „ 107-0 

14th „ 107-4 

15th „ 107-4 

i6th „ 105-4 

17th „ 96-8 Death. 

In this case the post-mortem examination showed very well- 
marked symptoms of Heart-water. 

These experiments therefore showed : — 

1. In a most definite fashion, that cattle from sweet veld areas 
are more or less susceptible to Horse-sickness. 

2. That the disease so produced was indistinguishable from 
that which had occurred spontaneously in our camp. 

Still, however, I was unable to identify the disease, although I 
learned that it was well known to the Kafirs under the name of 
Imapunga. 

Shortly after this a number of deaths were occurring among 
young calves on the farm of Mr. Hyde, and Mr. Robertson and I, 
who proceeded there, obtained a post-mortem examination which 
enabled us to determine that it was the same disease which we had 
already seen in our camp. 

During the past two years a very large mortality has occurred, 
among calves, from this disease, but it is to be remarked that the 
old animals are either insusceptible or well protected, since very few 
of the old animals which have been accustomed to the veld die of it. 

In the case of animals, however, which are brought from sweet 
veld areas, it is the rule rather than the exception for them all to die. 

I have had to import a considerable number of calves from other 
areas for use in the Institute, and among these a fairly heavy mortality 
has occurred from this cause. 

During the war a large number of fine trek oxen were sent to 
Grahamtown by the Military Authorities, and to the best of my 
knowledge almost all of these coming from De Aar, Naauwpoort, and 
Cradock died. The following will show the results in two lots coming, 
respectively, from Naauwpoort and Cradock : — 

I. Oxen from Naauwpoort (16) which arrived at Grahamstown 
on the 23rd August, 1901 : — 

I died on September 25th. 

I died on September 27th. 

I died on October 3rd. 

I died on October 8th. 

I died on November 15th. 

I died on November 24th 



266 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

2. Oxen from Cradock (14) arrived at Grahamstown on Decem- 
ber 2nd, 1 90 1 : — 

I died on 24th December. 

I died on the 25th December. 

X died on the 30th December. 

I died on the 2nd January, 1902. 

I died on the 3rd January, 1902. 

I died on the 7th January, 1902. 

I died on the nth January, .1902. 

12 died on the 12th January, 1902. 

I died on the 13th January, 1902. 

I had an op|^X)rtunity of examining some of these animals, and 
was able to determine the identity of this disease with that which 
I had formerly seen occurring spontaneously, and with that which I 
had produced by the inoculation of clean animals with Horse-sick- 
ness blood. 

While the Kafirs call this by the term Imapunga, I have found, 
by consulting transport riders whose experience extended over many 
years, that this disease is known to them under the name of Veld- 
sickness, or Veldziekte. 

The principal lesion is an exudation of a yellow serous fluid into 
the following structures: — 

1. Subcutaneous, in and along the lines of the intermuscular 
fasciae. 

2. Sometimes, but not always, in the pleural cavity. 

3. Commonly into the interlobular tissue of the lungs. Some- 
times it is present to an exceedingly light degree here, and it is 
necessary to examine carefully to determine where the normal 
becomes abnormal since the interlobular tissue in ruminants 
is more than in the equids. In very many cases, however, one 
finds the interlobular infiltration forming bands from one-eighth to a 
quarter of an inch in thickness. 

4. Into the pericardium. The amount found in this situation 
varies within wide limits; in some cases it is but little in excess, 
while in others the pericardial sac is filled. A variation is to be 
•found also in Horse-sickness. I have found in some horses only a 
few ounces of fluid, while in others more than half a gallon was 
found in the sac. 

5. Around the base of the heart. 

6. In the anterior mediastinum. 

7. Between the lower border of the pleura and the diaphragm. 

I have several times found the exudation here to form a solidified 
layer nearly half an inch in thickness. 

8. Into the tissue of the omentum and mesenter\'. 

9. Into the submucosa of the intestines. 

Secondary lesions : — 

I. Collapse of lobules of the lung, with a corresponding trau- 
matic emphysema of the adjoining lobules. 



Animal Diseases. 267 

2. In cases which Hve for a day or two longer than the more 
highly susceptible animals it is common to find congested lobules of 
a dark, almost black colour. These lobules are sharply defined 
from those immediately adjoining, and from their somwhat super- 
ficial resemblance to the appearance seen in Pleuro-pneumonia, 
such cases are caned by the farmers Black Lung-sickness. 

3. In some cases one finds extravasations of blood below the 
endocardium of the left ventricle, especially in relation to the attach- 
ment of the chordeae tendineae. 

4. The liver is commonly congested and enlarged, and, in the 
last stages, the gall bladder is distended. The bile is of a deep 
green colour as a rule, but in some cases is brown. When the 
quantity of bile is very small, it may be of a somewhat syrupy con- 
sistence, but never shows the peculiar tenacious mucous character so 
well known in Texas Fever. 

5. The small stomach is frequently the seat of patches of con- 
gestion, more or less of a red colour, which may even have gone on 
to active inflammation. 

6. The conditions seen in the stomach may be found fre- 
quently in the intestines, and a general gastro-enteritis may even be 
set up. 

7. The spleen may be slightly enlarged, but is firm in consist- 
ence. The malpighian bodies are more prominent than in the normal 
condition. 

8. A slight amount of yellow serous exudation may be found 
sometimes in the pelvis of the kidney ; otherwise the organ is normal. 

9. In even the best marked cases the urine and the bladder are 
commonly absolutely normal. 

10. In cases which have been dead for some time and exposed 
to a hot sun there may be some patches of emphysema in the lungs. 

On examination of the blood and of smears from the kidneys 
and liver no micro-organisms are to be found except in animals 
which have been dead for some hours, when a large putrefactive 
bacillus is frequently to be found. 

The blood is always of a good colour, and the rapidity of coagu- 
lation is always increased. 

The fever in these cases is commonly very high. A remarkable 
feature in the malady is the fact that animals may seem in perfect 
health, yet when the temperature is taken it may be found to be 
over 106 F. 

It is common to find animals showing symptoms of illness only 
a few hours before death. 

As this disease is well defined in cattle, and runs on parallel 
lines with Horse-sickness in horses, I suggest that it should be 
denominated " South African Cattle-sickness." 

While the blood of the first ox proved virulent to an ox, I found 
after three transferences through oxen that it becomes relatively 
virulent to the ox, but may fail to produce virulent disease in the 
horse even when used in the fresh state. 



268 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

HEART-WATER. 

In my Annual Report for 1896, observations were made which 
at a later date were communicated to the Royal Society (Vol. 65) 
showing that the germs of Red-water or Texas Fever may remain 
latent in the blood of cattle for long periods of time after their 
recovery from an attack of the malady, and that cattle born on Red- 
water veld, although they may not have been affected by this malady, 
yet can, and do carry infection, in a latent form, in their blood. 

During my investigations into Heart-water I began to have 
suspicions that something of the same nature was concerned in regard 
to the latter malady. 

The following experiments shew in how far these suspicions 
were verified : — 

Experiment i. — To prove that the contagium of Heart-water 
may be communicated to a susceptible animal in a non-virulent form 
and passed in succession through several others, eventually being 
raised to full virulence in the passage. 

I obtained a number of clean goats by train from a clean area, 
and enclosed them in a courtyard, which, in turn, was bounded by 
stone walls. 

Along one side of this yard galvanised iron enclosures were 
erected, into which the animals were placed while under experiment. 
The most rigorous care was exercised in regard to cleanliness of the 
place, each shed being at frequent intervals thoroughly cleaned and 
disinfected. 

While I have found that Horse-sickness blood can be pre- 
served by the addition of an equal volume of glycerine and water 
containing i per 1,000 of Phenol, so that it retains its virulence for 
at least three years, the blood of goats dying of Heart-water when 
so treated loses its virulence in a few days. Such preserved 
blood does, however, almost always set up a slight oscillation of the 
temperature in animals inoculated with it. 

Goat No. 252 was inoculated with 10 c.c. of glycerinated blood 
taken from an animal which had died of Heart-water. The injection 
of this material was made subcutaneously on September 5th, 1901. 

No febrile change was observed until the 21st September. On 
this day the temperature rose to 107F. in the middle of the day, 
but regained the normal on the following day. 

Goat No. 258 was now inoculated with 100 c.c. of the blood of 
No. 252. 

Some irregularity of temperature was produced, but no very 
definite reaction, and on the 9th October (being the fourteenth day 
after inoculation) it was bled, and Goat 265 was inoculated sub- 
cutaneously with 100 c.c. of its blood, and with 25 c.c. injected into 
the jugular vein. 

On the following day there was a sudden elevation of tem- 
perature to io6'4, and on the fifth day the animal died of character- 
istic Heart-water. 



Animal Diseases. 269 

The two previously inoculated animals remained meanwhile in 
seemingly good health. 

Experiment 2. — To prove that Goats Nos. 252 and 265, through 
which the virus had been transmitted while in a non-virulent form, 
were in no degree protected thereby against subsequent inoculation 
with virulent virus. 

Goat No. 266 was inoculated on October loth with 100 c.c. of 
the blood of 265 by subcutaneous injection and with 20 c.c. in- 
jected intravenously. 

On the 8th day the temperature ran up to io5'4. 

On the nth day the temperature ran up to io4'8. 

On the 1 2th day the temperature ran up to 106 "4. 

On the 13th day the temperature ran up to io4'4, when it died 
of Heart-water. 

Note. — During the progress of these experiments clean goats 
were always kept with the experimental ones, and at the close of the 
experiments they were all inoculated with virulent blood, and all 
died of Heart-water.) 

Goat No. 252, which had been inoculated as already seen with 
non- virulent blood, was now inoculated on the 23rd October with 
30 c.c. of the blood of No. 266 by intravenous injection. 

On the 6th day the temperature rose to 104' 4. 

On the 7th day the temperature rose to 107 "6. 

On the 8th day the temperature rose to 107 "4. 

On the 9th day the temperature rose to io6'6, when it died of 
typical Heart-water. 

Goat No. 258, which also had been already inoculated 28 days 
previously with non-virulent blood, was now inoculated on October 
23rd with 30 c.c. of the blood of 266 by intravenous injection. 

On the 7th day the temperature rose to 107*4. 

On the 8th day the temperature rose to io3'6, when the animal 
died of typical Heart-water. 

Goats Nos. 278 and 279 were each inoculated in the same 
manner as controls, and in both cases the temperature began to rise 
on the 8th day afterward, and death occurred on the nth. 

In the above experiment, therefore, it is seen that the virus, 
which had originally passed through Goats Nos. 252 and 258, and 
was by that means raised to virulence, actually killed these animals 
when re-inoculated into them after its accession to virulence had 
been achieved. 

Hence Heart-water virus of which the virulence has been 
lowered does not necessarily afford protection to animals which have 
been inoculated with it. 

Experiment j. — To prove, in such cases as those of animals 
Nos. 252 and 258, that an inoculation with weakened virus actually 
predisposes to subsequent infection with virulent blood. 

In both of the above cases it is to be noticed that the incubation 
period was shortened as compared with the " control " animals, and 
I have further to add that this observation has been abundantly 
confirmed in a vast number of other cases. 



270 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

TRANSMISSION OF HEART-WATER FROM GOATS TO 

CATTLE. 

A clean ox from a sweet veld area was inoculated by the in- 
jection of 5 c.c. subcutaneously and 5 c.c. intravenously of blood 
from a goat which was dying of Heart-water. 

On the i5tn day after inoculation the temperature began to rise, 
reaching during the evening to io6"4. During the five days sub- 
sequent it was maintained about 105F. without remission, but the 
following morning it fell to loi'S, and on the same evening ascended 
to 1 07 "2. It died two days later. 

On making a post-mortem examination, I found the pericardium 
filled with fluid. There was some interlobular pulmonary infiltra- 
tion, and indeed there were produced conditions similar to those we 
are accustomed to find in goats dying of Heart-water. 

On the 1 6th day of the disease it was bled, and after defibrina- 
tion of the blood a goat was inoculated by the injection of 10 c.c. 
subcutaneously and 10 c.c. intravenously. 

This goat died seventeen days later of typical Heart-water. 

The type of fever induced in cattle by the inoculation of Horse- 
sickness blood is practically the same as that obtained by the inocu- 
lation of the same species of animal with Heart-water blood. 

The post-mortem conditions are likewise identical, and agree in 
all particulars with those found in the endemic disease occurring 
in cattle, and known to the Kafirs as Impunga, while having shown 
typical cases to experienced transport riders they have assured me 
that it is known to them as Veld-sickness. 

As I have already said, Karoo cattle coming to the coast areas 
are liable to become attacked, the coast cattle remaining in perfect 
health. 

Transport riders assure me that cattle from these coast areas can 
^avel throughout the whole of South Africa, except in the Tsetse 
Fly belts. 

I have ascertained that this disease occurs on the velds on which 
Heart-water is known to exist. 



THE CO-RELATION OF VELD-SICKNESS AND HEART- 
WATER. 

Experiment 5. — To determine the relation of Impunga or Veld- 
sickness in cattle to Heart-water in goats. 

With blood taken from a Graafif-Reinet calf dying of Veld- 
sickness I inoculated Goat No. 312 on December i6th by the intra- 
venous injection of 30 c.c. of the blood. 

The temperature began to rise on the 5th day, and the animal 
died on the 15th day of Heart-water. 

The post-mortem conditions were absolutely typical of Heart- 
water occurring spontaneously among goats. 



Animal Diseases. 271 

Goat No. 327 was inoculated in the same manner with the blood 
of Goat 312 on December 30th. and died on the 17th day of Heart- 
water. 

Goat 331 was inoculated in the same manner with the blood of 
327, and died on the 15th day with similar symptoms. 

I could not detect the slightest difference between those cases 
and cases of Heart-water produced either spontaneously or by inocu- 
lation. 

Experiment 6. — To show that goats born and reared on a farm 
infected with Veld-sickness are not so susceptible to that disease as 
are goats which have been reared on a clean veld. 

Goat No. 305 from a farm on which Veld-sickness exists was 
inoculated on the 24th November by intravenous injection of 20 c.c. 
of the blood from a calf which had died of Veld-sickness. A slight 
reaction followed immediately, and soon subsided. 

On the 1 2th January it received intravenously 30 c.c. of the 
blood of 327 at the same time as No. 331 of the previous experi- 
ment. 

While this goat remained unaffected the clean goat No. 331 
died. 

Kxperiment 7. — To show that goats reared on a farm infested 
with Veld-sickness are relatively insusceptible but not immune. 

Goat No. 315 from a Veld-sickness infected farm was inoculated 
on the 14th December with 10 c.c. injected subcutaneously and 
10 c.c. intravenously of the blood of a calf which died of Vel.d- 
sickness. 

A slight febrile reaction of short duration followed. On the 
1 2th Januar}' it received 30 c.c. intravenously of the blood of No. 
327, and as a result died of the disease on the 13th day. (This 
result is in agreement with what we find obtaining among goats 
running on a Heart-water veld when these are inoculated with 
Heart-water.) 

Experimental Observation 8. — To show that goats reared and 
running on a farm infested with Veldziekte are relatively insuscep- 
tible to Heart-water. 

In my prefatory remarks I alluded to the fact that goats pur- 
chased on the farm of Mr. G. Palmer (which is a Veld-sickness 
infested farm) were relatively insusceptible to Heartwater but not 
immune, since although they very frequently resisted the intravenous 
injection of Heart-water blood, yet if a second inoculation was made 
at a later date they commonly succumbed. 

Experiment g. — To prove that goats relatively insusceptible are 
not actually immune. 

In almost every case where one of the goats from Mr. Palmer's 
farm, inoculated with virulent blood either from Somerset Station, 
Koonap, or that obtained by me from experimental goats, have with- 
stood the intravenous injection of virulent blood I have found : — 

I. That they have been actually infected, although showing 
no signs of disease, since with their blood I have been able to infect 



272 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

susceptible goats, which in some cases have died of the virulent 
malady. 

2. That if, after unsuccessful inoculation, they are allowed to 
remain in the Institute for several weeks, a subsequent intravenous 
inoculation of virulent blood is almost always successful in pro- 
ducing the disease and death. 

Kxperimen'.al Observation 10. — To show that goats on farms 
in this and adjoining areas, reared and living there, are relatively 
insusceptible. 

I have already referred to the experiences of Messrs. Hoole and 
White, which suffices as evidence in this respect. 

CO-RELATION OF HORSE SICKNESS TO HEART-WATER, 
TO VELD-SICKNESS IN CATTLE, AND TO A CONDI- 
TION KNOWN AS VELD-SICKNESS IN HORSES. 

If horses which have been reared in the Karoo are brought 
down to the coast areas it is usual to find that they fall off in con- 
dition, and in some cases die. From what I have heard and seen 
I am constrained to believe that this condition is that which was 
referred to in the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Joshua Nunn, 
F.R.C.V.S., A.V.D., to the Director-General of the Veterinary Depart- 
ment of H.M. War Office in 1888, as the Biliar}' form of Horse- 
sickness. Among the farmers it is, however, commonly referred to 
as Veld-sickness. 

In my communication to the Royal Society (Vol. 67), I referred 
to the results which I had obtained by the inoculation of donkeys 
with the blood of animals dying of Horse-sickness, and thereafter 
using the donkey's blood for the inoculation of horses. 

Since that communication was made I have been able to extend 
experiments of that class, and the results may be summarised as 
follows : — 

1. The reaction produced in the donkey is no guide to the 
result which may follow the inoculation of its blood into a clean 
horse. The reaction may be slight or may be fatal. 

2. If the donkey's blood is drawn at the tenth day and used to 
produce in a clean horse a violent reaction, then the blood of the 
same donkey, if drawn two or three days later (without any further 
re-inoculation) will cause a much more violent reaction, and possibly 
death from virulent Horse-sickness. 

3. If a mild reaction is produced it may be of the nature of high 
temperature with remissions, or if still milder may have a lower 
degree of fever with long intermissions. 

In the case of animals which suffered from the last form of 
fever it was always noticed that they fell off in condition to a 
remarkable extent, becoming mere skeletons. 

If killed or dying as late as the 50th day one found evidence 
of Horse-sickness in the form of exudation of serous material into 
the subcutaneous tissues, the interlobular tissue of the lungs, into 



ANIMAL Diseases. 273 

the mesenter}', the pleural cavity, and sometimes into the peritoneum. 
In the interventricular groove of the heart one always found some 
serous exudation, and the vessels lying here were always opaque 
owing to an infiltration into the vascular coats. 

The condition might be regarded as a sort of chronic Horse- 
sickness. 

The inoculation of 10 c.c. of Heart-water blood into a clean 
horse produced similar phenomena, the animal dying two months 
after inoculation. 

I have only made a few inoculations with Heart-water into 
horses, and in some cases even a large dose (50 c.c.) has only pro 
duced a transient febrile reaction. 

During the war camps were formed for the receipt of farmers' 
horses, and reports reached me that horses running in some of these 
camps were dying in large numbers from " poverty," " scab," etc., 
and as these camps are infested with Veld-sickness it seemed to me 
that probably they were suffering from the " chronic form of Horse 
sickness," which I had experimentally produced. 

On the 29th December I proceeded to the protection camp at 
Thorn Park in this district, accompanied by the local officers, Mr. 
E. White and Mr. Dalton. I saw no dead animals, as these had been 
already buried, and therefore decided to shoot anyone which I might 
see in a poor condition. After several hundreds had galloped by, 
I determined upon one which seemed poor enough, although it 
galloped quite freely. One of the officers then managed to bring it 
down with a rifle shot, and we at once proceeded to make a post- 
mortem examination. 

1. The subcutaneous tissue was not invaded to any definite 
degree by exudation, although along the lines of the great vessels 
in the neck there was evidence that it had existed, but had 
coagulated, and was now in process of absorption, leaving tough 
lines of dry exudation. 

2. The pleural cavity contained about one gallon of a clear 
yellow serous fluid. 

3. The lungs showed patches of congestion, some of which were 
deep, liver-coloured. There was a definite amount of subpleural 
infiltration of serous fluid. There was also a widespread condition 
■of interlobular infiltration of serous exudation. 

4. The pericardium, or heart-sac, contained about 40 ounces 
of clear yellow or straw-coloured serous fluid and some masses of 
•coagulated gelatinous material produced by the coagulation of the 
fluid. 

5. The base of the heart was surrounded by a huge gelatinous 
mass, and the interventricular groove was filled up by the same 
inaterial. 

6. The aorta and the larger vessels of the interventricular groove 
were invaded by the exudation, and the latter were rendered abso- 
lutely opaque, looking like white clay-pipe stems lying in a jelly. 

7. Some fluid was also found in the peritoneal cavity, but no 
other characteristic pathological lesion was found. 



274 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Two days later, Mr. Dalton proceeded to another camp, and, 
having shot a horse there, brought to me the heart and lungs " en 
masse." 

The conditions found here were identical with the foregoing 
case, but rather more aggravated in type. . 

I cannot regard these and similar observations which I have 
made otherwise than as indicating that the condition which I pro- 
duced in clean horses by Heart-water blood inoculation and also by 
the injection of the blood of Horse-sickness inoculated donkeys is of 
the same nature as that which existed among the horses of the protec- 
tion camps. 

In cases where I carried my experimental inoculations so far as 
to produce perfect protection against Horse-sickness, the animals 
immediately thereafter began to put on flesh. 



TRANSMISSION OF HORSE-SICKNESS FROM HORSES 10 

GOATS. 

As I have already said, the inoculation of even a large dose of 
Hc^rt water blood into a horse may fail to be attended with any 
very definite result. 

Conversely, the inoculation of Horse-sickness blood into goats 
was attended with uncertain results. In my first experiments, out 
of seventeen inoculated at different times, a febrile reaction occurred 
in only ten, and none died. These goats, however, were obtained 
from Mr. Palmer's farm. 

Since then I have used absolutely clean goats, and have had 
further success. 

On the yth March, 1893, I inoculated goat No. 381 with 20 c.c. 
of fresh Horse-sickness blood by intravenous injection. It died three 
days later. 

On post-mortem examination I found an enormous interlobular 
exudation into the lungs and pericardium. In the latter the whole 
exudation was absolutely solid. 

This remarkable result is somewhat to be compared with experi- 
ments which I made a few years ago in inoculating a goat and a 
sheep with the serum of a " salted " goat which had been re-infected 
by inoculation a week previously. 

The sheep and goat were inoculated in the forenoon, and were 
found dead the next morning with .symptoms very similar to those 
just recorded. 

With the blood of Goat No. 381 I now inoculated No. 383 by 
intravenous injection of 5 c.c. of defibrinated blood on the 9th 
March. 

Some fever followed, and on the loth day it had a temperature 
of 106, making, however, a good recovery. 

On the 20th March I bled this goat, and inoculated No. 393 
with 5 c.c. by intravenous injection. 



Animal Diseases. 275 

After an incubation period of six days the temperature began 
to rise, and the animal died on the i6th day. On making a post- 
mortem examination I found the usual signs of Heart-water. 

No. 393 was used to inoculate No. 408, which died on the 14th 
day. 

No. 408 w^as used to inoculate No. 411, which died on the 13th 
day. 

No. 411 was used to inoculate No. 4"! 9, which died on the nth 
day. 

This experiment, which has been carried out with every care as 
regards the keeping of control animals in contact during the experi- 
ment, and subsequently showing by inoculation that the controls 
were still susceptible to virulent infection, admits me to say that 
Horse-sickness can be transferred to goats, and that, when accli- 
matised to the goat, it produces in this animal a virulent disease, 
which is indistinguishable from the endemic disease of goats, which 
is known in South Africa as Heart-water. 

HEART-WATER PRODUCED BY THE INOCULATION OF 
THE BLOOD OF PROTECTION CAMP HORSES. 

I was enabled to get a protection camp horse sent into the 
Institute, and w^hile there I bled it, and inoculated Goat No. 356 
with 30 c.c. intravenously and 30 c.c. subcutaneously on the nth 
Februar}'. 

On the 7th day the temperature rose, and remained high, 105F. 
and slightly over, until the nth day, when it fell to loi, and the 
animal then died. 

On making a post-mortem examination I found oedema at the 
base of the heart of a semi-transparent character, extending up to the 
aorta. The lungs were pale, but the left had a dark patch of con- 
gestion about two inches in diameter, and being sharply circumscribed 
within a group of lobules. The pericardium was quite filled with a 
clear yellow serous fluid, which quickly coagulated when transferred 
to a glass. The conditions found were thus absolutely typical of 
what one obtains in ordinary Heart-water. 

I therefore conclude that the contagium which causes Horse- 
sickness in the Equids of South Africa is responsible, under condi- 
tions of relative virulence, for the infection of other species of the 
domesticated animals. 

The means by which the virulence becomes relatively altered is 
not entirely clear, but my colleague the Colonial Entomologist has 
been able to produce Heart-water in goats and calves at Cape Town 
by means of the progeny of Bont ticks taken in the Eastern Pro- 
vince from infected goats. In this way, therefore, the very striking 
observations of the late Mr. Webb has been proved to be correct. 

We are not, however, yet able to say that Heart-water is not 
conveyed by any means other than the Bont tick. 



21.— ON THE PRODUCTION OF A MALARIAL FORM OF 
SOUTH AFRICAN HORSE-SICKNESS. 

By Alexander Edington, M.D., F.R.S.E., Director of the 
Colonial Bacteriological Institute, Cape Colony. 



In my Report as Director of the Bacteriological Institute for the 
year 1901, I have detailed at considerable length experiments having 
to deal with the production of a malarial form of Horse-sickness. 
1 propose to summarize these details, and to recount in a brief form 
additional investigations which have been made to confirm the fore- 
going, and to eliminate every possibility of fallacy. 

THE PRODUCTION OF A MALARIAL FORM OF HORSE- 
SICKNESS. 

During my earlier experiments, devised with the object of deter- 
mining a method of protected inoculation against Horse-sickness, it 
may be remembered, I showed that donkeys could be inoculated 
with virulent Horse-sickness blood without being seriously affected 
thereby. 

Also the remarkable fact was demonstrated that the blood of 
such donkeys, drawn about the tenth or eleventh day subsequent to 
inoculation, was capable of setting up a very modified fever in which 
remissions and intermissions were conspicuously noteworthy. 

In the case of two horses inoculated with donkey blood, I 
observed one or two of the blood corpuscles to be infected with a 
parasite having a resemblance to the microbe of Texas fever (Red- 
water). 

At that time I was led to suppose that the febrile attack induced 
by the donkey's blood had lowered the animal's resistance, and per- 
mitted it to acquire an infection of Red-water, to which horses in a 
good state of health are not susceptible. 

Nevertheless I was never satisfied with such an explanation, and 
determined at a future date to make a further inquiry in order to 
■elicit the truth. 

More recently I published a method by which I had been able 
to " salt " some horses by means of a mixture of serum and preserved 
virulent blood. 

During these experiments, however, it was noticed that the 
most startling differences were noticed, in different horses, in their 
resistance to the action of this virulent mixture. 

I, therefore, determined upon carrying out special investigations, 
and, primarily, to reproduce experiments akin to those made with 
the infected-donkey blood. 



Malarial Horse-Sickness. 



277 



Since, however, it had been demonstrated that the same virus 
passed through different donkeys produced different virulence in 
each case, it seemed advisable to make use of animals which should 
have, as nearly as possible, the same primary resistance. 

Since, then, " salted " horses are, from the point of view of 
resistance, somewhat comparable to donkeys of high resistance, it 
was determined to make use of these animals. 

The procedure adopted was to take a number of " salted " horses, 
each being capable of resisting very large doses of virulent Horse- 
sickness blood, to inoculate these with a small dose of virulent blood 
and to bleed them about the tenth day. 

Blood drawn at this period of time was inoculated in doses of 
20 cubic centimetres subcutaneously into small batches of clean 
horses. 

These experiments were not made " en masse," but extended 
over a long period of time, from the 14th November, 1901, until 
April of the present year. 

The results are set forth in the Appendix under a Report to the 
Under Secretar}' for Agriculture, dated April 22, 1902, of which the 
following is a summary. After the first inoculation, a period of time 
was permitted to elapse after which a second inoculation was made. 



Inocula- 
tion. 


Horse. 


Salted Horse 

from which blood 

was used. 


Date. 


Result. 


ist. 
2nd. 


No. I. 
No. 2. 
No. I. 
No. 2. 


A 
A 
B 
C 


November 14. 
December 29. 


Severe fever. 
Little or no fever. 


1st. 
2nd. 


No. 3. 
No. 4. 
No. 3. 

No. 4. 


B 
B 

Removed for other 

experiments. 

D 


November 14. 
December 29. 


Slight fever. 
Severe fever. 

Slight fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. % 
No. 5. 


C 
C 


December 4. 
December 29. 


Severe fever. 
Slight fever. 


ist. 
2nd. 


No. 6. 
No. 6. 


D 
C 


December 4. 
December 29. 


Severe fever. 
Slight fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 7. 
No. 7. 


A 
D 


December 6. 
December 29. 


Slight fever. 
More severe fever, 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 8. 
No. 8. 


B 
C 


December 6. 
December 29. 


Severe fever. 
Long continued mild fever 
ending in death. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 9. 

No. 9. 


A 

A 


December 19. 
January IQ- 


Mild fever. 
Severe fever. 



278 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



Inocula- 
tion. 


Horse. 


Salted Horse 

from which blood 

was used. 


Date. 


Result 


ist. 
2nd. 


No. 10. 
No. 10. 


B 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Mild fever. 

Slight attacks at intervals, 
culminating in a severe 
one at the 70th day, from 
which animal died of 
typical horsesickness. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. II. 
No. II. 


B 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Severe fever. 
Mild fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 12. 
No. 12. 


B 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Mild fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 13. 
No. 13. 


B 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Severe fever. 
Very severe fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 14. 
No. 14. 


C 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Mild fever. 
Severe fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 15. 
No. 15. 


C 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Very severe fever. 
Severe fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 16. 
No. 16. 


C 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Fairly severe fever. 
Severe Fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 17. 
No. 17. 


C 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Very slight fever. 

11 


ISt. 


No. 18. 


D 


December 29. 


Very severe fever, ending 
in death. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 19. 
No. 19. 


D 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


\ery severe fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 20. 
No. 20. 


D 
A 


December 29. 
January 19. 


Mild fever. 


ISt. 

2nd. 


No. 21. 
No. 21. 


E 

F 


January 31. 
February 24. 


Mild fever. 



During these periods " control " animals were kept in the same 
stables, their stalls frequently changed for those previously filled by 
animals suffering from fever. Also these control animals were provok- 
ed from time to time by subcutaneous inoculations of the blood of 
^oats dying from Heart-water, and of oxen dying from Veld-sickness. 

In the foregoing series of experimental animals it was almost 
invariably found that where fever was induced, iniracorpuscular or 
malarial parasites were found within the red blood corpuscles. 

After the fever passed off, the parasite disappeared, but, where 
a second inoculation produced fever, parasites again made their ap- 
pearance. 



Malarial Horse-Sickness. 279 

In the case of two horses which developed very severe fever, 
their blood, when mixed and inoculated intravenously into a clean 
horse, produced virulent Horse-sickness ending fatally. 

It has formerly been shown that the blood of virulent Horse- 
sickness, when diluted with water and filtered through a Pasteur 
filter, is still virulent to horses. Thus the microbe in such blood 
must be infinitely minute. 

Therefore, my experiments show that the parasite of the malarial 
form must be evolved from an infinitely small pre-existing extra- 
i rpuscular form. 

The foregoing facts which were announced in the report referred 
iO evoked some criticism in the direction of suggesting that another 
disease had gained access to my stables or on the other hand that 
the animals possessed the parasites already in their systems previous 
to being inoculated by me. 

With a view to meeting these contentions and demonstrating in 
an incontrovertible manner the correctness of the former results, the 
following experiments were devised and carried out. 

Immediately after the former experiments I obtained a number 
of horses from this area and six were placed in a new iron compound. 

The same manner of inoculation was followed by the production 
of parasites somewhat sparingly in numbers in four of the animals. 

During the following year the stables of the Institute were 
thoroughly cleansed with hot caustic potash solution (i %) which 
was applied to every portion of the buildings by means of a powerful 
spray. Every crevice was very carefully washed out and after the 
place had been allowed to become thoroughly dry the same process, 
using however i % of Schering's Formalin, was applied. 

All woodwork was put in a sound condition and the concrete 
floor was gone over very thoroughly by masons. 

After these matters had been accomplished I obtained through 
the kindness of the Militar)- authorities, at the request of the Honour- 
able the Colonial Secretar}-, ten clean horses which had been recently 
landed at Port Elizabeth. 

These were sent up by train, were brought straight to the Institute 
and were immediately placed into stalls. 

Each horse had a special bucket for water which was filled into 
them and they were fed with drj- forage. 

Previous to attempting any inoculation of the animals they were 
kept in the stables for several weeks during which their temperatures 
were taken daily on five occasions and their blood frequently examined 
for any abnormality. 

Horse 27. Was inoculated with 20 c.c. of the blood of '' salted " 
Horse B (which had been inoculated ten days previously with 10 c.c. 
of preserved virulent blood taken originally from a horse dying of 
virulent horse-sickness) on the 4th December 1902. The temperature 
began to rise on the eighth day and on the tenth day parasites were 
found in the blood. 

Horse 28. This animal w^as inoculated at the same time as the 
last but was kept in another stable. Its temperature began to rise 



28o Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

on the eighth day and parasites were found in the blood on the tenth 
day. 

Horse 2g. This horse was inoculated also from Horse B which 
however had not been re-inoculated so that its blood was drawn 51 
days after inoculation. The temperature began to rise on the ninth 
day and parasites were found on the tenth day. 

Horse 30. This animal was inoculated with the blood of Horse 
27 on the 14th of January. The blood of Horse 27 at this period 
shewed very few parasites. The temperature began to rise on the 
ninth day and parasites were found in the blood on the tenth day. 

Horse ji. This horse was inoculated with 20 c.c. of the blood 
of " salted " horse A (which had not been re-inoculated since the 
previous experiments, about a year previously and which since that 
date had been kept in an isolation stable carefully groomed and 
tended). The temperature began to rise on the tenth day and 
parasites were found on the eleventh day. 

I now decided to re-inoculate this horse which was accordingly 
done with 10 c.c. of preserved blood and ten days later it was again 
bled and this horse (31) re-inoculated with 20 c.c. of the blood. On 
the tenth day following a slight rise of temperature occurred which 
immediately subsided. 

I desire to lay considerable stress on this experiment because 
it has been suggested that the fever which follows the use of the 
blood of a " salted " horse that has been recently re-inoculated is due 
to the Horse-sickness, while the parasites are of the nature of 
accidental infection. In the present case we find fever induced by 
the blood of a salted horse which has not been inoculated for a 
period of about a year, while the blood of the same " salted " horse 
after re-inoculation fails to produce any degree of fever in the horse 
formerly inoculated with its blood. 

Horse 32. I now took preserved virulent blood and inoculated 
a cl*>an goat with 10 c.c. by intravenous injection. Ten days later 
this goat was bled and immediately the blood was mixed with equal 
portions of sterile glycerine and water. Twenty-four hours later I 
injected horse 32 with 10 c.c. of this blood. On the ninth day a rise 
of temperature began to be apparent and on the tenth day I found 
perfect specimens of the parasite in the blood. 

Horse jj. This horse was inoculated with 20 c.c. of the blood 
of salted horse B which had not been re-inoculated since the former 
occasion eighty-two days previously. The temperature began to rise 
on the ninth day and parasites were found on the eleventh day. 

Horse J4. I now took a horse which had been inoculated in 
the former experiments (a year ago) on repeated occasions with salted 
blood and also with blood in which parasites had been found. That 
horse however never shewed any parasites. I now bled this horse 
and inoculated horse 34 with 20 c.c. of its blood. On the ninth, 
tenth and eleventh days slight rises of temperature occurred and on 
the 1 6th day I found a few but typical parasites in the blood. The 
reaction in this case was but slight and the parasites very few as 
compared with the horses which had been inoculated from " salted " 



Malarial Horse-Sickness. 281 

horses. I now took a well kept horse which is used for riding purposes 
and which had been " salted "' about six years ago. With the except- 
ion of the fever which it had when being " salted " this animal has 
always been in the best of health. 1. therefore, inoculated it with 
20 c.c. of blood which shewed innumerable parasites. No fever in 
the slightest degree was produced and no trace of i)arasites was to 
be found. 

Horse jj. I bled a clean goat, and with its blood inoculated 
horse 35 with 20 c.c. Xo result followed. 

1 thereafter inoculated the goat with 10 c.c. of preserve<l virulent 
horse-sickness blood and ten days later the goat was bled. Being 
somewhat afraid that the inoculation of the blood might prove fatal 
(one cannot ever be certain of the reaction of horse-sickness passed 
through either donkeys, oxen or goats) I mixed it with sterile glycerine 
and water, and twenty-four hours later I inoculated horse 35 with 10 
c.c. Some irregularity of temperature was at once set up. due most 
probably to local irritation of the foreign blood but as at the tenth 
dav no real rise had occurred I re-bled the goat and inoculated 10 c.c. 
of the fresh blood into the horse. On the 12th day after, the 
temperature began to rise and on the 13th day parasites were found 
in the blood fairly numerously. Conclusions. These experiments 
therefore enable me to conclude as follows. 

I. The blood of " salted " horses which have been regularly 
re-inoculated for several months (10 c.c. lieing u.sed once a month) 
is dangerous to inoculate into clean horses if the blood is drawn ten 
or twelve days after the last inoculation. The former experiments 
were conducted in this manner and as a result several animals died. 

II. If " salted " horses are rested for a few months and then 
re-inoculated with 10 c.c. of preserved blood, their blood, if drawn 
ten or twelve davs later will set up a satisfactory fever without much 
risk. 

III. The blood of "salted ■ horses which have not been 
inoculated for several months will also set up a reaction but the result 
will be irregular and uncertain. 

IV. Horses which have been running in the c^oast areas near 
.\lbanv may resist the inoculation of the blood of " sailed "' horses 
even when the latter bloo<l is derived from animals which have been 
recentlv re-inoculated. 

V. Blood taken from such animals as just staled, i.e. unsalted 
horses which resist inocnilation with "salted "" blood, does not give 
such an infection in clean horses as the blood of salted horses, even 
although the latter have not been inoculated for a period of a year. 

VT. The blood of horse-sickness when passed through animals 
which are either naturally insusceptible such as the ilonkey. ox and 
goat, or animals which have acquired protection (sailed horses) 
c(tnve\s a modifieci infection of horse-sickness which is malarial in 
tvpe. and which is accompanied by the production of malarial 
parasites within the red corpuscles of the animal which is inoculated. 



THE MINERALS OF SOME 
GRANITES. 



SOUTH AFRICAN 



Bv F. P. MicxxKLi., F.Cj.S., Cuhatok of ihI'. Rhodksia 

MlSiaM, BULAWAYC). 



Plutonic rocks of acid com]K)sition are ver\ extensively develop- 
ed in Africa south of the Equator. These rocks pre.sent many 
features of interest ami. especiallv under the microscope, many 
minerals may he recognised besides the usual quartz, felspar and 
ferromagnesiaii constituents. Thus the granite of Capelown itself is 
remarkal)l\ rich in accessories. Tourmaline, in narlicular is verv 




UIXKNU'OSINC LdKUUMn I !■;, CAI'K TOWN (.KANnK 



abundant in places. In thin sections, it is of -a yellowish brown colour 
frequently bordered and zoned with [)ale blue, while some cr\stals 
shew alternate l)ands of vellow and brown. The l)asic patches, which 
are no doubt derived from the fu.sion and sul).sequent recrystallisation 
of fragments of the adjacent slate are es])ecially interesting. Some 
are largely made up of andalusite in good crwstals or scmiewhat round- 
ed grains. Cordierite is often seen and is sometimes quite fresh and 
almost indistinguishable from quartz, while in other cases it is entirely 



South -■Vfrican Granites. 



^83 



replaced by the yellowish micaceous " pinite " pseudomorphs. The 
intermediate stages f)t" the alteration may be well observed. Cordierite 
appears to be sometimes present in the normal granite, which also 
contains numerous small zircons, generall) as inclusions in the biotiie 
where the\ give rise to the usual pleochroic " halos. 




lUl.AW AVd (IRAMTK. 



In the Tati District of Hechuanaland. granite occurs as a modi- 
fication of the prevailing syenite, and is chiefl) remarkal)le for the 
amount of apatite it contains.. This mineral sometimes forms cnstals 
an inch in diameter: for the nu)st part, however, they are of purely 
microscopic dimensions. They shew not only the usual cross-fracture 
but also complete dislocation of single crystals into a number of 
separate fragments dixided b\ p(_)rtions of the enclosing quartz or 
felspar. Sphene is abundaJit in this rock. It surrounds the iron ores 
in whitish granular aggregates which, unlike the variety leucoxene, 
are more or less transparent and shew brilliant interference tints 
when the sections are sufficiently thin. 

The granites of Rhodesia are notable for the abundance of 
microline. which is usualb the dominant feLspar. The now well- 
known Matojjo granite is tvpically composed of microcline. quartz, 
and biotite with a little magnetite anrl some brownish sphene. The 
Bulawavo margin of the mass is a hornblende granite with microcline, 
nligoclase and orthoclase as the felspars. The accessories include 
large crvstals f)f ai)atite, abtmdant vellowish sphene. a little magnetite 
anil a good deal of pale \ellow ejiidote. The last named mineral 

V 2 



284 



Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 



forms veins running through the granite in places, and fluorspar oc- 
curs in deep blue crystals in a similar way. Molybdenite occurs in 
a quartz segregation vein near Glenville, about three miles from 
Bulawayo. 




"•■'""SI .^ 



MATol'O (IKAMTE 



Several nf ihe granites from Northern Rhodesia contain orthite 
(allanite). This mineral occurs in yellowish-brown idiomorphic 
cnstals or rounded grains. The pleochroism is not strong and the 
double refraction scarcely exceeds that of quartz. A rock from the 
Jiljuyi River contains numerous crystals about .5 to 1.5 mm. in length, 
occasionally twinned, and shewing inclusions of zircon, apatite, and 
magnetite. A granite from Kalomo shews zoned orthite surrounded 
by epidote with crystal outline, the latter being in turn enclosed in 
biotite. Epidote is extraordinarily abundant, and there is a good deal 
<)f sphene. A gneissose rock from the Wankie District of Matabele- 
land with orthoclase crystals several inches across, presents some 
special points of interest. Little pink garnets and minute hrown 
granules which prove to be orthite can be detected b\ the unarmed 
eye. The garnet is in the larger grains, but the orthite is much more 
abundant. It is more strongly pleochroic than in the rocks previously 
mentioned, it shews zonary banding and is frequently surrounded 
by Ijiotite. but no epidote is present. The rock C(jntains much 
apatite. 



South African (iRA.xiTES. 



28c: 



All these orthite-hearing rocks have a distinctly gneissic aspect 
which is sufficient to suggest a secondary or metamorphic origin for 
the orthite even apart from its association with epidote. The 
presence of irarnet appears to point in the same dire<^- 
tion. The fact of the epidote being idiomori>hic 

towards the mica points, however, to its primary nature, 
and it niav lie remarked that the Northern Rhodesian rock> 




BIDTITE ENCLOSING EI'lUOTE WHICH SIKKOCNDS UKTHrrE. 



contain micropegmatite. a fact which appears ahsolutelv con- 
clusive as to their igneous origin. It may also be mentioned that fine- 
grained modifications of the Jibuyi rock contain correspondinglv 
small cr)stals of orthite, and we seem accordingly driven to regard 
both orthite and epidote as normal products of the consolidation of a 
molten magna. 



23-— ox THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE THEKIODOXTS 

AND THEIR ALLIES. 

Bv K. Bkoom, M.D., B.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 



The first attempted classification of the S. African Triassic 
reptiles was that given bv Owen in his PalceoiUnlug). In the Order 
Anomodontia he placed three " families "' or sub-orders Dicynodon- 
tia, Crj'ptodontia. and Cvnodontia. The types of these grouj^s were 
respectivelv Dicvnodon. ()udehodon, and (lalesaurus. 

Huxley in 1871 modified Owen's arrangemeiU b\ placing 
Oudenoden with Dicynodon in the order Dicynodontia. 

When in 1876 Owen published his Catalogue of the Fossil 
Reptilia of -South Africa a large number of new forms had been dis- 
covered and much more was known of the details of structure. It 
was therefore possible for him to give a more satisfactory classifica- 
tion than that which had previously been advanced. Galesaurus, 
Cynochampsa, and a number of other allied genera were umted 
together to form the Order Theriodontia, and the Order Anomodontia 
was retained for Dicvnodon. Oudenodon. and a few other allied 
genera. It seems fairly evident that Owen all along regarded 
DiCynodon as the ty])ical genus of the .AiKinnMlontia and that he 
considered he had made a mistake by including in his early classifica- 
tion Galesaurus with the Dicvnodonts as (me nf ihe Anomodontia. 

Between 1876 and 1888 comparativeK Utile work was done 
among the S. African forms, but many new types were discovered in 
the Permian rocks of X. America, and described l)y Cope. These 
American forms beliMig to at least two well-marked groups. The first 
comprises a few genera, which in rlentition resemble somewhat the 
S. African Theriodonts. but which are now known to differ consider- 
ably from the African tvpes in manv imj)ortant )Hjints. For these 
(Clepsydrops, Dimetrodon. etc.) Co])e founded the Order Pelyco- 
sauria. The reptiles of the other group are characterised by having 
the temporal fossa roofed. These Cope was at first inclined to ])lace 
in the Pelvcosauria, but he afterwards founded a new order for their 
reception — the Coivlosauria. Cnfortunalelv he chose as the tvpe 
of the Cotvlosauria the genus P^mpedias which is very imperfectly 
known. Some of the other .-Vmerican genera (Pariotichus. Pantylus, 
etc.) seem to agree fairlv closelv with the S. .\frican Pareiasaurus, 
but it is a little doubtful whether Fmpedias does. Owing to this 
doubt it is probably advisable at present to make use of Seele\'s 
name Pareiasauria for those primitive reptiles wnth the temporal 
region roofed .somewhat after the manner of the Labvrinthodonts. 

Cope proposed in 1878 to form a large grou]) the Theromorpha 
— for these re])tiles exhibiting mammal-like characters, and sub- 
divided the group into the orders or sub-orders .\nomodontia and 
Pelycosauria — the Anomodontia comprising the Dicynodonts, and 
the Pelvcosauria the S. African Theriodonts as well as the American 



ThERIODONTS and JIIEIR ALLIES. 287 

forms. In 1889 he .sulj-divided the Thevomorpha. or Thernmora into 
6 siili-iinU'is. Placixloiitia. Proganosauria. Parasiichia. Anomodonlia, 
Peh cosaiiria. and Cotx losauria. 

In 1890 Lydekker in his Cataluijue of the Fossil Reptiles in the 
]"5ritish Museum made use of the term Anomodontia in i)racticaJly the 
same sense as Co])e's Theromora. This large order he sub-divided 
into the following sub-orders (1) Procolophonia. (2) Dicynodontia, 
(3) Theriodontia. (4) Pareiasauria. This classification, though the 
names are different, agrees fairly closely with Cope's. Lydekker omits 
the Placodontia whose affinities are doubtful, and the Parasuchia 
which he considers a distinct order, but his 2m\. 3rd and 4th sub- 
orders agree with Cope s 4th. 5th and 6th. The onl\ difference with 
regard to Procolophon is that while I.\<lekker places it in a sub- 
order by itself. Cope unites with it its Palaeohatterian allies. 

In 1888 Seeley commenced his valuable series of " Resean hes 
on ihe .Structure, Organisation, and Classification of the Fossil 
Reptilia." which have not onl\ added greallv to our knowledge of 
the structure of the Triassic reptiles, but have made us acquainted 
with a number of new tvpes. in his first classification he (livide<l the 
Anomodontia into 8 sul)-orders :— ( 1 ) Pareiasauria, (2) Procolophonia, 
(3) Dicynodontia. (4) Gennetotheria, (5) Pelxcosauria, (6) Therio- 
flontia. (7) Cot\ losauria. (8) Placodontia. The name Gennetotheria 
was proposed for a grouj* to include l*ropaj)pus and Stereorhachis. 
but was afterwards withdrawn. 

In 1895. as the result of his researches. Seelev advanced a much 
more elaborate classification. The Anomodontia he divides into 
two principal orders —Therosuchia and Therochelonia with possil)ly 
a third. Alesosauria. The Therosuchia he again divides into (i) 
Pareiasauria. including Procolophonia. (2) Gorgonojjsia, (3) Dinoce- 
jihalia. (4) Deuterosauria including Placodontia, (5) Theriodontia, 
including Lycosauria, Cynodontia. and Gomphodontia. (6) Endothio- 
dontia. (7) ? Theromora. inckuiing Pehcosauria and Cotvlosauria. 
The Therochelonia he stib-divides into the Dicynodontia and the 
Ristecephalia. 

Though more elaborate this classification is much less satis- 
factory than Seele\ s earlier one. So far as I am aware Seelev is 
the only writer who has suggested any great division between the 
Theriodonts ami the Dicynodonts. Owens first view of including 
the Therioflonts in the same order as Dic\nodon was indeed much 
nearer the taith. Though the specialisation of the Dicvnodonts 
entitles them to be placed in a distinct order or sub-order, thev are 
more nearly allied to Theriodonts such as (lalesaurus than are the 
))riniitive Theriodonts such as ^'F^lurosaurus or Ictidosuchus. 
Deli>hinognathus. Tapinocephalus. Placodus. and even Deuterosaurus 
and Rhopalodon are so imperfectlv known that it is impossif)le to 
say at present with an\ degree of certainlv where the\ ought to be 
placed, but the case is different with the Endf)thioflonts. Both 
Owen and Lsdekker recognised the close affinit\ between 
Kndothiodon and Dicynodon. and the considerable number of new 
Endothiodont genera that have receiith been disct)vered |)rove that 



288 Keport S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

the affiiiilv is much closer than has been hitherto beheved. So nearly 
allied indeed are many Endothiodonts to Dicynodon and Oudenodon 
that I venture to affirm that a considerable number (jf skulls labelled 
in our museums as Dicynodon and Oudenodon are really Endothio- 
dont. 

Gadow in his recent work on Reptilia (190J) divides the Thero- 
morpha into 4 sub-orders. (1) Pareiasauria, (:;) Theriodontia. (3) 
Anomodonlia, (4) Placodontia. 

In the recent English translation of Zittel's Palasontology (190-') 
a classification is given which does not differ very greatly from that 
of Gadow. The Theromorpha is divided into (i) Pareia.sauria. in- 
cluding Pareiasauridae. Pareotic])ed3e. and Diadectidse. (2) Therio- 
dontia. including Galesauridas. Deuterosauridae and Tritylodontidaa. 
(3) Anomodontia, and (4) Plarodontia. The Pelycosauria are re- 
garded as a sub-order of the Rhynchocejjhalia. 

Before j)roceeding further with the consideration of the clas- 
sification, it will be well to look at one of two of the more recent 
obsen'ations on the structure of some of the principal tvpes. 

PROCOLOPHOX. 

This little primitive lizard-like reptile was first placed (1876) b\ 
Owen in the Theriodontia. apparentlv less on account of any Therio- 
dont affinities, than because he did not know where else to put it. 
Seeley in 1878 described three imperfect skulls from Donnybrook. 
S. Africa — the same locality as Owen's specimens came from — aJid 
says " I see no reason to hesitate on the evidence detailed, in regard- 
ing it [Procolophon] as a fossil Rhvnchocephalian." In his later 
works Seelev was much more impressed bv its affinities with Pareia- 
saurus. Lydekker though he places Procolophon in the Anomodontia 
points out that it " Apj)ears to ])resent an approximation in several 
points to the Rhynchocephalia. While Cope unites Procolophon 
with Palaeohatteria, Homoeosaurus. and a few other genera to fonii 
the order Proganosauria. 

As almost every detail of the structure of Procolophon is now 
known it can be definitely asserted that the affinities are very much 
more with Palaeohatteria than with any of the Therio<lonts. Anomo- 
donts or even with Pareiasaurus. 

Procolo))hon has well developed abdominal ribs, each composed 
of a series of pieces : the vertebrae are notochordal : the scapula is a 
short l)r<)a(l bone without a distinct acromion: the digital formula for 
the manus is 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. and for the j^es 2. 3. 4. 5. ?: the lower 
jaw has a distinct coronoid element : and the pubes and ischia are 
flat plate-like bones re.sembling those in Palaeohatteria except that 
the pubic foramen is near the middle of the bone. As the posterior 
cranial region of Palaeohatteria is unknown, it is impossible tO' .sav in 
what degree il differs from that of Procfilophon. but as there is such 
close agreement in the other i)arts of the skeleton it becomes 
necessary to place Procolophon somewhere near to Palaeohatteria, and 
until the cranial structure of Palaeohatteria is fullv known it will 
perhaps be safer to make the Procolophonia a distinct sub-order. 



TnEKIODONTb AND IHEIK AlI.IES. 289 

PKI.VCOSALKIA. 

The researches of Baur and Case have conclusively shown that 
the Pelycosaurians are distinct in organisation from the Theriodonis 
of the Galesaurus tvpe. and are more nearly allied to the Rhyncho- 
cephalians. Though the Pelvcosaurians have two temporal arches 
thev show in manv points athnities with Procolophon especially in 
the structure of the limh bones. Whether Pelycosauria and Procohj- 
phonia should be regarded as distinct orders or as sub-orders of thf 
large order Rhynchocephalia is a matter of little importance so long 
as it is recognised that the affinities are with the primitive Rhyncho- 
cephalians rather than with the Anomodonts and Theriodonis. 

PRIMITIVE THERIODOXTS. 

I"or some vears it has appeared to me that in the order Therio- 
dontia as generallv accepted are included a number of forms not \eT\ 
nearl) related to the typical genus. The palate of yElurosaurus, 
though only imperfectlv known, is manifestly so very different from 
that of Galesaunis. that if no other evidence were forthcoming it 
would f)e necessarv to remove ^^^kirosatirus from the tvpica! 
Theriodonis. 

Having recently, at the request of Mr. W. L. Sclater. made an 
examination of the reptilian fossils in the South African Museum. I 
came across one or two interesting small Theriodont skulls that had 
been for many years in the Museum. The most perfect of the 
specimens, which I propose to name Scylaco.saurus Sclateri, shows, 
after having been developed, almost every detail of the structure of 
the palate. And though the palate probably agrees fairlv closelv 
with that of yElurosaurus. it is entirely different in type from that of 
Galesaurus. Cynognathus. or Gomphognathus. Externally the .skull 
differs but little from that of yElurosaurus. though the snout is longer 
and more slender. On each side there are six incisors, followed 
by two canines, of which the first is very small and the second large. 
There appears lo be a third canine about as large as the second, but 
which is not yet functional. Fcjllowing the canines are seven, or 
possibly eighl. small i)ointed molars. 

The palate in type is essentialK Rhvnchocephalian. The 
internal nares are situated in front, as in the Sphenf)don, and 
separated from each other by the long, narrow, paireil " vomers " (or 
prevomers. as 1 believe they ought to l)e regarded). In from these 
paired " vomers "" meet a pair of short premaxillary palatine i)rocesses. 
while posteriorly they form a consideral)le i)art of the hard palate, 
separating the palatines and articulating with the anterior ends of the 
pterygoids. The maxillaries form no part of the palate — the pala- 
tines bearing the same relations to the maxillaries as is .seen in 
Sphenodon. The pterygoids have well developed lateral processes, 
which are supportefl by a pair of transpalalines. 



290 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

As the palate is essenlialU differeiil in ivpe from that found in 
the typical Theriodonts. it seems advisable to refer ifie Theriodonts 
of this l\pe to a new order, for which 1 proi)()se the name Thero- 
ce|)halia. The forms previously known which belong to this same 
order are ^lurosaurus and Tctidosuchus, and ])rol)ably Tilanosuchus. 
Lvcosaurus has, according to Seeley. a palate similar to that in Cyno- 
gnathus. In y^Llurosaurus there are teeth on the pterygoids, and 
probabK on the palatines and '' vomers." in Sc\lacosaunis there 
are a few teeth on the pterygoids, but there are apparenth none on 
the i)alalines or " vomers. " 

The shoulder girdle is known in Ictidosui'hus, and is character- 
ised bv the absence of a distinct acromion, and b\ ihe fact that the 
})recoracoidal foramen is entireK formed b\ the precoracoid 
(epicoracoid). 

As the structure of the ])alate is [)robabl\ Ifss subject to varia- 
tion than the structure of the tem]>oral arch, it will probabl\ be 
found convenient to place (iorgonojjs in this order even though its 
temporal region ajipears to be completeh roofed. Deuterosaurus 
and Rhopalodon ])robabl\ also belong to the same order, but owing 
to our ignorance of man\ important points in the structure of the 
skulls of these genera it is impossible at |>resent to be ccrlain. 

THERIODOXTIA. 

It is unforlimate that of the tvpe genus (lalesaurus oiiK the skull 
is known. aJid even that imperfectK. 'l"he genera (\nognathus. 
Gomphognathus. and Microgt)mphodon are. ho\\e\er, fairh well 
known, and it is prof)al)le that Galesaurus agrees in its general 
skeletal characters with these other genera. Cvnognathus agrees 
\ery closely with Gomphognathus, but the differences in the structure 
of the molar teeth entitle them to be regarded as the t\i>es of two 
familie.s — the Cvnognathidae and Gomphognathid^ btu the difTer- 
ences do not seem suflficienth marked to entitle them to subordinal 
rank. Lvco.saurus, on the otlier hand, though \er\ im[)erfectlv 
known, mav lie the t\pe of a distinct sub-order. 

A\()M()DO\TI.\. 

The structure of the Anomodonts is much more thoroughlv 
known than that of almost anv other Triassic rej)tile. Dic^xnodon 
and Oudenodon agree sufficiently closelv to be jilaced in one famiU. 
but Lvstrosaurus is ])robaf)lv entitled to f)e made the t\pe oi a dis- 
tinct family, as is also probably Cistecephalus. I,\strosaurus differs 
from Dicvnodon in having (hstinct postfrontal and postorbital l)ones. 
in having a distinct preparietal bone, and in the al)sence of a 
cleithnmi. The Endothiodonts also form a distinct famib. Six 
distinct genera of Endothiodonts are now known, and though con- 
siderable difTerences exist between them, the occurrence of inter- 
methate forms renders it advisable to group together all tho.se 
Anomodonts with molar teeth on the maxillarv and deniarx bones to 
form the familv Endothiodontidae. 



1'hERIODONI S AND THEIR ALLIES. 29 1 

CLASSIFR'ATKJX. « 

While it is impossible in .lealiny with imperfect fossil remains 
to tlo more in the \va\ of classification than approximate to the truth. 
I advance the following scheme as the most satisfactory that can 
be (lone in the present state of our knowledge. One or two ver\ 
imperfectl) known forms which may Ije the types of new sub-orders, 
or even of orders, have been omitted from consideration, as the 
evidence is too slight to go upiu. I refer to such forms as Deljjhino- 
gnathus. Tapinocephalus and Sclerosaurus. Most taxonomists 
have placed the Placodontia with the Theriodonts — Seeley going 
even further, and suggesting that they ma\ form a division of the 
Deuterosauria. The order is. however, so imperfectly known that 
it is probablv wiser to do. as has been done bv Lvdekker. leave it 
to stand alone. There is certainK no satisfactory evidence for 
placing it among the " Theromorjjha. its affinities being quite as 
much, or probablv more, with the Sauropterygia. 

?.HV\('HO('ErHAI.OiD ORDERS. 

PKOCOLOPHOXIA. 

Lacertiform reptiles. Tem[)oral region roofed. Distinct post- 
frontals. postorbitals. squamosals. su])ra-lemporals. and quadrato- 
jugals. Palate Rhynchoce])halian in tv])e; teeth on pterygoids and 
prevomers. Vertel)rae notochordal, with intercentra. Sacral \erte- 
brae 4. Afxlominal ribs present. Scapula jilatedike. with no 
acromion: no cleithrum. Humerus with entepicondvlar foramen; 
phalangeal formula j. 3. 4. 5. 4. Pubis ami ischium platedike. [)ubis 
pierced bv jnibic foramen, ilium short and broad. 

Familv : Procolophonidae. 

Genus: Procolophon. 

PELYCOSACRIA. 

Moderately large reptiles, with enormoush developed vertebral 
si)ines. Tenijioral region with two arches. Distinct ]iostfrontals, 
postorbitals. .squamosals. supra-temporals and quadrato-jugals. 
Quadrate small. Palate a modification of the Rhynchocephalian 
type; teeth on i)terygoids. palatines and prevomers. Vertebrae 
notochordal. with intercentra. Abdominal ribs present (Thero- 
l)leura). Scapula flat, with no acromion : no cleithrum. Humerus 
with entepicondylar foramen. Pubis and ischium flattened, 
divergent. 

Family : Clepsydropidae. 

Genera : Clepsydrops. 
Dimetrodon. 
Naosaurus. 
Embolophorus. 



2^2 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

• THEROMOROUS ORDERS. 

PAREISAURIA. 

Small, medium, or large reptiles, with temporal region com- 
pletely roofed. Distinct postfrontals. postorbitals. squamosals, 
supra-temporals and quadrato-jugals. Palate Rhynchocei)halian in 
type ; teeth on pterygoids, palatines, and prevomers. Vertebrae 
notochordal. Two true sacral vertebrae in Pareiasaurus. Abdcmi- 
inal ribs unknown— probably absent. Scapula wdth acromion pro- 
cess ; a well developed cleithrum present. Humerus with entepi- 
condylar foramen. Pubis and ischium anchylosed forming large 
median symphysis. Phalangeal formula unknown, but as certain 
toes have undrvubtedlv 4 phalanges, formula possibly as in Pro- 
colophon. 

Family : Pareiasauridae. 
Teeth in regular series on margin of jaws. 

Genera : Pareiasaurus. 
Elginia. 

Family : Pariotichidae. 
Teeth in more than one series in one or both jaws. 

Genera : Pariotichus. 
Pantylus. 
Hypopnous. 
Otocoelus. 

Familv : Diadectida?. 
Anterior teeth conical ; maxillary teeth laterally expanded. 
Basioccipital looseh articulated. 

(jenera : ? Empedias. 
Diadectes. 
Chilonyx. 

THEROCEPHALIA . 

Medium size reptiles, with temporal region .supported 1)y a single 
lateral arch. Postfrontals u.sually absent (present in Scylacosaunis), 
postorbitals and squamosals present. .sui)ra-temporals and quadrato- 
jugals absent. A well developed quadrate. Palate a slight modi- 
fication of the Rhynchocephalian type. Teeth on pter\goids in 
Scylacosaurus and ^^lurosaurus. Maxillary and premaxillary teeth 
flififerentiated as in Mammals into inci.sors. canines, and molars. 
Occasionally more than one pair of canines; molars simple. Scapula 
without an acromion process: probal)ly a cleithrum. Manus and pes 
unknown. 

Family : Scylacosauridae. 
Distinct postfrontals pre.sent. Teeth on pterygoids, but 
not on palatines or [)revomers. More than one canine 
in each maxillarv. 

Genus : Scylacosaurus. 



Theriodonts and their Allies. 293 

Family : ^lurosauridae. 
Teeth on pterygoids, and apparenti) also on palatine and 
prevomers. A single canine in each maxillary. 
Genus : ^Elurosauriis. 

Family : Iclidosuchida;. 
Xo distinct postfrontals. A single canine in ea<-h maxillary. 

Genus : Ictidosuchus. 

? Familv : Deuterosaurida;. 
Xo palatal teeth. 

Genera : Deuterosaurus. 
Rhopalodon. 

Family : Titanosuchida?. 
[Probably a distinct family. Characters very imperfectly 
known.] 

Genus : Tilanosuchus. 

? Familv : Gorgonopsida?. 
Temporal region roofed. Prevomers anch\loseci. Xo 
palatal teeth known. 

Genus : Gorgonops. 

THERIODONTIA. 

Medium sized reptiles, with temporal region suppfirted by a 
single lateral arch. Xo distinct postfrontals. supra-temporals or 
quadrato-jugals. Quadrate rudimentary. A secondary palate 
formed by the maxillaries and palatines. Prevomers small. True 
vomer large. Trans palatines usually absent. Occipital condyle 
double. Xo teeth in j)alate. Scapula with a distinct acromion. 
Phalangeal formula 2, 3. 3. 3, 3. 

Family : Lycosauridae. 
Molar teeth simple. 

Genera : Lvcosaurus. 
? Cynodraco. 

Family : Galesauridse. 
Molar teeth cuspid. 

Genera : Cynognalhus. 
Galesaurus. 

Family : Gomphognathidae. 
Molar teeth with broad flattened crowns. 

Genera: Gomphognalhus. 
Microgomphodon. 
Trirachodon. 
Diademddon. 



2p4 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

ANOMOnOXTIA. 

Medium sized reptiles, with the teniiioial region supported !)> a 
single lateral arch, rostfrontals usually absent (pre.sent in Lystro- 
saurus). No supra-temporals or quadi-ato-jugals. Squamosals and 
quadrates large. Pramaxillaries united, toothless, and very large. 
An imperfect .secondary palate formed l)y the maxillaries ami 
palatines. True median vomer well developed. Prexomers absent. 
Occipital condyle, single tripartite. Scapula with a well-developed 
acromion, ('leithrum ])resent in Dicynodon. al)sent in J,ystrosatirus. 
Phalangeal formula :;. 3. 3. 3. 3. 

FamiK : Kndothiodontida.^ 
One or more series of molar teeth present on maxillaries 
dentaries. Interclavicle a rounded plate. 

(lenera : Endothiodon. 
Esoterodoii. 
Cr\ |)toc\ nodon. 
Pristerodon. 

Familv : Dicvnodontida?. 
Maxillarv teeth absent, or i)resenl as a pair ot tusks. No 
teeth on dentaries. Inlerclaxicle elongated, 
(lenera: Dicvnodon. 
( )uden( xlon. 

Family : Lystrosauridas. 
Dentition as in Dicvnodontida;. -A pair ol poslfrontals 
present ; also a distinct prepaiietal i>one. huerclavicle 
small. Xo cleithrum. 

Oenera : L\strosaurus. 
? Gordonia. 
? Geikia. 

Kamilv : Gistecephalidae. 
[Oistecephalus. though imperfectb known, is probably 
entitled to be regarded as the i\pe of a distinct familv. 
It differs from Dicvnodon and Lxstrosaurus in th2 
structure of the quadrate and occipital regions.] 
Genus: Cistecephalus. 

[Addendum, jylh Ocloiier. 1903. Since the abo\e pa])er was 
read it has been discovered that a i)reparietal bone is not jieculiar tn 
the Lystrosauridae. being present also in the other families of the 
.^nomodontia. — R.H.] 



24.— MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OBSERVA- 
TIONS OX THE GEXUS AXACAMPSEKOS L 

{RriJXiUA, Ehkh.). 

Bv Dk. S. Sc[4uxlaxi), Hox. M.A., Oxox. 



The genus AiiacaDipStros is entirely restricled Ui South Africa. 
It is sharpl) divided int(j two sections: (i) Avon/a, E. Mey., and (2) 
Tclephiasirum. Dill., which are separated from one another chiefly 
li\ their inflorescenses. leaves, and sti^jules, which make y\\^\\\ 
very different in apjjearance. As we shall see later on, there is im 
(Ufference in the seeds, though this is maintained by Sonder in the 
Flora Capensis, and 1)\ Pax in Engler and Prantl's Xatiirliche 
Pf^anzenfamilien (III., ili. p. 57). The section Avoiiia consists ot 
five species, two of which {A. Alstonii. Schdnl.. and A. 7-cciirvata, 
Schonl.) ha\e oiiK recenth been described 1)\ me. and one of which 
i^A. quinaria, E. Me\.) is only known from Drege s collection. This 
section seems to have its headquarters in Xamaqualand. and extends 
through the Karroo. In the most eastern parts of the Karroo 
A. iistiilaia. E. Me\. seems lo l»e not uncommon, it has e\en been 
found on the Stormberg b) Mr. T. R. Sim, where he has also dis- 
covered other plants hitherto l)elieve<l to bt restr'cted to carroid 
districts (e.g.. Crasstila pyramidal is). The section l\'Ic pinastnim has 
a similar distrit)ution. Six s[)ecies belonging tf) this section are 
recognised in the Flora Capensis. Two of these are. howe\er. onK 
known from short descriptions, and A. arachnoidcs. .Sims. has. b\ 
various authors, been split up into se\eral other species. 

.4. Tcic phunirum. A. aracluioidcs. A. filameniosa are frequenll\ 
grown in European Botanic Gardens. In addition to these I have 
tor \ears grown four species belonging to the section Avonia. Their 
cultivation does not offer an\ difficulties, though through bad luck, or 
perhaps I (aight to say bad management. I have recenth lost two of 
them. I may here mention that with suitable management scarceK an\ 
of our South African Succulents offer anv cultural difificulties. .A.11 thev 
require, when planted in tins or pots, is a rich sand\ soil with good 
drainage, protection from continued soaking rains and protec'L'on 
from the watering can indiscrimiiiateh handled b\ thoughtkss 
pcr^'-ons. When planted out (at all events in Grahamstown) the\ do 
very well in sunny, fairlx well drained situations. The\ have onK 
to be kept free from weeds and are 7iever watered. 

My investigations of the genus Anacampscros. though carried 
on at intervals for several years, are b\ no means complete, but thev 
have already yielded several interesting results which have induced 
me to give a short resume of them. 



296 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

All the species are perennials in the strictest sense of the term. 
They form a taproot which, in the section Avonia, is not verj- much 
branched and, altogether, judging from plants grown in pots, the 
root-system in this section is not particularly well-de\ eloped, so that 
in periods of drought they have to rely on protective arrangements 
of the aerial and sub-aerial organs to keep them alive. The species 
belonging to the section Avonia possess a more or less developed 
caudex which remains partly underground. The only species in 
which I traced the origin of this caudex is A. iisiiilata and I found 
that here it takes its origin in the first place from the hypocotyle. It 
has its greatest development in A. Alsionii where it is napiform and 
is almost as broad as long, namely about 3 cm. In this species 
numerous simple l)ranches arise from the apex ot the caudex and 
end in the flower. Similar branching also takes place in A. iistulata 
where however the main branches bear .secondary branches in a 
most irregular manner, while in A. papyracca and A. reciirvata 
l»oih main and ?,ide iaanches are few, the latter arising chiefiy from 
the base of the former. 

In the second section Telephiastrum we d(j not meet with a 
well-developed caudex. The species belo'\ging to it branch freely 
from the base of the stem and produce readily adventitious roots. 
The secondary branches thus form frequently indei)endent plants. 
The roots of A. plamentosa are rather thick and nodulo.se. They have 
huge mucilage-cells in the cortex, which no doubt serve as important 
water-reservoirs. 

I have seen the cotyledons or seed-leaves in A. papyracca, A. 
nsliilata and A. plamcntosa. In all of ihem they are semi-globose, 
fleshy bodies of a reddish colour. h\ A. iistulata, where I followed 
the germination more carefully than in the others, I found that already 
the first leaves, formed after the cotyledons, were like all other leaves, 
and had the same kind of stipules. The first two leaves are practicallv 
opposite one another, the third and fourth begin to be visiblv displac- 
ed after they have been formed, and the fifth starts a 2/5 .spiral which 
is continued throughout the vegetative part of the shoot. Like other 
authors who have dealt with the genus Aiiacampscros 1 have called 
the intrafoliar structures which we find in all species l)v the name of 
" stipules." but in view of the fact that stipules are absent in many 
Fortulacaccac it seems desiral)le to examine the question whether we 
have a right to classify these structures as stipules. According to 
Eichler (See Pax, " Morphologic der Pfianzen," Stuttgart. 1890, p. 77). 
after the primordium of a leaf has appeared, it becomes separated 
into two portions, namely, into a lower zone, which does not take 
part in the formation of the leaf proper, and into an upper zone, from 
which the lamina arises. From the former, the ba.se of the leaf 
which remains stationary for some time, the stipular structures take 
their origin. In tracing the germination of ^. ustulata I could 
satisfy myself that the so-called stipules really take their origin from 
the base of the primordium of the leaf. Thev occupy at first the 
full breadth of the leaf, but in the subsequent development they 
grow more in breadth than the latter and thus soon exceed them. The 



Morphological Observations. -97 

second essential characteristic, the comparative late appearance, was 
also strikingly shown. While there were 10 primordia of leaves clear- 
ly shown in one preparation, only in the first five the intrafoliar 
structures were developed, the remaining 5 were still without them. 
There is, therefore, no reason why we should not consider them 
as stipules in the cases where they are leaflike in character. 
I have .satisfied myself also that in A. ■filament osa where they appear, 
as in other species belonging to section Telcphiastrum. as hairlike 
structures, they take their origin from the base of the primordia of 
the leaves as comparatively thick protuberances, on which the hair- 
like structures which eventually only are visible to the naked eye 
arise at an early stage, though again only some time after the pri- 
mordium of the leaf has become clearly differentiated. 

In his well-known work. " Die Flora der aegyptisch-arabischen 
Wiiste "' (Berlin 1887) Georg Volkens says: "A considerable number 
of desert-plants exhibit in the mesophyll of the leaves, sometimes also 
in the intemodes (Tamarix), water-storing elements which were dis- 
Though they are common in desert-plants, it appears from Volkens' 
called them resen-oirs vasiformes." Heinricher devoted a special paper 
to them and called them " Speichertracheiden." which I will trans- 
late " Water-storing tracheides." Unfortunately I have had no access 
to Heinricher's paper (Bot. Centralblatt. 1885, XXIII, No. 27/28). 
Though the} are common in desert-plants, it appears from Volkens 
work that nowhere are thev so well developed as I found them to be in 
Anacampseros. at all events in the shoots of A. Alstomi. A. -fHatnen- 
iosa and A. arachnoides. They are absent in the leaves and the 
cortex of these shoots. The vascular bundles are very poorly develop- 
ed in the branches of the species which I have examined. Apart 
from them. j)ractically the whole of the central cylinder is composed 
of tracheides in A. Alstonii. In A. papyracea they are also ven 
numerous, but do not extend to the centre which is composed of 
parenchymatous tissue, thus forming a hollow cylinder. In A. filamen- 
tosa they do extend to the pith, but are freely interspersed with 
parenchymatous cells. Their pits are usuall\' scaJariform. Even if 
we had no previous investigations on the subject, we would be led 
to the conclusion that they serve the purpose of storing water, as 
their development is such that their presence for merely strengthen- 
ing the stem or for conducting water would be unintelligible. 

There are other differences in detail when we consider the 
anatomical structure of the stem, but there is only one which need 
concern us here. In A. Alstonii and A. papyracea. in which the 
assimilatory system is so- very much reduced and where it is further 
so well protected by the stipules from excessive transpiration, we find 
that the shoots are not protected by cork while in the two species 
belonging to the section Telephiasirum to which I have just referred 
there is a well-developed and very active cork-cambium which soon 
provides them with a strong peripheral layer of cork. 

In the section Avonia the caudex nO' doubt also serves as an im- 
portant water-reservoir, but I have not examined its anatomical 
structure yet. 



258 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

I have already incidentally referred to the water-storing- roots 
of A. filamen/osa and to the water-storing tracheides in this and other 
species. I will now briefly consider what other provision is found 
for water-storage and protection from excessive transpiration. 

In none of the species is there developed an epidermal system of 
water reservoirs such as we find in so many other succulents. The 
cuticle of the leaves is not particularly thickened, the stomata do 
not show any provision that could be interpreted as helping to [protect 
them, except that in A. filamentosa (and perhaps in other species) 
they are slightly sunk below the surface of the ei)idermis. But all 
parenchymatous cells of the leaves and also of the cortex of the 
branches are rich in mucilage, and this no^ doubt is largely responsi- 
ble for preventing the moisture contained in them being given off loo 
rapidly. 

The shape of the leaves also helps to a large extent in this direc- 
tion. It is a fact on which I need not dwell, as it is too well under- 
stood, that any organ which approaches a spherical form is co ipso 
well protected against excessive transpiration, as the ratio of surface 
and contents is so very much more in its favour than in organs which 
are flattened. In the section Avonia the leaves are exceedingh small, 
but expose a greatly rounded surface to the atmosphere, while in 
the section TelcphiasU-iim they actually a])pr()ach more or less the 
spherical form. 

But all species of Anacampseros are i)articularly well protected 
externally. They all have wrappers composed of dead tissues, which 
are practically impermeable to water. I refer of course to the 
stipules. These behave, however, differently in the two sections of 
the genus. 

In section Telephiasirum, where their main bodv is composetl 
of stiff hairs, they close firmly round the buds and the apices of the 
branches. They then form such a dense felt that transpiration must 
be reduced to a minimum, if not stopped altogether. In older parts 
they become so far separated that they can scarcely afford any 
direct protection, but I find the}- prevent the dewdro])s from running 
down the plants, and thus no doubt render an indirect service to 
them, reducing transpiration while the dew is evaporating. I made 
some experiments with A. pilamentosa in order to see whether dew 
would actually be taken up by its aerial organs, but the result was 
negative, or at all events indecisive, though plants kept in a room 
and occasionally wetted above the ground retained their vitality 
longer than others \\ hich were not wetted, and even produced small 
flowers and ripened their seeds, but this could be best explained 
by a better retention of the moisture in the plant. The long hairs, 
other than stipular. in this and other species, which are also com- 
posed of dead cells even before the leaves are fully develoi)ed. evi- 
dently perform subsidiary services in the same direction. There 
are. however, in A. filamentosa and other species smaller hairs of 
peculiar structure which require further investigation. 

The stipules of the species belonging to the section Avonia 
are developed as comparatively large, leaf-like, flat stnictures. Thev 



Morphological Observations. ^99 

are, in all but A. rccitrvaia, Schonl., broader than the leaves, and 
•completely cover them in. The buds and apices of the branches are 
wrapped up by them thoroughly, and in dry weather, except again in 
A. rcciirvata, they are closely pressed against the stem, so that 
transpiration is stopped altogether, but when the atmosphere is 
moister they open out slightly, so that the margin of the leaves is 
just visible. This is especially striking in A. papyracea, but can 
also be observed in A. ustulata and A. Ahtonii. They may even 
then catch the dew, but again I have failed to satisfy myself that 
they actually absorb it, and my observations seem even to [)oint to 
ithe conclusion that such an absorption does not take place. 

The Flower. — The general structure of the flower is well 
known. There are two sepals and five i:>etals, both of which are 
<liflFerent in shape in the different species, though ovate and oblong 
forms prevail. However, their minute description here would be 
of no interest. The Flora Capensis ascribes to the genus i5-::o 
stamens. In A. ustulata there are sometimes seven, but as a rule 
■eight stamens, five of which alternate with the petals, while three are 
•epipetalous, thus indicating the presence of an epipetalous whorl. 
In A. papyracea I counted about 16 stamens, in A. Ahtonii over 
60, in A. filamentosa about 15, in A. arachnoides usually 27. It is 
very desirable that the origin of these various numbers be carefully 
traced, but I have not been able to do this yet. The pollen is 
:globular, smooth. The ovary is globose in A. papyracea, A. Ahtonii. 
A. ustulata, but more oblong in the species belonging to the section 
Tele phi astr urn, especially in A. arachnoides. When we come to 
-examine the placentation, we find that this has hithereto been either 
loosely or in some instances even wrongly described. In the Flora 
•Capensis it is stated that the seeds are affixed to a central placenta. 
Unfortunately this term is applied both to a free central placenta 
and to a central placenta which is connected with the roof of the 
■ovar) . Pax in Engler's Xatiirliche Pfianzenfamilien (III. i. 6. p. 53) 
-expressly states that all Portulacaceae have a free central placenta 
but I find that all species of Anacampseros (perhaps with the excep- 
tion of A. ustulata. which requires re-examination) have a central 
placenta which is connected with the roof of the ovarw Its shape 
is different in the different species, but I need not here enter into 
such details. The style is usually cylindrical, of various lengths. 
but in A. papyracea it is practically absent, and the three stigmatic 
lobes are therefore nearly sessile. 

The majority of the species of A. have very showv flowers. 
These all agree in this : that they open for a few hours, in some 
species in the afternoon only. Towards evening thev close 
and never open again. In all these species self-fertilisation 
is not only possible, but it takes place regularlv. I have never vet 
seen an insect on any of their flowers. I have also kept them in 
such a manner that insects could have no access to them, and \et 
ripe seeds are in ever}- case produced. We have here, therefore, 
the curious fact that the show-apparatus with which these flowers 
iire so liberally pr(5vided is not necessary to them for the 



300 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

attraction of insect-fertilisers. As far as my observations go, it is- 
(jnly utilised by the plants to press the anthers against the stigma 
when the flower closes again after having taken a short airing. It is., 
however, very desirable that accurate observations on this point 
should be made in their native habitats. 

People who are fond of theorising will naturally conclude from 
my observations that Anacampseros is a genus which is passing away 
from the state in which it required insects for fertilisation, as the 
show-apparatus must at one time have been of considerable use in 
attracting insects. Apart from the want of observations on this 
point in the field, serious objections might be raised to this view, 
but in one species at all events, in A. papyracea, the show-apparatus- 
does not open out at all any more. We read already in the Flora 
Capensis (II.. p. 383) that in this .species the flowers are included; 
in the uppermost .stipules, but this does not express very clearly 
what really happens. The flowers are not only included in the- 
uppermost stipules, but they are closely covered over by them ; 
they never open, and as they pretty regularl\ produce ripe ca])sule.s 
and seeds, they are strictly cleistogamoiis. I have watched this 
sj^ecies for years, and have never seen any flowers behave differentlv. 
A. papyracea is, therefore, as far as we know, the only plant in 
which none but deist ogamous flowers are produced. 

Fruit and Seed. — Some time after fertilisation, and shortly 
before the seeds are ripe, the capsule is raised by the elongation of 
the pedicel. This is especially striking in A. papyracea, as in this 
way the capsule becomes free from the uppermost stipules. The 
•structure of the capsule is pretty uniform in all species, differing only 
111 unimportant details, but curiously it has. as a rule, been incorrectly 
described. Sonder in the Flora Capensis (II.. p. 382) describes the 
cap.sule as " conical, i -celled. 3-valved. the valves often longitudin- 
ally divided, and then apparently 6-valved." 

Pax in Engler's Xatiirliche Pflanzenfamilien (111., ib, p. 57) 
sa) s : — " Capsule conical or oblong, 3-valved. with fleshy epicari> 
and membranaceous endocarp, valves often longitudinally divided, 
and then apparently 6-valved." Bentham and Hooker (I.e. I., p. 157) 
give a fairly accurate description, in which they follow Fenzl. 

In all species the two sepals and the petals with the attached 
stamens close firmly together into a more or less cylindrical structure, 
which eventually becomes detached at its base in the form of a cap. 
Inside this structure the capsule is developed. The pericarp divides, 
into an outer fairly hard, almost horny {not fleshy) epicari>, which also 
becomes detached at its base in the form of a conical cap, and fre- 
quently remains attached to the conical cap formed by the floral 
envelope. This cap, formed by the epicarp, is split at its base 
sometimes in three parts, in other cases in six parts. In the case 
of A. Alstonii. each of these six parts is again slightly divided at its 
base. There remains now. when the seeds are ripe, a basket-like 
.structure, open above, formed, in the case of A. Alstonii, bv six 
connivent oblong lobes, chiefly composed of strong fibres, and the 
interval between them occupied by a single fibre, the whole- 



Morphological Observations. 301 

heing formed by the endocarp. It is this structure which probably 
has as a rule l:)een looked upon as the whole capsule, but. as we 
have seen, this is erroneous, and as at this stage the placenta is free 
above, we may also look to this stage as the source of the incorrect 
descri{jtion of the placentation. 

The seeds again require our attention, as they have also been 
hitherto described incorrectly. Sender (I.e. p. 382) describes them 
as winged. Bentham and Hooker (I.e. I., p. 157) as "angular or 
laterally compressed, 3-winged or nude." Pax (I.e. p. 57) says: — 
" Seeds angular or compressed. 3-winged or without wings." but 
though the seeds differ in slight details in the different species, they 
are again surprisingly uniform generally speaking. They all arise 
from cami)ylotr()t)OUs ovules, in which the chalazal portion is some- 
what longer than the micro})ylar region. The result is that both 
•ovules and the seeds are obliquely club-shaped. They are covered 
with very minute papillae, which in some species are a trifle largei 
than in others, and it is just possible that these may have given rise 
to the view that the seeds are winged. With reference to the 
■endosperm in Portulacaceae, Pax mentions that it is scanty (I.e. p. 
51). I have sectioned only the seeds of one species, A. filameniosa. 
and find that it is devoid of any endosperm. If this is the case in 
other species also, the genus Anacampscros should be placed in 
a rather isolated position among.st Portulacaceae, to which some of 
its other characters mav also entitle it. 



25.— ox SOME STONE-IMPLEMEXTS IN THE COLLEC- 
TION OF THE ALBANY MUSEUM. 

Bv Dr. S. Schonlaxd, Hox. M.A., Oxox. 



Apart from the so-called " digging-stciies " of the Hottentots- 
and Bushmen, their stone-hammers, stone-mortars, and stone-pipes,, 
our knowledge of South African stone-implements is very 
recent. We look in vain for them in most of the in- 
numerable books on South African travels, and in works 
on the South AfricaJi natives. 1 think the\ were first 
mentioned by an anonvmous writer (the late Dr. Dale?) in the " Cape 
Monthly iVIagazine,'' (New Series, Oct. 1870, I.. No. 4, pp. 236-239), 
and even to this day the literature of the subject is ver}' scanty, 
though these implements are found scattered all over the country,, 
and though several intelligent collectors have paid attention tO' them. 
Large collections of them are found in the South African Museum., 
Cape Town, and the Albany Museum, Graham's Town, and many of 
them have also found their way to European collections. In the i)re- 
sent paper I wish chiefly to deal with a few implements in the Albany 
Museum, the use of which is obvious, but which are noteworthy 
either for their rarity or neatness of workmanship, and, secondly,, 
with some others the use of which is not quite clear to me, though 
suggestions \\ith reference to them have been frequently offered. 
As these suggestions in every case amount to nothing but wild guesses. 
I do not feel justified in accepting them as conclusive, and my object 
in bringing these doubtful implements to your notice is therefore 
chiefly to submit them to an assembly amongst whom I hope there 
are some who can give some more definite information about them. 

That some of these implements must have been, historically 
speaking, of very great age is a fact well known, but I cannot here- 
deal with this aspect of the question beyond showing you an un- 
doubted stone-implement found in Aeolian rock near East London 
by Mr. G. McKay, and presented bv him to the All)anv Museum 
some years ago. 

The writer in the " Cape Mc)nthl\ Magazine " alreadv mentioned 
states that there is a remarkable similarity of ty]^>e throughout those 
stone-implements which he has seen, whether European, South 
African, Japanese, or Australian. To illustrate this remark. I have 
placed a few European and South African implements side by side,, 
and submit them to your inspection {knives, scrapers, rough spear- 
heads, small perforated si ones). The truth of this remark will then 
at once be obvious to you. At first sight it may appear that this 
similarity is in most cases due to the fact that if certain stones are 
tapped in a certain manner they will always spht in certain direc- 
tions, but already in the specimens shown it wnll be seen that they 
are made of very diverse material, and this view becomes improbable,, 
but it falls to the ground altogether when we examine some imple- 



Stone Implements. 303 

ments made of pure Quartz, of which I can also show you some 
South African ones, and we find there exactly the same cuts, and 
consequently the same design, as in those made of flint and quartzose 
sandstone. How the makers managed to cut the Quartz in this 
fashion is a mystery to me. and it certainly could only be the result 
of an art practised for ages, and handed down from generation to 
generation. The Quartz implements in the Albany Museum come 
from Xamaqualand, Bushmanland, and Port Alfred, and their distri- 
bution seems therefore not to^ be governed by the occurrence of 
more easilv worked material suitable for the manufacture of stone 
implements. There is some evidence also to show that there was 
some traffic carried on in suitable material [as also in paints] so that 
we find stone implements in localities which do not yield these 
materials. This was already noticed by Mr. A. Brown in the vicinity 
of Aliwal North (" Cape Monthly Magazine." New Series, I., p. 367). 
In spite of numerous enquiries. I have never yet met anybod} who 
had seen an arro\\- made by South African natives with a stone 
arrow-head. A Mr. W. C. Palgrave forwarded in 1870 from the 
Northern border an arrow actually used by natives in that region, into 
the end of whi^h a small leaf-shaped arrow-head of quartz 
crystal was inserted. This, as far as I know, is the only direct 
evidence to show that the things we call " arrow-heads " have reall\ 
been used as such in this countrv. Bits of glass have also been used 
for the same purpose, but iron and bone tipped arrows seem to be 
the only ones used nowadays, and as the use of iron was known to 
the Hottentots and Bantu tribes before the advent of Europeans, it 
is most likely that stone arrow-heads were discarded even before 
Europeans landed in South Africa. Can it he that the 
Hottentots learned the use of iron from the incoming Bantu tribes, 
and then discarded the use of certain stone implements? This is 
one of the questions w^hich a systematic exploration of the kitchen- 
middens along our coast will probably solve. My own knowledge 
of them is too fragmentary to be used for general conclusions of 
value, but it seems to me that there is a gradation observable in them, 
and that in the most recent ones there is less diversity in the stone 
implements than in the more ancient ones. 

Leaving the innumerable scrapers, knives, and similar imple- 
ments which are in our collection aside. I wish first to call your 
attention to a neat little saw which we owe to Dr. Howard, who 
found it in Bushmanland. Stone-saws from the Cape Flats are 
ahead V mentioned in the "Cape Monthly Magazine" of 1870 
(p. 238), but ours is the only instance that has come to my knowledge 
of a South African stone implement that must have been a tinv saw 
and nothing else. Its use was probably connected with the manu- 
facture of arrows. 

There are about 70 of the .so-called digging stones in the col- 
lection of the Albany Museum. It seems to me that they have all 
been made of river-nodules, though there are two round lumps of 
rock, one from Griqualand West, the other from the Albert district, 
which the donors. Mr. E. J. Dunn and Dr. R. Kannemever, F.L.S.. 



304 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

consider as digging stones in process of manufacture. In the first, 
however, I cannot see any clear evidence of human workmanship, 
while the other is evidently only a core from which chips have hern 
.struck. Most of them are made of a close-grained sandstone, only 
one, which is unfinished, is made of a hard plutonic rock. The holfsi 
are, as a rule, biconical, having been started simultaneously on both 
.sides, but there are some with more or less cylindrical holes, which, 
according to a MS. note by Dr. Kannemeyer, were finished with an 
iron tool. As a rule the holes are central, only one .stone has an 
eccentric hole. Many of these implements are more or less globular, 
and these are. according to Dr. Kannemeyer, of Bushman origin, 
while others, which are flat, are supposed to be of Hottentot manu- 
facture. Whether this distinction is valid appears to me to be 
doubtful. Most likely the shape of the.se implements was deter- 
mined by the material most readily available. 

The size of these implements varies considerably. The largest 
globular one has a diameter of 5:^ inches, the largest flat one has 
a diameter of 7 inches, while the smallest is only a little over i inch 
broad. The weight also varies correspondingly, the largest weigh- 
ing nearly 6 lbs., while our smallest only weighs not quite 2 J oz. 
(There is even a smaller one in the vSouth African Museum.) That 
many of these stones were used for weighting sticks when digging out 
bulbs, roots, etc., seems to be beyond doubt. Several eve-witnes.ses 
have testified to this effect, but we must not suppose that even those 
which were suitable for this purpose were exclusivelv u.sed for it. 
Thus, Mr. Harn,- Barber told me that he saw in the interior a native 
blacksmith using two as protection from the fire for the ends of the 
tubes of his bellows, and I have no doubt the Bushmen and 
Hottentots, used them also for other purposes. A few of ours show 
signs that they were used as rubbers, or grinders, and hammers. 
There are also a good many which, on account of their small weight, 
could never have been of any use for weighting digging sticks. 
Most of the.se were probably used for the ready manufacture of 
knobkerries, and the writer in the "Cape Monthly Magazine" of 
1870 (p. 239), already several times referred to. writes in confirmation 
of this view : — " From Wupperthal I hear that the oval perforated 
stones were used by the old Hottentot warriors as weapons of war, 
a stick of hardwood being thrust into the hole." 

Sir John Evans, in his " Ancient Stone Implements, etc., oi 
Great Britain " (2d. ed., 1897, p. 229, fig. 157), looks upon these round 
l)erf orated stones as hammers, but very few of our specimens show 
signs that they have been used as such, nor does his figure of a 
specimen found at Stifford, near Gray's Thurrock, suggest in the 
least its u.se as a hammer, yet other .specimens to which he refers 
show such apparent bruising at the end that they must have seen 
hard service, and for these his interpretation mav be correct. 

A number of specimens which he figures and describes (Chap. 
X., p. 238) " have cavities worked on either face, so deep and 
identical in character Avith those which, in meeting each other, pro- 
duce the bell-mouthed perforations commonly present in the hammers 



Stone Implements. 305 

for hafting, that at trrst sight it seems difficult to say whether they 
iire finished implements, or whether they would have become per- 
forated hammer-heads had the process of manufacture been com- 
pleted. Certainly in some cases the cavities appear needlessly deep, 
xmd conical, for the mere purpose of receiving the finger ajid thumb, 
so as to prevent the stone from slipping out of the hand ; and yet 
such apparentlv unfinished instruments occur in different countries 
in sufficient numbers to raise a presumption that the form is inten- 
tional and complete." 

Now, though we have a fair number of these unfinished imple- 
ments, none of them show any signs of having been used for any 
particular purpose. Sir John Evans also suggested that some of 
them may have l)een discarded owing to difficulties having been met 
with in the boring operations, and this is certainly the case with 
.some of ours, and the one with eccentric hole alreadx referred to 
•owes its peculiarity probably to the same cause. 

I now come to some oblong stones which have been looked upon, 
.and probably rightly so, as hammers. Some of them actually show 
signs of bruising at one end. They look like short, thick rolling- 
pins. If I remember rightl\. Mr. L. Peringuey exhibited some 
similar, but larger and thicker, stones some years ago at a meeting 
•of the S.A. Philosophical Society, and tried to show that stones of 
this nature were buried at certain spots to deliminate the borders of 
the areas which certain Hottentot hordes claimed as their own. 
Yet it seems to be worthy of consideration whether after all they 
may have been as a rule nothing more than prosaic rolling-pins for 
•crushing and flattening out soft, e.specially boiled, food. At all 
•events similar rolling-pins are still in use in Abyssinia. For pound- 
ing hard grains, etc.. the Kafirs still use stone handmills with different 
mullers. but I am not aware that they used special implements for 
:softer food material. Stones which have been interpreted as rolling- 
pins have also been found in Great Britain (Evans, I.e.. p. ^51). 

There is one magnificent specimen in the Albanv Museum, of 
-vshich I have brought a photograph. It was ploughed up at Thar- 
field. about eight miles east of Port Alfred, and presented to the 
Museum by the late Hon. Dr. W. G. Atherstone. It is about 20 inches 
long. It is so ridiculously like a modern rolling-pin that it forms a 
great favourite with the lady visitors to the Museum, and it is very 
difficult to suggest any other use for it. Mv friend. Dr. R. Brown, 
told me that similar stones have been found in X.S. Wales, and 
"have been described as " ceremonial stones," but as far as his recollec- 
tion goes, there is nothing definite known about the use thev have 
been put to. 

It is, however, possible that this and similar stones mav have 
been used for the preparation of karosses. which fomied an important 
item in the daily life of the primitive natives of South Africa. An 
•old Kafir told Dr. Atherstone that stones like the last one were used 
to shape assegai-heads, but I am afraid this information cannot be 
relied upon, since Kafirs and other native races will tell one anvthing 
one wishes, except the truth. 



3o6 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Another implement of which I am showing a photo was plough- 
ed up in Lower Albany, and presented by the discoverer, Mr. Baines. 
On the photo it looks exactly like a chisel. It is made of a long 
slal) of quartzite, originally rectangular in transverse section, but 
slightly trimmed for about "ji of its length in such a manner 
that the edges have been rounded off. One end has a sharp edge. 
As it is 2 1 inches long, its former use as a chisel is most problematical. 
I have suggested that it may have formed a portion of a trap by 
which small game was killed, but I do not feel at all confident that 
this interpretation is correct. 

Amongst the best known implements which have been found, 
though in limited numbers, all over South Africa are oval stones, 
which are grooved on one side. They have been looked upon, and 
probably rightly so, as " whetstones for sharpening and bringing to 
a point, pins and other implements of bone, and they seem well 
adapted for such a purpose, and are still so used by the Eskimos. 
They ma\ also have served for smoothing the shafts of arrows. 
" Serpentine pebbles with a groOA'e in them are used for straightening- 
arrow shafts by the Indians of California, and shaft rubbers of sand- 
stone have been found in Pennsylvania " (Evans, I.e., p. 268). As a 
rule. South African ones are very convex on the surface, and slightly 
so (in the back. We have, however, a portion of one found near 
Port Alfred, which is made of a rough piece of stone that has only 
been smoothed on the grooved surface. 

With these stones that have only one groove, another found near 
L'pington. and presented by the Hon. Mr. Justice Jones, has been 
placed, which has no less than eight grooves, fairly evenly distributed 
on the longer sides of an egg-shaped body. I must, however, admit 
that if this implement has been used as a whetstone, I cannot see 
the use of this number of grooves, which are all of approximately 
e\en depth. When I first saw it, it reminded me of a wooden tool 
which ropemakers use. They let the strands which the} wish to 
combine to a rope run along the grooves, and while it is held steady 
the turning wheel can only twist the strands between the wheel and 
this implement. Now, considering that to this day the Bushmen 
make very nice string, of which they manufacture the nets to carry 
with them ostrich eggs filled with water, it is not improbable that our 
implement was really used for rope-making. In any case, the 
suggestion should be considered until a more likely one is brought 
forward. There is one specimen in the collection of the Albany 
Museum which may have been used as a spindle whorl. In any case,. 
I cannot suggest any other use for it. It is made of soapstone. It 
was found at the junction of the Vaal and Orange Rivers, and pre- 
sented to the Museum by the late Mr. P. Nightingale. It is a flattish 
perforated disk, gradually tapering to a sharp edge. It is about 
^ inches in diameter, and the hole in the centre is about % in. across. 
According to Sir John Willoughby, hard clay disks, having a small 
hole in the centre, are used by the natives (of Mashonaland), evei^ 
to the present da\ . in spinning bark fibres and thread made from th. 



Stone Implements. 307 

\vild cottnn which is to be t'lnind in various parts of Mashonaland. 
These are probably identical with the clay-whorls found by Messrs. 
Bent and Br\ce at Zimbabwe, similar to those found in great 
quantities in the ruins of Tro}. (Hall and Xeal, '• Ancient Ruins of 
Rho<lesia. 1902. p. 142.) 

Stone-disks of a similar nature are of frequent occurrence in 
Great Britain and elsewhere. With reference to these, Sir John 
Evans remarks (I.e., p. 391): — "In spinning with the distaff and 
spindle, the rotatory motion of the latter is maintained by a small 
fly-wheel, or ' spindle-whorl," very generally f(_)rmed of stoi'.e, but 
sometimes of other materials, with a perforation in the centre, in 
which the wooden or bone spindle was fastened, the part below the 
whorl tapering to a point so as to readily twirl between the finger 
and thumb, and the part above being also pointed, but longer, so as 
to admit of the thread when spun being wound round it, the yam in 
the act of being spun being attached to the upper point." " Spindle- 
whorls Aary considerably in size and weight, being usualh' from an 
inch to an inch and a half in diameter, but occasionally as much as 
from two to three inches." If it is objected that where this specimen 
w^as discovered no suitable material is found for spinning purposes, 
we can, apart from Sir John Willoughby's testimony, again refer to 
Sir John Evans, who states (p. 390) that the principal hbrous materials 
in use in the Lake dwellings of Switzerland were bast from the bark 
of trees (chiefly the lime) and flax. Now, the bast of trees is to this 
day used by Bechuanas and Bushmen for making cords, and, there- 
fore; this objection falls to the ground. I am, however, far from 
asserting that Bushmen knew the art of spinning in the stricter sense 
of the word. But it is by no means impossible. The conviction has 
gradually been forced upon me that we do not know the true Bush- 
man, or that at all events there were Bushman tribes before the 
advent of Europeans, which in a sense had a comparative high degree 
of civilisation, which disappeared when they became mere hunted 
animals. Where this civilisation came from, whether by contact 
with the race which left its architectural monuments in Mashonaland 
and elsewhere, is more than I can tell or care even to guess. 

There is, lastly, a possibility that this perforated disk ma) have 
ser\ed merely as a personal ornament. It is a well-known fact that 
Bushmen and other South African tribes used to string up small 
perforated disks of ostrich-shell to be worn as chains. We have also 
a few small perforated stone disks, which probably served a similar 
purpose. We have further in our collection three stone rings, which 
may possibly have been used as armlets, or in any case the\- cannot 
very well have been anything else but personal ornaments. The first 
was found in Gcalekaland by the Rev. Canon Woodroofife. Its outer 
diameter is 4^ inches, and the diameter of the perforation is 2^ inches. 
It tapers gradually from the edges of the hole to the outer circum- 
ference, where it is very thin. Its shape is, therefore, similar to the 
brass rings worn formerly by some Basuto tribes (especially the women 
of the Royal house) round their necks. 



3o8 Report S.A.A. Advancemeni of Science. 

The second was found in the Peddie district. Its outer dia- 
meter is 3I inches, the diameter of the perforation is jf inches. It 
is thickest in the middle, but has no sharp edges. 

The third was found near the junction of the Vaal and Orange 
Kivers by the late Mr. P. Nightingale. It is rather thinner than the 
others. Its outer diameter is 4^ inches, the hole is 2^ inches across. 
Stone rings of different sizes have also occasionally been found in 
Great Britain. Owing to their sizes they can scarcely have Ijeen 
used as armlets, but in shape thev come close to ours. Thus the 
figure of one from Ty Mawr given by Sir John Evans (I.e., p. 419, 
fig. 385) might, apart from minor details, .stand for a figure of our 
Peddie specimen. 

While the manufacturers of stone implements in South Africa 
were not devoid of a certain amount of skill, which must excite our 
admiration, while their arrow-heads, perforated stones, their " rolling- 
pins," their stone rings, indicate that there was not only .skill but an 
inheritance of trade-tricks handed down from generation to genera- 
tion, which were faithfully adhered to by the masters of the craft, 
it is astonishing that so far it has l)een impossible to find any evi- 
dence of progress in the manufacture of stone implements in South 
Africa, such as we know has taken place in other countries from 
palaeolithic times to the time when stone implements were given up. 
Generally .speaking, we can say that not onh- has the stone age 
persisted in South Africa until comparatively recent time, but that 
the palaeolithic age has persisted here to the same extent. This is 
•es}>ecially shown in the almost entire absence of polished stone im- 
plements. Even such beautiful implements as our Tharfield rolling- 
pin have only been smoothed down, their surface can scarceK be 
called ])()lished. 

The exception to prove the rule is a muller made of diorite 
found in the mud of the Gats River, in the Sneeuwberg, by a Mr. 
Murray, and presented by him to the Albany Museum. As no 
photograph or description could do justice to this beautiful implement, 
I have brought it to show you. When you con.sider the hardness 
■of the stone and the difficulty of working it, vou will agree with mt, 
no doubt, when I consider it the gem of our collection. 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. L. Peringue}, F.E.S., etc., 
Assistant-Director S.A. Museum, showed some implements found 
on the Cape Flats and elsewhere which had been worked on both 
sides, and would be classed as neolithic in Europe. Dr. Schonland 
acknowledged this, yet there is no evidence tO' show that these were 
of later period than the' majority of the others. At the same lime he 
readily admitted that further investigations may upset our present 
ideas on this subject, f)n which .systematic investigations on a big 
scale are highly desirable. 

\Postscript. — The author found recently in the North Eastern 
Kalahari, about 43 miles north of Serowe, on the site of an ancient 
JSamangwato settlement, a stone-bear (about ^ inch in diameter) 



Stone Implements. ^ct^ 

which is made on the plan of the " digging stones '' with double-belt 
mouthed perforation. The chief Khama told him that his people 
usetJ to make such beads. This makes it likely that other small' 
stones of similar workmanship were also used as personal ornaments- 
by the primitive inhabitants of South Africa, and it may also serve 
as a caution against ascribing all stone-implements found in South 
Africa to Bushmen and Hottentots.. 21st October, 1903. S. Sch.J 



^6.— THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOME SOUTH AFRICAN 

FISHES. 

By J. D. F. GiLCHKisT, M.A., B.Sc. Ph.D., Goveknmknt 
Biologist to the Coloxv of thk Cape of Good Hope.* 



The necessity for ascertaining information as to tlie develop- 
ment of fishes has arisen in Cape Colony as it has in other countries, 
and the want of such information has caused considerable difficulty 
in legi.slative matters. Thus it is commonly alleged that the prac- 
tice of netting, as carried on in the Zwartkops, the Buffalo, and other 
tidal rivers of South Africa, has proved destructive to the eggs and 
spawn of fish, those of this opinion asserting with confidence that 
quantities of fish spawn are brought on shore by the net and left 
to perish. Another occasion on which the same question arose was 
■on the commencement of trawling in False Bay. and on the Agulhas 
Bank, near Mossel Bav. by the Government steamer. It was thought 
that the dragging of the net along the bottom of the sea caused the 
destruction of great quantities of the eggs and young of food fishes. 
The Cape fishermen, an observant and intelligent class of men. were 
of opinion that the fish supply was being seriously endangered by 
such operations, and the question was felt to be so serious that a Com- 
mission of Parliament was appointed to enquire into the matter. The 
•evidence seemed to indicate that many of the common fishes may 
deposit their eggs on the bottom of the .sea. Thus one fisherman, 
who had had an experience of a life time in fishery matters in False 
Bay, was of opinion that all fish spawn was on the ground, and that 
the trawl runs across it, and must destroy it {vide Report of Select 
■Committee, p. 13). Another equally experienced fisherman thought, 
however, that the spawn floats on the surface (p. 18). A fisherman 
of fifteen years, experience at Kalk Bay could not agree with this 
(p. 21), while another was of opinion that the eggs floated, and could 
Ije taken up in the hands out of the water. A practical fisherman of 
forty-three years' experience considered that the spawn is on the 
ground, and also floats, adding the additional interesting informa- 
tion : " I have seen the spawn — whether of fish or not I cannot say, 
but it is alive — little round things like eggs, and they smell very 
nastly, like rotten pumpkins. I have seen it a foot thick on the 
water" (p. 24). Yet another witness thought that "the fish breed 
■on the ground, but the spawn does not stop at the bottom." Another 
practical man gave evidence to the effect that the klip-fish deposits 
Its spawn on the seaweed, and it is there destroyed bv the trawl 
(P- 37)- On the other hand, in all the instances where the mature 
•eggs had been procured and successfully fertilized on the Government 
steamer, the " Pieter Faurc," they were found to float on the surface 
of the water, and only after the larvae had been hatched out some 

* For the full paper see "Marine Invcstig.ations," Vdl. II. 



South African Fishes. 3 r i 

time did they begin to sink to the bottom. It was also brought to 
the notice of the Commission that it had already been demonstrated 
in Northern waters that there was only one fish of practical economic 
importance depositing its eggs on the bottom (the herring), and only 
a small s])ecies of herring {Clupea ocellata), of little value to the 
present fishermen, occurs in the Cape seas. On the whole it was 
felt very necessary that further enquiries should be made into the 
subject and definite information obtained. Recently facilities have 
been afforded by Government for more careful examination on shore 
of the eggs and larvae procured by means of fine nets and from the 
mature fish, and the following is a review of some of the most im- 
portant results. 

The eggs and larvae of the following fish are dealt with : 

ChrASOphrys globileps, C. & V. ... White Stumpnose. 

gibbiceps, C. & V. ... Red Stumpnose. 

Dentex argyrozona. C. & V. ... Silver Fish. 

Pagellus mormyrus, Linn. ... Zeverrim or Zee-basje. 

Agriopus verrucorus. C. iK: ^'. ... Horse Fish. 

Trigla kumu. Less. ... ... ... Red Gurnard. 

Sciaena aquila. Risso. ... ... Kabeljaauw. 

Clinus superciliosus. Linn. ... ... Klip-fish. 

,, capensis. C. & V. . . . ... ., 

Synaptura pectoralis. Kaup. ... Sole. 

Achirus capensis. Kaup. ... ... ,. 

The ova and larvae of fish as vet unknown are also described. 
These, designated Species LXL were found in fair abundance in 
tow nettings, and two (.sp. I & II) were found in dredging, being 
attached to shells and rocks. One species (XI) was procured in the 
dredge and consisted of a cluster of eggs perhaps demersal. With 
the exception of these last three all the eggs examined were found 
to be pelagic or floating eggs. 

Only two instances among the teleostean fishes have been found 
in which the young is brought forth alive. This is the rase in two 
species of Klip-fish {Clinus superciliosus and Clinus capensis). 



27.— THE TEACHING OF BOTANY. 

Bv H. H. W. Pearson, M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Botany, 
South African College, Cape Town. 



J should offer a word of explanation, if not of apology, for in- 
troducing to the notice of Section B a paper bearing this title. Among 
the objects of this association as stated in the constitution are : To 
give a stronger impulse and a more systematic direction to scientific 
enquiry; and to obtain a more general attention to the objects of 
jjure and applied science. An interest in the Scientific Education 
of the country appears to be included in these projects. I believe 
that efficient and highly successful botanical teaching has for some- 
time been carried on in more than one educational centre in the 
Colony. A new departure is however being made in Cape Town, 
and as opinions as to the best methods of teaching the subject are 
by no means uniform, it seemed to me that it would be of advantage 
to me. and perhaps not without interest to the section, if I should 
give a general outline of the course which I propose to adopt. 
Among the members of the section are well-known South African- 
■ Botanists and experienced teachers, of whose criticisms I shall be 
glad to avail myself. 

At the outset we have the question : what should be the aim of 
botanical teaching? The answer, I think, is in general terms: (i) to 
give to the students the best mental training which the subject is 
calculated to afford and (2) to furnish them with that knowledge of 
the subject which will be of the greatest use to them. With these 
aims before us, the problem is to map out such a course of study 
as is best calculated to realise them. 

Botany is commonly described as an " observational " Science. 
Properly studied there is no doubt that it is eminently calculated to 
train the student in habits of exact observation — habits whose im- 
portance in practical life is as obvious as is the fact that they are 
remarkably deficient among educated people. 

This is the first principle which should guide us in our methods 
of instniction. In the study of plants the student must learn his facts- 
from plants, and not from the text-books or the teacher. This is a 
law, as of the Medes and Persians, and the only pretext on which it 
may be broken is the inability to obtain suitable material. That 
this may occur as rarely as possible it is imperative that the teacher 
should have access to a botanic garden of some kind ano some voice 
in the selection of plants grown for teaching purposes. It will usually 
be impracticable for him to obtain his specimens from the field. 
Wherever possible the student should see fresh material ; but even 
in this climate there will frequently be occasions on which fresh 
specimens must be replaced by those preserved in spirit. Another 



Teaching of Botany. 31,^ 

point which must not be overlooked is the importance of drawings. 
The student cannot make too many, and the teacher .should make a 
point of examining them all before they leave the laborator}-. Each 
hour spent in the lecture-room should be supplemented by at least 
twice that period in the laboratory, where the student should 
carefully and exactly record his own observations on the plants or 
parts of plants which have been the subject of the lecture. This 
will also afford an opportunity for an exchange of views between the 
taught and the teacher, the advantages of which are not small and 
may be considerable. 

The student should first make acquaintance with objects already 
familiar t(j him whose size, form anrl characteristics, so far as they 
can be observed with the naked eye, should be noted with the ut- 
most care and precision. The most suitable for this i)urpose are 
large seeds. Those of common Lcgitniiiiostc. from their size, .ind 
comparativelv simple structure .should be first selected. Their ex- 
ternal characters having become familiar, typical seeds will be dis- 
sected and their internal structure studied. The next step will be 
the dissection of an albuminous seeil. i)referal)ly that of the Castor 
oil. I'or comparison with these two tvpes the anatomv of the Pine 
seed, and afterwards that of the Date, will be considered. Th's 
will lead to a consideration of common forms of the seed, and 
their relation to seed distribution by various agencies. The next 
step in logical sequence is the observation and com[)arison of succes- 
sive stages in the development of the seedlings resulting from the 
germination of seeds ])reviouslv studied. The plants .so obtained 
will serve as tvpes upon which to found a studv of the various forms 
assimied by the root, stem and leaf of the higher plants. These 
general notions of morphology will be acc(mipanied by elementary 
physiological considerations, the purpose of which will be to lead 
the student to regard an effect as due to a preceding cause or com- 
bination of causes. A study of the morphology of the flower and 
fruit will follow naturally. The processes of pollination and fertilisa- 
tion will be referred to. the detailed studv of the latter being postpon- 
ed until the stu<lent has acquired a working knowledge of the use 
of instruments. 

Thus far no aids lo ob.servation. except occasionalK the simple 
lens, have been called in. The student n(jw knows something of 
the macroscopic characters of the higher plants. If he has not already 
been thrcnigh an elementary cimrse of general Biology, a few" care- 
fully selected types of the lower plants should at this stage be 
examined, special attention being given to their life-histories ami 
simple physiological processes. If this can be combined with a 
similar study of a few .simple animal types the student will acquire 
a grasp of the fundamental principles of Biology, without which his 
further .study of Botany will be seriously hampered. A subsequent 
examination of the various forms of living and dead cells, the 
<"ell-wall and its changes, the contents of the cell, movements of the 
protoplasm, etc., leads up to a consideration of cell-groups or tissues, 
and their relative positions in the stems, roots and leaves of tvpes of 

X 



^14 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

the I'cnis and FUnccnng pluiils. This will exercise a meiUal t'acully 
which has been called " Visualization." vi/.. the power to form a 
solid transparent mental picture from the study of transverse and 
longitudinal sections of an opaque solid, and generally to build up 
complete ideas from isolated data. This branch of Botany is difficult, 
and one which more perhaps than an\ other strains the interest of 
the student. This is to some extent due to the fact that the organ 
whose anatomy is under consideration is usually treated merely as 
a dead object. Practical work in anatomy should however be enliven- 
ed as far as possible by experimental demonstrations bearing upon 
the functions of the organs studied. For example, the absorption of 
liquids by roots, and their response to various stimuli, should be the 
subjects of simple and easily intelligible experiments during the 
period in which the root-structure is being learned. Light will also 
be thrown upon leaf-structure by experiments on assimilation, and 
by a consideration of some well-marked variations in structure which 
are regarded as adaptations to different groups of external conditions. 
The simple physiological experiments here referred to should give 
the student a very definite idea of the relation of cause and effect, 
and enal)le him to estimate the value of the evidence obtained by 
jnitting a direct question to nature. In fact, they should be so carried 
out as to give him a real if elementary notion of the principles of 
research. The study of the general anatomy of the vegetative organs 
will prepare the way for a more detailed examination of the structure 
of the essential parts of the flower, which we were unable to deal 
with at an earlier stage. The student should by this time have 
acquired sufficient skill in manipulation to enable him to gain such 
an idea of the structure of the anther and the ovule, and of the 
development of pollen- and embryo-sacs as will enal)le him to under- 
stand the principles of fertilisation and embryo-formation in the 
(iymnosperms and Angiosperms. 

Before this course is entered u]»on the ideal student will 
have followed a course of Nature stud\ and will have liecome 
acquainted with some few plants, at least, of his native Flora. He 
may even have so much knowledge of the subject as is required l)y 
the syllabus of the I'niversit) Matriculation Fxamination. Occasion- 
ally one meets with a student whose interest in the subject is such 
that while following a lal)oratorv course he spends some of his .spare 
time in collecting plants and ])ossibly in forming a private herbarium. 
This .spirit should be encouraged as far as possible bv periodical 
Botanical excursions conducted by the teacher. The principal objects 
of these excursions will be to ol)serve the i)lants in their natural 
hal)itats. the relations of one jilant to another and of one plant-societv 
to another, their forms and habits as evidences of the influence of the 
conditions under which they live. Tncidentallv the names of manv 
])lants will become familiar, though 1 do not regard this as a primary 
ol)ject of the excursion. In any case the student should be en- 
couraged and helped to identify his plants for himself rather than be 
allowed to place his reliance upon the knowledge of another. With this 
end in view, from the plants collected upon the excursions a small 



Teaching of Botany. 315 

teaching herbarium ami museum should be formed U> which all serious 
students should have easy access. Besides familiarizing the mind 
of the student Avith his native plants, the study of herbarium and 
museum specimens has the additional advantage of correlating in a 
general system the types which have been used in the earlier part ot 
the course. It is of even greater importance that a classified collec- 
tion of living plants, to some extent grouped according to natural 
orders, should be accessible. 

These experiences will l)e of immense value in preparing the 
way for the last stage of the elementary course, viz.. the systematic. 
study of the natural orders. As a further preliminary the men should 
have a little practice in what is commonly known as " Descriptive 
Botany," from which will be gained a knowledge of the more im- 
portant technical terms used ijT Ixitanical descriptions and of the i;se 
of floral diagrams. For ihis work living plants alone should be 
studied, the use of dried specimens being open to very serious objec- 
tions. The natural orders selected for illustration should be those most 
commonlv represented in the native flora, together with such smaller 
orders as may be necessary for the illustration of affinities. Every 
natural order should be illustrated by one or more types, and by 
such aberrant forms as may be obtainable and convenient. Specimens 
should be in the student's hands during lecture and afterwards in 
the laboratory careful dissections and drawings must be insisted upon. 

The course, thus sketched out. if conscientiously doiie, should 
afford a sound knowledge of the general principles of the science 
which will render intelligible the second part of the programme, which 
in comparison with the foregoing ma\- be termed the " advanced 
course. This can be descrilied in a few words. It comprises a system- 
atic study of the vegetable kingdom. Each group from the Algae to the 
seed-bearing plants is dealt with in some detail. Its phylogeny. its 
systematic relation to neighbouring groups, the principles of its sub- 
division into sub-groups and families are described and the anatomi- 
cal. HKjrphological and phvsiological characters of the plants compos- 
ing it are explained as far as ])ossible. General questions of physiology 
will be gone into more fullv than in the previous course and further 
experiments will V)e introduced. Among the phanerogams a further 
number of natural orders will be studied. In general, this advanced 
course will be designed to deepen and to give application to the 
l)rinciples learned in the elementary course. 

Botanical "work advanced bevond this stage should, in my 
opinion, be conducted on a somewhat different plan with the 
sjjecial object of bringing out the individualitv ajid firiginalitv 
of the student. I should not proiX)se to invite him to attend 
lectures beyond two or three short special courses. The main 
part of his work on the other hand will be of a practical character, 
and he should even be encouraged to undertake a promising piece 
of investigation, opportunities for which abound in this countr}-. Side 
by side with this practical work he will follow a course of reading 
carefully arranged to give him an insight into the methods and results 
of rerent investigations. The researches to which attention is directed 



3i6 Keport S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

should be distributed over the whole range of the subject but, at 
the same time, there is no reason why the student should not pay 
particular attention to any branch which especially arouses his 
interest. His reading at this stage should include a study of the 
history of our subject. I do not think that he should be required 
to go into this in too great detail, though he might be expected to 
make himself well acquainted with the story of the advance of 
knowledge in the branch which he has most closely studied. In the 
present condition of our teaching organisation it is doubtful how 
much of this programme for an advanced course can be satisfactorily 
attempted. Such a course cannot be regarded as ccMnplete unless 
it includes .special lectures and practical work on Fossil Plants, 
Diseases of Plants, The uses of Plants, and other branches of 
scientific interest. For the present however these are out of the 
question. 

The scheme of instruction contained in this pa[)er is a modifica- 
lion of that which is followed with a marked degree of success in 
more than one of the leading botanical schools of Europe, and ex- 
perience has proved that when such a skelet(jn is clothetl by an 
inspired teacher it is calculated to develope the student, to train his 
faculties, to give hira a sound knowledge of the subject as a whole 
and at the same time to enable him to follow up a line of independent 
research. 

Unfortunately, however, a teaching-course has usually to be 
considered with reference to an impending examination. No alter- 
native to the examination-system has been discovered and the teacher 
has therefore to look beyond the true needs of his students to the 
requirements of the syllainis. 

It will prol)ab]y be objected that the course I have here sketched 
out fails in that in some respects it does not coincide with the syllabus 
of the examination of the Cape University. I must at once admit 
the objection. This however is not the place in which to discuss an 
examination-syllabus. My object has rather been to sketch out what, 
in my view, constitutes a rational course of instruction in Botanv on 
the assumption that the training of the student rather than the require- 
ments of an examination is the aim to be accomplished. 



_,8._THE NATURE OF HEREDITY. 

Bv Arthur Dkxdy, D.Sc. F.L.S.. Professor of Zoology in 
THE South African College, Cape Towx. 



IXTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



Ill response to the invitation which I have received to make 
some ciMitribution to the proceedings of Section B of the South 
African Association for the Advancement of Science, I venture to 
bring before you some notes on a subject in which I have been 
deeply interested for many years, and in which, indeed, no student 
of nature can fail to be deeply interested. The problem of Heredity 
is one which lies at the very root of the Biological Sciences, but so 
difficult is it to grasp that a recent writer, entitled to speak with 
authorit) , states " that as to the essential nature of these phenomena 
we still know absolutely nothing."* I venture to- think, however, that 
some suggestions at least have been made by well-known writers which 
are of great value in helping us to^ form some conception of the true 
nature of hereditv. More particularly I consider that the views 
of Herbert Spencer. Cope, and Detmer, to which I shall refer 
later on, have not received the consideration which they merit at 
the hands of biologists, and it will be seen that the ideas, which I 
now venture to bring under your notice are to a large extent identical 
with those of the eminent writers mentioned. 

Ever since the publication of Danvin's theory of " Pangenesis," 
what we mav i)erhaps be allowed to term a materialistic method of 
explaining the phenomena of heredity and development has occupied 
the attention of many biologists. It has been commonl\ assumed 
that the observed facts of the transmission of characters from parent 
to offspring can only Ije explained on the assumption that the in- 
numerable characters which any organism exhibits are represented 
by so manv material particles- " gemmules " of Darwin or "deter- 
minants " of Weismann — which are stored up in the protoplasm of 
the germ-cells, an assumption which is indeed improbable when we 
remember the microscopic size of the cells in question and the 
number of characters which have to be taken into account, and 
which seems quite unnecessary when we remember how physical 
forces are known to act upon objects at a distance without the inter- 
vention of any material substance whatever. The well-known pheno- 
mena of magnetism and electrical induction, and especiallv .such 
modern discoveries as that of wireless telegraphv. should alone be 
sufficient to put as on our guard against accepting as necessar\^ any 
theor\- which assumes the existence of such inconceivably complex 

'■' Bateson. " ^k-nck-r^^ I'linciplcs of Heredity." p. 3. 



3i8 Report S.A.A. /idv \ncemenj of Science. 

arrangemenls and mii;rati()ns nl' material particles as have been 
imagined In Darwin and Weismann. 

It must not Ije supposed that 1 wcnild deny for a moment that 
the inherited characters of an ori^anism are intimately associated in 
some unknown way with certain material substances lodged in 
certain of the cells of that organism. On the contrary, I believe, with 
others, that these characters are associated with the chromosomes or 
darkly staining bodies of the mu-leus. anfl that we may perhaps 
regard these chromosomes as the seat of complex systems of forces 
in somewhat the same way as storage batteries may be regarded as 
reservoirs of electricity, although of course this analogy can easily 
lie pushed loo far. Such an hyi)Othesis as this, however, is a very 
different thing from the supposition that every ancestral character is 
represented in the germ cell by a separate particle which must under- 
go an elaborate series of subdivisions and migrations as the organism 
developes in order ultimatelv to reach its particular sphere of 
influence. 

Darwin, it is true, regards his iheor\ of pangenesis as a pro- 
visional hypothesis. Init even supposing it to be valid so far as it goes, 
still it does not bv anv means go to the root of the matter. Even if 
his " gemmules " could be shewn to exist, still the theory does not 
explain in the least how these gemmules came to control the develop- 
ment ()( the particular cells with which they are believed to be 
associated, and it is the nature of this control which we really want 
to get at. The assumption of an immense numljer of material 
[)articles each representing some somatic character, or group of 
characters, does not really help us. .\s Herbert Spencer said long 
since : " We find ourselves again Ijrought down to the persistence cf 
force, as the deepest knowable cause of those modifications which 
constitute physiological develo])ment : as it is the deejjest knowable 
cause of all other evolution." 

Loeb also, in speaking of his wonderful researches upon fertiliza- 
tion, has quite recently made a similar statement, that he consi<lers 
" the chief value of the experiments on artificial parthenogenesis to be 
the fact that they transfer the problem of fertilization from the realm 
of morphology into the realm of physical chemistry." 

The principal exponent of the " Dynamic Theory ' of Heredity 
is. however, the well-known American writer, Professor E. D. Cope, 
and his views will l)e found set forth at length in his work on " The 
Primary Factors of Organic Evolution." from which I take the follow- 
ing qucjtation : — 

" The manner in which influences which have affected the 
general structure are introduced into the germ-cells remains the most 
difficult proljlem of biology. For its explanation we have nothing as 
yet but hypotheses. The one which has seemed to me to be the 
most reasonable belongs to the field of molecmlar physics, and it 
must be long before it is either proved or dispnjved. I have termed 
it a ' dynamic theory,' and it is in some resjjects similar to that sub- 
sequently proposed by Haeckel under the name of the ' perigenesis 
of the plastidule." I have alreadv referred to the phenomena of the 



Nature oi' Herediiv. 319 

building- or growlli of ihe added characlei-s which consiiuite pro- 
gressive evolution as evidence of the existence of a pecuUar species 
of energy, which I term bathmism. This is to be explained as a 
mode of motion of the molecules of living protoplasm, by which 
the latter build tissue at particular points, and do not do so at other 

points in bathmism we see the resultant of innumerable 

antecendent influences, which builds an organism constructed for 
adaptations to the varied and irregularly occurring contingencies 
which characterise the life of living beings. . . . The preceding 
statements do not, of course, constitute an explanation (jf the exact 
manner in which a stimulus which effects, say, the contrac-tion of a 
nuiscle. effects molecular movements of the nuclei of the reproductive 
cells. This is a question of organic molecular physics, a science 
which has made scarcely a beginning. That the transmission of 
such influence is through nutritive channels. b\ the intermediation 
ol a nervous structure where one exists. ma\ be suppc)sed. 
If appears to me that we can more readiK conceive of the trans- 
mission of a resultant form of energy (jf this kind to the germ- 
plasma than of material particles or gemmules. Sui-h a iheor} is 
.supported bv the known cases of the influence of maternal impressi(jns 
on the growing fcetus. Ooing into greater detail, we mav compare 
the building of the embr\o to the unfolding of a record or memory, 
which is stored in the central nervous organism of the jiarent. and 
impressed in greater or less part on the germ-[jlasma during its con- 
struction, in the order in which it was stored. This record may be 
supposed to l)e woven into the texture of every organic cell, and 
to be destroyed b\' specialisation in m'odified cells in proportion as 
they are incapable of reproducing anything but themselves. 
In the process of embryonic growth, one mode of motion would 
generate its successor in obedience to the molecular structural record 
first laid down in the ovum and spematozooid, and then combined 
and recomposed on the union of the two in the oospore, or fertilized 

ovum The somatic cells retain onl\ the record or 

memor\ of their special function. On the other hand, the reproductive 
cells, which most nearly resemlile the independent unicellular 
organisms, retain first the impressif.ins received during their ]jrimitive 
un' cellular ancestral condition : and second, those which they have 
acquired through the organism of which thev have been and are 
only a ])art. The medium through which the\ can receive such im- 
pression is continuous prf)toplasm." 

I have quoted thus at length from Professor Cope's work becau.se 
I believe that his view^s on the nature of heredity come nearer to 
the truth than those of any other writer, and the remarks which I 
have now to make are little more than an extension and amplifica- 
lion of Cope's argument. There are, in particular, three points upon 
which 1 do not think suflicnent stress has hitherto been laid: (i) The 
importance of the cell-nucleus as an apparatus for storing up and 
giving out stimuli; (2) the possibility of the transference of stimuli 
between germ cells and somatic cells (or their nuclei) w'ithout any 
material connection whatever: and (3) the extension of what we 



320 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

mav perhaps call Herbert Spencer's i)riiiciple of equilibration lo 
the phenomena of heredity and development. 

In order to develope the argument in a logical manner I })ropose 
to divide the subject matter into the following sectinns: 

(i) The stimulating influence of the environment uijon the individual 
organism, and the principle of direct equilit)ration between the 
organism and its environment. 

{2) The pt)ssibililv of stimuli l)eing stored uji in the organism so 
as to produce after effects, and the inheritance of acquired 
characters. 

(3) The nature of the ai>paratus b\ which stimuli are stored within 
the organism, and the principle of equilibration between the 
cell and its nucleus. 

(4) The germ-cells viewed as store-houses of stimuli, and the principle 
of equilibration l)etween the soma and the germ-cells. 

(5) The interpretation of ontogeny as a process of progressive 
equilif>ration, and the biogenetic law. 

(6) Amjihimixis or sexual reproduction. 



I. THE STIMULATING INFLUENCE OF THE ENVIRON- 
MENT UPON THE INDIVIDUAL ORGANISM AND 
THE PRINCIPLE OF DIRECT EQUILIBRATION. 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to point out that any individual 
organism must be in a .state of equilibrium with its environment and 
that any change in the environment may, if sufficiently long 
continued, act as a stimulus upon the organism and cause a definite 
response to be made by the latter. " Direct equilibration in organisms," 
says Herbert Spencer, " with all its accompanying structural altera- 
tions, is as certain as is that universal ]>rogress towards equilibrium 
of which it forms part." 

Examples of such direct equilibration, or modificati(jn of the 
organism in accordance with change of environment, are familiar to 
every gardener. A hardy outdoor plant grown in a hothouse may 
altogether alter its habit of growth. Potatoes allowed to sprout in 
the dark send out shoots of quite a dififereiit character from those 
which are produced under normal circumstances. Certain Alpine 
plants which are especially adapted in their habit to the rigours of 
an Alpine climate, may be induced to change their mode of growth 
by simply removing them to sufficientiv warm and sheltered situa- 
tions, in which their habit ap|)roaches that of their lowland relatives. 

These phenomona are more noticeable in plants than in animals 
l>ecause plants are constantly making new growth and it is chieflv 
in the development of new organs or parts that the stimulus of 
changed environment can produce the corresponding effect. In the 



Xajure of HKr.:F.DiTY. 321 

case of the Alpine plants above referred to, for example, leaves already 
fully formed at the time of removal will not he modified by the 
change of climate ; it is the new leaves, formed subsequently to the 
removal, which will shew the adaptive modification. Organs when 
once fullv formed tend to become fixed and incapable of responding 
in this manner to changed conditions of life. 

Amongst adult animals, which have ceased to produce new 
growth, we see few conspicuous examples of such adaptive response 
to the stimulus of changed conditions. Tn some immature animals, 
however, it may be observed in a very striking manner; as. for 
example, in the case of tadpoles, which, when prevented from coming 
to the surface of the water by means of wire netting, will continue 
to develop as tadpoles instead of undergoing the normal meta- 
morphosis into frogs. 

As part of the direct action of the environment we may also 
convenientK include the Lamarckian principle of Use and Disuse as 
affecting the <leveloj)ment of orgaris, for we must always remember 
that the bodv to a large extent constitutes its own environment, 
antl that alterations in the mode of action of the different organs 
of the bodv mav produce corresponding effects upon the structure 
of those organs. 

\\ is not necessarv for our argument to suppose that the 
stimulus of changed conditions of life always produces adapin\' 
response on the part of the organism, though there is abundant evi 
dence to shew that this is frequently the case, as in the Alpine plants 
and tadpoles referred to above, while those modifications which are 
unsuited to (he environment will of course be weeded out by natural 
selection. For suggestions as to the manner in which the action 
of the environment mav produce adaptive modifications in the in- 
dividual organism. 1 mav refer to the writings of Lamarck, Herbert 
Spencer, and Cope. "In animals therefore, as in plants," sa\s 
Spencer. " the external mechanical actions to be resisted are them 
selves directlv instrumental in working, in the tissues they fall upon, 
the changes which fit those tissues to meet them." 

("ope gives ver) conclusive examples in the ca.se of the formation 
of the joints (jf the vertebrate skeleton, from which he draws the 
following conclusions : — 

'■ First. Continued excessive friction removes o.sseous tissue 
from the points of contact until complete adaption is accomplished 
and the friction is reduced to a normal minimum. Then a normal 
articular surface is produced. 

'' Second. Where the normal friction is wanting, and an in- 
flammatory condition is maintained by a pulling stress on the invest- 
ing s\novial meml)rane, excess of osseous deposit is produced. 

" Third. Stress on the articular ligaments and tendons stimu 
lates osseous deposit at their insertions, which deposit mav be con 
tinned into their substance. This is a pulling stress. 

These observations, therefore, show that osseous deposit is 
produced bv different forms of mechanical stimulus." 



^22 Kkport S.A.A. Advancemeni of Science. 

2. THE POSSIBILITY OF STIMIT.I P.KING STORED LP IN' 
IHE OROAMSM SO AS !'( » PRODL'CE AFTER- 
EFFECTS. AND IHE INHERITANCE OF AC(^CIRED 
CHARACTERS. 

We may then lake it a.s an eslal dished fact that the environment 
influences the inflividual organism in such a manner as to call forth 
modifications which in some cases at anv rate are of an adaptive 
character, but it has Ijeen vehementlv denied, by Weismann and his 
followers, that such modification, pnxUiced during the lifetime of 
the individual, (^an be handed on from one generatiijn to the next ; 
in other words, that "acquired characters" can be transmitted from 
jian-nt to offspring. 

In one of his earliest essays" on this subject, Weismann ob- 
serves : — " The difficulty or the impossibilit) of rendering the trans- 
mission of acquired characters intelligible l)y an appeal to any known 
force has been often felt, but no one has hitherto attempted to cast 
doubts upon the very e.xistence of such a form of heredity." . 
He then proceeds to evade the difficult} in question bv denying the 
existence of the phenomenon to be explained : " It has never been 
proved,'' he .says, " that acquired characters are transmitted, and it 
has never been demonstrated that, without the aid of such trans- 
mission, the evolution of the organic world becomes unintelligible.' f 
He also quotesj from Du Rois Reymond the statement that " the 
hereditary transmission of acquired characters remains an unin- 
telligible hypothesis, which is only deduced from the facts which it 
attempts to exj)lain." 

Weismann's own theor\ of the continuity of the germ-plasm 
is. as is well known, an elaborate attempt to account for the 
phenomena of organic evolution without calling in the aid of the 
transmission of acquired characters, and he devotes an immen.se 
amount of ingenious argument to this object. " The understanding 
of the ])henomena <jf heredity,'' he ol)serves, " is cjnly possible on the 
fundamental supposition of the continuitv of the germ-plasm. "§ 

It is impossible in the space at our disposal to follow Weismann 
in the laborious arguments b\ which he attempts to discredit the 
cases of transmission of acquired characters which have been brought 
forward in evidence against his own views, but it is of first importance 
in an\ discussion of ihe subject to be perfecilv clear what Weismann 
himself means 1)\ an acquired character. " New characters. " he 
points out. " ma\ arise in \arious wa\s. In artificial or natural selec- 
tion, by the spontaneous variations of the germ, or by the direct 
effects of external influences upon the body, including the use and 
disu.se of parts. If we assume diat these latter characters are tran.s- 
mitted, the further 'assumption of comj)licated relations between the 



* Essays upon Hcrfditv. Engli^li Translation. iS,S(). p. So. 
-\ Ct iit, p. 8 1 . 1 Ct cit, p. 82. i? Lo, fit. 1 04. 



Nature of Heredity. 323 

organs and the essential substance of the germ beromes necessary ' 
(His), while the transmission of the other kinds of <-haracters do not 
involve any theoretical difficulties.'"* . . . "It is certainly 
necessary to have two terms which distinguish shari)ly between the 
two chief groups of characters — the primary characters which first 
appear in the f)odv itself, and the secondary ones which owe their 
appearance to variations in the germ, however such variations 
may have arisen. We have hitherto been accustometl to i-all the 
former ' acquired characters,' but we might also call them 
' somatogenic,' because they follow from the reaction of the soma 
under external influences ; while all other characters might be con- 
trasted as ' bl cist genie,' because they include all those characters in 

the body which have arisen from changes in the germ 

We maintain that the 'somatogenic ' characters cannot be transmitted, 
or rather, that those who assert that they can be transmitted must 
furnish the requisite proofs.''! 

These are amongst Weismanns earliest statements on the sub- 
ject, and are taken fr(jm the only works of his to which 1 at present 
have access. m\ own librarv having nijt yet arrived fmin \ew Zea- 
land, while this country appears unfortunately to l)e verv badly sup- 
plied with biological literature. 

As a delinite and thoroughU well authenticated case ot the 
'nheritance of an acquired character I can quote the following from 
Co))e's " Primary Factcjrs of Organic Evolution : 

'■ A female (and very prolilic) (^at, when al)oui half-grown, met 
with an accident. ' Her line, long tail was trodden on, and had a 
c(rm],)ound fracture, two vertebrae being .so displaced that they ever 
after formed a short off-set between the near and far end of the tail, 
leaving the two out of line. At first 1 noted that out of ever\- litter 
of kittens .some had a tail with a querl in it. With successive litters 
the deformity increased, until not a kitten of the old cat had a 
straight tail, and it grew worse in her progeny until now we have not 
a cat with a normal tail on the premises (in a cat-poimlation of six 
or eight, exclusive of young kittens). The tails are now in fact mere 
stumps, some have a semi-circular sweep sideways, and some have 
the original querl. Perhaps the deformity was somewhat aggravated 
by in-and-in breeding and by artificial selection practised l)y mv 
Chinaman, who. with the per\-ersity of his race, preferred the crooked 
tails, and thus preserved them in preference to the normal kittens. 
There are no other abnormally-tailed cats in the neighbourhood.' 

" This is the essential })art of an unpublished letter from that 
keen observer and eminent scientist. Professor Eugene W. Hilgard, 
of the University of California. ' 

It is, of cour.se, extremely unusual for mutilations to be inherited, 
and we ought rather to be surprised that there are any well-authen- 
ticate<l cases at all of such inheritance on record than that there are 
so few. No stimulus which has so short duration as part of the 

* tY (77, p. 412. ttYc/Y. p. 413 



324 Report S.A.A. AovANCEMENr of Science. 

lifetime of an individual organism can he expected to make an im 
pression on the germ-cells so deep and lasting as to manifest itself 
in a corresponding modification of the soma of the next generation. 
It probably takes very many generations of cumulative action to 
bring about such a result in ordinary cases, and the exceptional cases 
of immeciiate inheritance of conspicuous acquired characters must 
owe their origin to exceptional conditions of which we know nothing. 
If, however, the above quoted case is not an example of the trans- 
mission of a tnie " Somatogenic " or acquired character, it appears 
to me that such characters can have no existence at all, and that the 
whole argument is futile. 

There is. also, another way of approaching the j)roblem in addi- 
tion to that of direct evidence. Weismanns primar) difficulty, 
which led him to deny the transmission of acquired characters, ap 
pears to have been the difficulty of explaining the modus operandi 
of such transmission ; if this difficulty can be overcome an important 
step will have been taken towards the .solution of the problem. 

It may be assumed that those who den\ the inheritance of 
acquired characters mean that the characters in question will not 
appear in a .second generation unless the stimulus which first evoked 
them is still operating, when, of course, the same effects mav again 
be produced by the same causes. It is not difficult to demonstrate. 
however, that the environment mav make a lasting impression uj)on 
the individual organism, which mav continue to shew itself after the 
evoking stimulus has ceased to act. 

Now. if we can thus shew that the living organism can not only 
respond immediately to the stimulus of changed enviroimient, but 
can — if f)ne may use the expression — store up such stimuli and be 
influenced bv them long after the changed environment has ceased 
to operate directly, then it appears to me, we shall have good grounds 
for believing at any rate in the possibilitv of the inheritance of 
acquired characters. 

As a matter of fact we have definite proof — in the existence of 
what are known as " after-effects '" both in plants and animals — of 
the capacity of the individual organism for storing u]) stimuli which 
may subsequently produce a definite response. 

The well-known daily i)eriodicity of plant growth affords an 
illustration. The light of the sun acts as a check upon the rate of 
growth of ordinary plants, and it is easy to shew experimentally that 
in consequence of this action the normal plant grows most rapidly 
in the early hours of the morning after a prolonged exjxjsure to 
darkness, antf most slowly in the afternoon, after a long exposure 
U) daylight, ft has been .shewn that this daily periodicitv or varia- 
tion in rate of growth in correspondence with the periodic variation 
in environment is continued when the plant is kept in perpetual <lark- 
ness and the direct action of changing environment therel)v rendered 
impossible. 

A beautiful example of a similar phenomenon from ih'- animal 
kingdom has been described bv Dr. Gamble and Mr. Keeble 



Nature of Heredity. 3-5 

in the case of ihe shrimp-like crustacean Hippolytc varians ot the 
British Coast. This animal adapts itself in a marvellous manner by 
colour changes to its environment, evidently for purposes of con- 
cealment, and, moreover, undergoes a periodical nocturnal and 
(hurnal variation in colour. This periodical variation has been found 
to continue after the normal daily alternation between light and 
darkness has bpen artifically suspended. 

Further examples of the same class of phenomena could easily 
be atlduced, while, in the domain of psychology, the phenomena of 
memory may be regarded as affording another illustration of such 
after-effects, for we must regard these phenomena as being a kind 
of response to stimuli which were primarily exerted by the envircjn- 
ment. and subsequentlv stored up in the brain for use on future 
occasions. 

We thus see that the stimulus of changed en\ ironment may 
make such a deep impression upon the organism as to shew itself in 
" after-affects " when the original stimulus has ceased to operate. If 
one seeks for a purely physical analogy one can scarcely help calling 
to mind the phenomena of luminosity as exhibited by various sub- 
stances which have the power of absorbing light rays when exposed 
to the light and emitting them again subsequently in darknes.s. 

Judging from human experience in regard to memory the depth 
and permanence of the impression received by the organism frcjm 
the environment will usually depend upon the length of time for 
which the original stimulus was acting. The details of a walk whic-h 
we ha\e taken every day for a month are much more deeply and 
permanently impressed upon the memory — in other words, upon cer- 
tain cells of the brain — than those of a walk which we have onlv 
taken once or a few times. 

Thus we see that there appear t(j be two verv distinct kinds 
of what we ma\ call " memory " a purel\ phvsical and un- 
conscious memory, exhibited, ff)r example, iji the after-affects 
of dail\ periodicity, and a mental memor\ associated with con- 
sciousness ; and though we may. for the sake of convenience, be 
allowed to speak of them as " two kinds," yet ultimatelv thev are 
probably identical in nature, consisting in a storing up of stimuli bv 
the organism, to be utilised on future occasions. 

The plant-physiologist, Detmer. was. so far as 1 am aware, the 
first to call attention to the bearing of the remarkable phenomena 
of "after-effects"" upon the theory of heredity. Weismann. in 
criticising Detmers views, asks " what connection there is between 
these facts and the transmission of acquired characters."'* 

'■ .W\ these peculiarities produced b\ external influences," he 
says, " remain restricted to the individual in which they arose ; most 
of them disappear comparatively soon, and long before the death 
of the individual. No example of the transmission of such a 
peculiarity is known, "f 

* c/ at, p. 404. t hoc at. 



326 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

" After-effects are nut transmitted, and compared with this tact 
hut httle importance can he attached to the use of vague analogies 
by Detmer, who would wish to conclude that heredity is only the 
after-effect of jirocesses which had been set going in the parent 
organism." 

The statement that " after-effects are not transmitted seems to 
be an extremeh rash one for a scientific man to make. It is pro- 
verbially difficult to prove a negative, and the experimental evidence 
at our command certainly cannot warrant such a wide generalization. 
On the other hand, it is no doubt equally impossible at present to 
prove experimentally that after-effects are transmitted. This is a 
point on which we ma\ hope for experimental evidence in the future. 
Jn the meantime we must content ourself with trying to answer the 
question whether there is any a priori reason why after-effects shf)uld 
not be inherited, or vice versa. We have seen already that stimuli 
mav be stored up in the iiidividual. We shall see later on that 
stimuli ma\ be transferred from one cell to another without the trans- 
ference of material particles, and therefore there appears to be no 
inherent tmprobabilitv in the view that the stimuli which give rise 
to after-effects in the individual soma may alsf) be transmitted to 
and stored up in the germ-cells, and give rise to after-effects in sul)- 
sequent generations. This, of course, involves the supposition that 
the germ-cells are ca]>able of lieing influenced bv the soma, a belief 
which a))pears to me to admit of verv little doubt. To this point we 
shall return later on. 



3. THK \ATLRK Ol' THE AITARATLS l!V WHICH STLM- 
LLl ARK STORED WITHLX THE ORGANISM AND 
THE PR1.\C1IT,E OE EQLTLIHRA TK )\ BETWEEN 
THE CEJJ. AND ITS \TTT.ErS. 

Granting, then, as we safe!) ma\, that the organism has the 
power ot storing up stimuli or impulses for iulure use. we are 
naturally led to enquire whether this function is generally distriliuted 
throughout the organism or is localised in definite cenire.s. 

This is a question which, owing to the imperfect state of our 
knowledge, can at present only be as.sumed in a tentative manner. One 
of the fundamental properties of living protoplasm is its capacitv for 
responding to stimuli, or, in other words, its "irritability""; but the 
resjjonse. as when a muscle is stimulated b\ electric shock, or an 
Amaha puts forth envelojnng arms of protoplasm on coming in contact 
with a food particle, generally takes place immediately or after an 
extremely short interval, and ceases on the removal of the stimulus. 
Protoplasm, however, also' exhibits so-called automatic move- 
ments, i.e.. movements which do not ap})ear to be related to any 
stimulus external to itself, and there are grounds for believing that 
such movements are initiated and controlled bv the cell-nucleus. 



Xaitre of Heredity. 3-7 

This belief is strf)n-;lv su])iH)iie(l by ihe phenomena of cell-division, 
in which the nucleus invariablv takes the lead, and the general proto- 
plasm of the cell follows afterwards. The unicellular Aimcba, 
for example, consisting of a but slightly difTerentiated mass of cell- 
protoplasm {Cyioplasni). with a nucleus near the middle, reproduces 
itself bv such cell-division. When the organism has attained a cer- 
tain size the nucleus, consisting in large part of a .special kind ot 
protoplasm distinguished as the chromatin substance, divides inio iu(. 
parts which move awa\ from one another. The surrounding 
cvtoplasm then contracts into a narrow bridge l)etween the i\vi> 
nuclei, and finally breaks across, and the division of the cell, in this 
case also an entire organism, is complete. 

It has been shewn experimentally that an Anucba may also In- 
made to mutiply artificially by cutting it in pieces, and it is a fact 
of the highest significance with regard to the importance of the 
nucleus that it is Duly when a part of the nucleus is present in it that 
any particular fragment will live and grow. 

In the developing egg of the higher animals and plants, again. 
the nucleus invariably takes the initiative, and the cell-protoplasm 
follows. Not only is this the case, but it has been shown experi- 
mentallv. as Professor Minot ol)serves. that in the Frog"s egg " the 
jiosition of the nucleus determines which part of the ovum shall 
become the dorsal surface of the emfirvo." 

The structure of the cell-nucleus is. in reality, extremely com- 
plex, far more so than that of the surrounding cytoplasm, and in ihe 
vast majoritv of cases of cell-division a veri" elaborate re-arrange- 
ment of its constituent parts, known as " karyokincsis." may be 
observed. In this process certain parts of the nucleus known as the 
cliroinosoiuss, v.hich have the form of longer or sht^rter threads, 
plav a verv important part, and though we b\ no means understand 
the full meaning of the })henomena in question, we are tolerably safe 
in believing with Weismami that one result of the karyokinetic 
process is to secure a ver\ accurate qualitative as well as a quantita- 
tive division of the chromatin substance (chromosomes). During the 
process definite centres of force are established at opposite poles of the 
nucleus, to which the halves of the accuratelv divided chromo.somes 
are attracted, one half of each chromosome being pulled towards each 
pole ill a manner highl\ suggestive of magnetic attraction. In this 
process of nuclear division the membrane in which the nucleus is 
normally enclosed disappears, so that the general cell-protoplasm 
(cytoplasm) is no longer sharply divided from the nucleoplasm 
between the chromosomes, while the common protoplasmic mass thus 
formed exhibits strong lines of radiation around the polar " spheres 
of attraction." Ultimately the general protoplasm of the cell divides 
into two parts, which arrange themselves around the two groups of 
chromosomes, and the cytoplasm is again shut ofif from the nucleo- 
plasm bv the formation of a new nuclear membrane. 

The almost if not quite universal occurrence of a nucleus, or at 
anv rate of chromatin substance, within the cell-bodv. even in the 



328 l\i:i'()kr S.A.A. Advaxcemem' of Science. 

lowest organisms, indicates that the division of the cell substance 
into chromatin and cytoplasm is of fundamental importance. Ac- 
cording to our view the meaning of this division is to be found in 
the necessity for a differentiation of the cell into two ])arts, one 
external (the cell-body), which responds freely to external stimuli 
(when suitably placed), and one internally (the nucleus), which is 
but slowly, and probably through the intermediation of the cell- 
body, affected by external stimuli, but which, when once so affected, 
stores up these stimuli for a longer or shorter period, and is capable 
of giving them out again after the original external stimulus has 
ceased to operate. 

Just as there must be an equilibration between the entire 
organism and its environment, so there must also be some kind of 
equilibration between the cell-body and its nucleus. The cell-body 
is then acted upon by two sets of forces, the external forces of its 
environment on the one hand and the internal forces of the nucleus 
on the other. The forces which we imagine to be stored up within 
the nucleus to a certain extent control the behaviour of the cell-body 
and prevent it from altogether changing its characters with every 
change of environment. Thus we have in the nucleus a complex 
apparatus by means of which we may [lerhaps explain the production 
of " after-effects.' 

In the course of ordinary cell-division the elaborate processes 
of karyokinesis may be supposed to secure the divisi(jn of the nuclear 
material intO' two halves of equal dynamic value, about each of which 
the cytoplasm will arrange itself in the same way l>ecause each 
requires the same form of cell-body to equiUbrate it. 

We find a simple illustration of the equilibration I)etween the 
cell and its nucleus in the case of the well-known springing monad — 
Hcteromita. This organism consists of a pear-shaped mass of proto- 
plasm enclosing a nucleus and provided with two whip-like extensions 
of the protoplasm, or flagella, whose contractions enable it to move 
about in the water. One of these flagella jirojects forwarfls from 
the pointed end of the body, the other is attached to the lower 
surface. In common with other unicellular organisms Hclcromita 
sometimes reproduces bv simple cell-division or fission, and this 
fission may take place either transversely — across the body — or 
longitudinally — in the length of the body. It is as usual accompanied 
bv division of the nucleus. When fission takes place transversely 
it is obvious that the body of the cell must be divided into totally 
dissimilar halves, one with an anterior flagellum and one without. 
'J'he ventral flagellum simply splits into two, one of which remains 
attached to each of the daughter-cells, but no possil)Ie division of 
the anterior flagellum <-()uld provide l>oth of the new cells with such 
a structure. What actually happens is that one of the daughter- 
cells keeps the old anterior flagellum while the other developes an 
entirelv new one from what was the posterior extremity of the 
parent. 

These jjhenomena may readilv be explained on the principle of 
equilibration between the cell and its nucleus, and. so far as I can 



Nature of Heredity. ^zg 

see, in no other way. We may suppose that the original nucleus 
divides into two halves of precisely equal dynamical value, each of 
which, therefore, requires the same form of cell-hody to equilibrate 
it, and the onlv wav in which this equilibration c-an be attained is 
by the development (amongst other things) of a new flagellum by 
one of the daughter cells. In other words, the nucleus exercises a 
definite controlling force over the cell-body of such a character as 
to evoke a definite response in the form of structural modification. 

We have here a simple case of heredity, and, as I believe, one 
of inheritance of acquired characters. There can be little doubt 
that the evolution of the flagella in Hcteromita was due in the first 
instance to the direct action of the environment. We know how 
readily in Amccba temporary pseudopodia are emitted when the proto- 
plasm is appropriately stimulated, and the transition from pseudo- 
podia to flagella is a perfectlx gradual one. At first temporary, 
these organs gradually became by more and more frequent use per- 
manent structures. Their development must have disturbed the pre- 
•existing balance of forces between the cell-body and its nucleus, but 
as it probably took place very gradually, the process extending over 
many generations, this disturbance was not sufficient to produce 
disruption, and the forces in the nucleus became slowly re-arranged 
in equilibrium with the changing structure of the cell-body. Thus 
in turn the nucleus acquired a new potentiality, a tendency to compel 
.the cell-body to produce a flagellum in order to equilibrate its own 
stored up forces. In other words, the development of a flagellum 
by the cell-body acts as a stimulus upon the nucleus, and this 
stimulus is stored up in the nucleus and given out again subsequently 
•to the cell-body, inducing the latter to develop a flagellum when 
necessary to restore the equilibrium between cell and nucleus. Thus 
in time the production of the flagellum comes to partake of the 
nature of an after-effect which may take place independently of the 
environment. 

It may be urged that the development of the new anterior 
flagellum by the young Heteromiia is due solely to that same action 
■of the environment which originally called forth the flagellum in 
the ancestors of the race. The action of the environment, so long 
as the conditions remained the same, would certainly tend to pro- 
duce the same effect in each generation, but the conditions do not 
remain exactly the same, for the new flagellum appears before its 
possessor commences to lead an independent life. Moreover, it 
always appears in such a definite fixed position and with such 
rapidity and precision that we cannot believe that it is evoked 
de novo by the action of the environment in the development of each 
individual. In the higher animals, again, there are many characters 
which appear regularly in the development of the individual, and 
which no longer have any relation whatever to the nature of the 
-environment ; such, for example, are the gill-slits in the neck of the 
embr}o chick, and these can be due only to the action of internal 
forces. 



33C Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

4. THE GERM-CELLS VIEWED AS STORE-HOUSES OF 
STIMULI, AND THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUILIBRATION 
BETWEEN THE SOMA AND THE GERM-CELLS. 

The higher animals and plants differ from such lowly organised 
forms as Afuaba and Heteromita in that the body is composed of a 
number of cells instead of a single one. and this number is usually 
very large. The majority of these cells become specialised in various 
directions to form the various tissues of which the body is com- 
posed, and may. therefore, be distinguished as somatic or body forming^ 
cells. A certain number, however, remain unspecialised. and form 
the germ-cells. These retain to a large extent the characters of 
primitive unicellular organisms {Protozoa), and are alone capable 
(in most cases) of separating themselves from the organism, and 
giving rise by a process of cell-division and progressive differentia- 
tion to a new individual of the same kind as the parent. 

Admitting, with Weismann and others, that the nucleus of the 
germ-cell is the seat of the hereditary tendencies which mould the 
new organism into the form of the parent, the question arises : " How 
do these hereditar}' tendencies, or latent stimuli, come to be stored up' 
in the nucleus of the germ-cell ? "" 

Darwin, we know, imagined the existence of minute " gem- 
mules '" which were supposed to migrate from all parts of the body 
to the germ-cells, . there to be stored up until required later on to> 
control the development of the new organism. Weismann, on the- 
other hand, supposed that the hereditary tendencies were located in 
certain minute bodies which he called determinants, and that these 
determinants were present in the germ-cells so to speak ab initio, 
being handed on from generation to generation by the continuity 
of the germ-plasm. He further maintained that the germ-cells are 
separated from the somatic cells at an extremely early date, and 
that they cannot be influenced by the surrounding bodv or soma, 
with the necessary corollary that .somatogenic characters, acquired 
in the lifetime of the individual, cannot be transmitted to the next 
generation. This point we have already had occasion to discuss, 
and we need only point out here that Weismann's theory in this 
respect is directly opposed to that of Herbert Spencer, as expressed 
in the following paragraph : — 

" It is an unquestionable deduction from the persistence of 
force that in every individual organism each new incident force must 
work its equivalent of change; and that where it is a constant or 
recurrent force the limit of the change it \\ orks must be an adaptation 
of structure such as opposes to the new outer force an equal inner 
force. The only thing open to question is, whether such readjust- 
ment is inheritable; and further consideration will, I think, show 
thatto say it is not inheritable is indirectly to say that force does not 
persist. If all parts of an organism have their functions co-ordinated 
into a moving equilibrium, such that ever}- part perpetually influences 



Nature of Heredity. 331 

all other parts, and cannot be changed without initiating changes in 
all other parts — if the limit of change is the establishment of a com- 
plete harmonv among the movements, molecular and other, of all 
parts; then among other parts that are modified, molecularly or 
othenvise, must be those which cast off the germs of new organisms. 
The molecules of their produced germs must tend ever to conform 
the motions of their components, and, therefore, the arrangements 
of their components, to the molecular forces of the organism as a 
whole: and if this aggregate of molecular forces is modified in its 
distribution by a local change of structure, the molecules of the 
germs must be gradually changed in the motions and arrangements 
of their components, until they are readjusted to the aggregate of 
molecular forces. For to hold that the moving equilibrium of an 
organism may be altered without altering the movements going on 
in a particular part of it is to hold that these movements will not be 
affected by the altered distribution of forces ; and to hold this is to 
deny the persistence of force.'"* 

We may readily admit with Weismann and his school the con- 
tinuity of the germ-plasm from generation to generation, and we 
certainly grant the immense importance of the chromosomes in 
heredity, but still there appears to be no valid reason vet brought 
forward for denying the influence of the body upon the germ-cells, 
although this influence may require a long period of time to make 
itself felt. Nor is there any reason for supposing, with Darwin, that 
a migration of material particles is necessary in order to ensul-e that 
the germ-cells shall be able to reproduce the body in all its details 
in the process of development. 

In the inorganic world the recently discovered phenomena of 
wireless telegraphy shew clearly enough how complex forces may be 
transmitted from one centre to another at a distance without any 
material connection, and it is not difficult to shew that a living cell 
may influence another at a distance without either organic connection 
or the transfer of material particles. 

A good illustration of this transference of stimuli from one cell 
to another at a distance is afforded by the fresh-water alga Spirog\ra\, 
This little plant occurs in the form of tangled masses of slender 
green threads, each thread being composed of a single row of cvlin- 
drical cells placed end to end, and each cell being enclosed in a firm 
wall of transparent cellulo.se. At certain times a process of sexual 
reproduction takes place, commencing with a conjugation between 
the cells of two filaments which happen to be lying side by side and 
parallel with one another. One of these filaments mav be regarded 
as male and the other as female, and the process appears to be 
inaugurated by the cells of the male filament. Each of these which 
happens to have a cell in the other filament opposite to it puts forth 

" Principles of Biology, Vol, II., p. 387. 

t Attention has already been called to this case, c.ii,., by Professor H. B. Orr, 
in his interesting- and suggestive work on " Development and Heredity " ; but I 
am not aware that anyone has hitherto demonstrated the inadequacy of the 
chemiotactic theory wliich has been adduced in explanation of the facts." 



332 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

a hollow protuberance of the cell wall; this is met by a correspond- 
ing protuberance from the female cell, and the two projections unite 
to form an oj^en canal through which the protoplasm of the male 
cell migrates to the female cell. It sometimes happens, however, 
owing to inequality in the sizes of the cells, that there may be a cell 
in one filament which lies between two cells of the other filament, 
and which can find no mate. In this case the solitarv- cell remains 
quiescent, and exhibits few or none of those remarkable activities 
which characterise the conjugating cells on either side of it.* 

Here it is obvious that in the case of two cells lying opposite 
to one another, though not in contact, and though each is enclosed 
in a firm cell-wall, some stimulus is transmitted from one to the 
other which calls forth a definite response in the formation of the 
connecting canals and subsequent phenomena. It might perhaps 
be (and, indeed, actually has been) argued that the stimulating effect 
is due to the secretion of some chemical substance by the cells in 
question, as has been shewn tO' be the case in the attraction c f the 
■spermatozoids toi the archegonia of ferns, but this chemiotactic 
explanation appears tO' be quite insufficient in view of the 
important fact that cells which have no mate do not form gametes 
and may undergoi no' change, though also apparently exposed to the 
influence of any chemical substances in the surrounding water. 

If, then, one cell can stimulate another at a distance without 
any material connection whatever, it would seem that there is no 
great improbability involved in supposing that every cell of the 
animal or vegetable body, at least in its earlier stages of development, 
before it has become too specialised, may be more or less influenced 
by every other cell in the body which is not too much specialised, 
as well as directly or indirectly by the external environment. Any 
modification of one part of the body, involving a disturbance of the 
internal equilibrium, may naturally be expected to produce some 
corresponding modification in the germ-cells, and perhaps also in 
other parts of the body itself, and this may be the clue to the explana- 
tion of correlated variations. 

When, of course, as in the higher animals, an elaborate nervous 
system is developed, the influence of one part of the body upon 
another is greatly facilitated — we have, to use our physical analogy, 
a system of telegraphy with wires supplementing, and perhaps to 
some extent supplanting, a system of telegraphv without. But in 
the lower organisms, and in the early stages of development of all 
organisms, there is no nervous system, and in such cases we must 
suppose that the internal equilibrium is maintained either by forces 
acting at a distance without material connections or through the 
medium of undifferentiated protoplasm. 

* I say, " lew or none," because it occasionally happens that two cells may 
compete with one another for a mate ; but, as far as my own observations go, 
only one is successful, and the other never gets even as far as the breaking up of 
the spiral chromatophore preparations to the formation of the gamete, though a 
more or less developed protuberance of the cell-wall may be formed, and may 
•even be met by a corresponding protuberance from the opposite cell-wall. 



Nature of Heredity. 335 

A striking illustration of the manner in which the equilibration 
between the constituent cells of the body is maintained is afforded 
by the experiments of Hans Driesch and others upon developing 
eggs. To quote from Professor Minot : — " The egg of a sea-urchin 
divides into two cells, each of which multiplies and normally gives- 
rise to half of the body of the animal. By somewhat violent shaking, 
the two cells may be artificially separated ; each cell may then develop 
into a complete larval sea-urchin, but of half the normal size only. 
Similar experiments have since been made by other investigators^ 
who have obtained like results with other animals, vertebrate as well 
as invertebrate. Even more remarkable larvae have been raised 
from blastomeres of the four-cell and eight-cell stages of seg- 
mentation, producing larvae of one-fourth and one-eighth the normal 
size." 

Now. if each blastomcre when isolated from its fellows developes- 
into a complete larval animal, why does it not do so when it remains 
in contact with its fellows? It can be only the mutual influence of 
the blastomeres upon one another which determines what part each 
shall play in the development at this early stage. By virtue of the 
karyokinetic process we may suppose that the first division of the 
nucleus of the egg results in the formation of two centres of control 
of equal dynamic value, each, therefore, requiring the same form of 
cell-body to equilibrate it. If the blastomeres are separated from 
one another each will divide again in the same way because it has 
the same dynamic value. If, however, they remain in contact, as 
they normally do, the dynamic value of each is modified by the 
presence of the other, and they will behave accordingly. The 
ultimate form of the multicellular body to which they give rise will be 
the resultant of the forces exerted by all the blastomeres and their 
nuclei as they continue to divide, modified to some extent, no doubt, 
by the physical environment. 

Thus it is that each artificially separated blastomere gives rise 
to a complete but diminutive larva, the same result being attained by 
the action of identical forces in each case, and this being the only 
result which can equilibrate the forces at work. 

It may be urged that the difference in behaviour between an 
isolated blastomere and one which remains in contact with its fellows 
is due to mechanical causes, such as pressure, etc., in other words, 
that it may be external and not internal forces which determine the 
behaviour of the blastomeres. To some extent no doubt this is true, 
but this in no way affects the proposition that the forces, presumably 
centred in the nuclei of the blastomeres, require at every successive 
stage of development a certain definite form and arrangement of the 
blastomeres to equilibrate them. Moreover, a different tvpe of 
arrangement is characteristic of different types of organisms, which 
proves conclusively that internal as well as external forces are con- 
cerned in producing the result. At any rate we see clearly that when 
the equilibrium existing between the constituent cells or blastomeres 
of an embno is upset by separating them, it mav be restored again 



334 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

by the formation of fresh cell-combinations of the same kind as 
existed in the original embryo. 

The phenomena of regeneration of lost parts in animals ami the 
striking of roots by cuttings in the case of plants are only more 
complex illustrations of the manner in Avhich a disturbance of the 
equilibrium of an organism — whether between the constituent parts 
of the organism itself or between the organism and its environment — 
is remedied by re-arrangements which result in the old form being 
again produced. We must suppose that the unbalanced forces re- 
maining over after the disturbance act as stimuli, which evoke^ 
structural modifications of whatever character ma\ be necessary 
to restore the equilibrium. 

Any cell of the body is originally potentially a germ-cell, but the 
great majority of the cells lose the power of de^•e]()ping into new 
organisms in becoming specialised to meet the requirements of their 
special environment, including under that term the surrounding cells 
of the body. The extent to which this power may be presen'ed, 
however, by ordinary somatic cells is very well shewn in the case 
of the Begonia leaf, cells of which have the power of giving rise to 
new and complete plants. 

It appears to be an invariable rule, however, at any rate in all 
the higher animals, that special germ-cells are set apart at a very 
early stage in the development of the organism for the sole purpose 
of reproducing the species. These cells are especially distinguished 
by their undifferentiated character. Whereas the somatic cells 
become variously specialised in accordance with their varied func- 
tions, some as muscle cells, others as nerve cells, and so on, the 
germ-cells do not become specialised for any somatic function, but 
are so situated as tO' be protected as much as possible from the in- 
fluences of the environment, and thus hindered from specialisation. 
There is no reason, however, to suppose that they are so far removed 
from the influence of the somatic cells as tO' be prevented from 
receiving and storing up stimuli which they may subsequently give* 
out again under appropriate conditions. We have already seen reason 
to believe that stimuli may be transmitted from cell to cell 
without the aid of material particles and without the aid of proto- 
plasmic connection, while the phenomena of after-effects have taught 
us that stimuli may be stored up by living protoplasm for future use. 

In accordance wdth the principle of internal equilibration the 
forces stored in the germ-cells must be in a state of equilibrium with 
all the forces exerted by the body — the l)ody and the germ-cells must 
balance one another. 

We may suppose that up to the time of their maturation the 
germ-cells are in a receptive condition, capable of receiving and 
storing stimuli from the surrounding soma. 

In the process of maturation we know that the germ-cells lui- 
dergo very curious changes, and there is reason to- believe that in the 
female cell at any rate a portion of the nucleus is cast out. The 
ovum also commonly becomes in\ested in a \itelline membrane, 
while the .spermatozoon acquires a vibratile tail. In other words. 



Nature of Heredity. 335 

the germ-cells usually become specialised at length for special func- 
tions concerned with their union, and with this specialisation they 
may be supposed to lose the power which they have hitherto pos- 
sessed of receiving and storing up stimuli, of which they have already 
received the full complement requisite for controlling the develop- 
ment of the new organism to which thev will give rise. 



5. THE INTERPRETATION OF ONTOGENY AS A PROCESS 
OF PROGRESSIVE EQUILIBRATION AND THE BIO- 
GENETIC LAW. 

Leaving out of the question for the present the complications 
introduced by the sexual process, we must now enquire how the pro- 
cesses of ontogeny or individual development may be explained in 
accordance with the above enunciated views as to the nature of the 
germ-cells and their relations tO' the somatic or body-cells. 

The fertilized ovum, or egg-cell, at the time of commencing its 
development, consists of a certain amount of protoplasm, often 
charged with food material, and containing a nucleus in which we 
suppose to be stored up ancestral stimuli which will control the 
development. Let us imagine these stimuli to be given out again in 
the order in which they were received. 

The first stage in the development of a typical organism is the 
division of the ovum intO' two cells, preceded, of course, as always, by 
division of the nucleus. This two-celled body must make, and must 
always have made since it was first developed, its quotum of impres- 
sion upon the nuclei, must produce, that is to say, probably within 
the nuclei, a system of forces which requires a two-celled body to 
■equilibrate it. 

This system of forces constitutes a stimulus which is stored up 
in the nuclei, and handed on by nuclear division tOi the future germ- 
cells, and this will be the first stimulus given out by the nucleus of 
the developing ovum. Therefore, the developing ovum will divide 
into two cells exactly in the same way as its ancestors did, this being 
the only way in Avhich equilibrium can be attained. 

But although the two-celled body may have been at one time 
a more or less permanent condition, it is now only temporary, and is 
rapidly succeeded by a four-celled stage, and this also must always 
have made and must still make its impres.sion upon the arrangement 
of forces in the nuclei, and so on, through all the different stages of 
■development with their increasing complexity of structure. At every 
successive stage of development the stimuli stored up in the nuclei 
must give rise, by internal equilibration, to a form of body similar 
to that which originally transmitted these stimuli to> the nuclei, and 
which is the only form which can balance these particular forces. 

Wh\ . it mav be asked, should we suppose that the stored up 
stimuli in the nuclei of the developing organism must always be 



236 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

given <uit again in the order in which they were received? A 
moments reflection will shew that each successive stage in develop- 
ment is the necessary antecedent of those which come after it. We 
cannot, for example, have an eight-celled stage before a four-celled, 
and so on. Every stage is strictly dependent upon and conditioned 

by that which immediately precedes it. Each stage, in fact, forms, 
an important part of the complex stimulus which calls forth the next 
stage, and the whole development is a process of progressive equili- 
bration. The germ-cell will, therefore, commence its development 
by dividing into two parts exactly as its ancestors did. and so long 
as all the conditions remain the same the subsequent stages of the 
ontogeny must all be identical with the ancestral stages, and must 
vield an identical result. Thus, when a given sequence has once 
been formed it must be repeated in the same way so long as the 
environment remains constant, and the problem of ontogeny resolves 
itself into the question : Why has organic evolution taken place at 
all, and why have not all organisms remained in the condition of 
simple primordial cells? or, looking at the question from a slightly- 
different point of view, we may ask, what is the origin of those latent 
forces in the germ-cell which determine its development into a parti- 
cular species of plant or animal ? 

The answer to these questions appears to be that every time 
the process of ontogeny is repeated the conditions under which it 
takes place may be slightly different from what they were before,, 
and the developing organism makes a definite response to the stimulus 
of the changed environment. Structural modifications are thus pro- 
duced in the individual by direct equilibration, or. in other words,, 
new characters are acquired. 

It is obvious that, so long as the changed conditions are main- 
tained these structural modifications must repeat themselves in each 
succeeding generation, because the same causes will produce the 
same effects, and in this way not only may new stages be added to 
the end of the ontogeny but earlier stages may be modified, as we 
see in the production of larval organs, etc. 

Suppose now that the changed environment returns to its 
earlier condition, so that the stimuli which called forth the new 
characters cease to operate. Will those new characters immediately 
disappear or will they persist for a longer or shorter period? We 
know they do not necessarily disappear in the lifetime of the in- 
dividual, but will they be present in the next generation? A parti- 
cular environmental stimulus may have been operating for, say, a 
thousand generations, during each of which it has produced the same 
effect in the ontogeny of some organism. Are we to suppose that 
if that stimulus is suddenly removed the effect in question will at 
once cease to show itself? This is what those who maintain thenon. 
inheritance of acquired characters would have us believe. We pre- 
fer to believe, and we have already given reasons for so doing, that 
during the time for which the stimulus in question has been pro- 
ducing structural modifications in the body by direct equilibration,. 



Nature of Heredity. 337 

these modifications have in their turn been influencing the germ- 
cells by internal equilibration, and that the germ-cells will store up 
the stimuli which they receive so as to be capable of producing a 
kind of after-effect upon the developing organisms even after the 
original external stimulus has been completely removed. The amount 
of this after-effect, if we may so term it. will be proportional tot 
the length of time for which the original stimulus acted. 

We cannot, therefore, as we have already observed, expect a 
character which has been acquired in a single generation, and has 
had little time toi influence the germ-cells, to make a sufficiently deep 
impression upon them to secure its own transmission as an after- 
effect, and hence the scarcity of evidence for the transmission of 
acquired characters, although, as we have already seen, there are 
exceptional cases in which suddenly acquired characters make such 
a deep impression upon the germ-cells as to be transmitted to the 
next generation. It is. however, to quote the words of Darwin. 
" generally necessary that an organism should be exposed during 
several generations to changed conditions or habits, in order that 
any modification thus acquired should appear in the offspring.''*) 

The development of a complex organism may then be looked 
upon as consisting mainly of a series of superposed after-effects, 
which continue to shew themselves long after the originating stimuli 
have been removed. 

The various stages in the ontogeiiy are also probably deeply 
fixed by mere repetition, for the more frequent the occurrence of 
any particular somatic condition the deeper will be the impression 
which it makes upon the germ-cells and the more difficult will it 
be to remove that impression. 

This method of looking upon the ontogeny or life history of 
an individual as a series of after-effects, first suggested by Detmer, 
is. as far as I can see. the only rational wax oi explaining the 
Biogenetic Law, or, as it is sometimes termed, the Law of Recapitula- 
tion, in accordance with which organisms tend to repeat, in their 
own development, the ancestral history or phvlogenv of the species 
to which they belong. 



(6). AMPHIMLXIS OR SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. 

The phenomena of heredity are usually greatly complicated by 
the process of sexual reproduction or amphimixis. This consists 
essentially in the union or conjugation of two germ-cells, usually 
derived from separate individuals, to form a third cell known as 
the zygote, which develops into a new individual. 

If has ,been shewn that the essence of this process of conjuga- 
tion lies in the union of the so-called pronuclei of the male and 
female gametes or germ-cells within the protoplasmic body of the 



* Animals and Plants under Domestication, Vul. II., p. 381). 



338 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

zygote; another fact which points to the extreme importance of 
the nucleus. Thus the developing organism comes to be controlled 
by stimuli which are derived from two parents and which will differ 
according to the nature of the environment to which those parents 
and their ancestors have been exposed. 

Two separate store-houses of ancestral stimuli, and therefore 
two separate centres of control, meet together in the zygote, and 
there are various possibilities as tO' the manner in which they will 
share between them the work of controlling, by progressive equilibra- 
tion, the developing organism : — 

(i) The male and female centres of control may be able to blend 
their forces intimately in the so-called segmentation nucleus, and 
the developing organism will then be controlled by the resultant, 
and may be expected to exhibit characters more or less 
intermediate between those of the two parents. This appears 
to be the most usual condition of things and it is tO' such cases 
that Galton's law of inheritance applies, viz. : " That the twq 
parents contribute between them on the average one-half, or 
(o"5) of the total heritage of the offspring; the four grand- 
parents, one-quarter, or (o"5)-; the eight great-grandparents, one 
eighth, or (o"5)-^ and so on. Then the sum of the ancestral 
contributions is expressed by the series 

|(o•5) + (o•5)- + (o•5)^&c. |, 

which, being equal to i, accounts for the w^hole heritage." 

(2) The male and female controlling centres may be incapable of 
blending their forces ; in this case they may separate completely 
at the first or at some subsequent division of the segmentation 
nucleus, and thereafter each may control a certain fraction of 
the developing organism, yielding a lopsided result. This is 
probably the explanation of those remarkable abnormal insects 
mentioned by Darwin, in which one half or one quarter of the 
body is like that of the male and the other half or three quarters 
like that of the female.'^ Such cases are, however, extremely 
rare and only occur by way of abnormality. 

(3) The male and female centres of control may remain for one 
or more generations associated in the same nuclei (though one 
may completely dominate over the other in its influence upon 
the developing organism) ; but they become dissociated sooner 
or later on the formation of new germ-cells (gametes), the 
gametes bearing the different types of nuclei respectively being 
produced on an average in equal numbers. To' this category 
must be referred those cases described by Mendel and Bateson 
in which the offspring of a cross graduallv separate themselves 
out in definite numerical proportions. 

In these latter cases we must suppose that there is in the first 
instance only an incomplete amalgamation of the male and female 
pronuclei, the differential characters being sufiicient to prevent perfect 

* Animals and Plants under Domestication, Vol. II., p. 394. 



Nature oi" Heredity. 339 

union, and that later on. when new germ-cells are separated from 
the soma, the descendants ^ot" the original male and female 
■chromosomes separate otit from one an<jther and form pure germ- 
nuclei. 

The Mendelian cases, and also those mentioned under the 
second heading, may be regarded as intermediate between cases of 
■complete sterility (due to total want of amalgamation between the 
male and female pronuclei owing to excessive differences) and cases 
■of complete amphimixis or sexual union (due to successful co-opera- 
tion of the male and female pronuclei). 

It ap2>ears then that in cases where the ancestral stimuli stored 
lip in the male and female pronuclei exhibit too great differences, 
it will be impossible for these pronuclei to unite in one segmentation 
nucleus for the control of the developing organism. The sterility of 
distinct species when crossed is thus probably due tO' the confusion 
and disruption of the systems of forces in the pronuclei of the germ- 
cells by antagonizing ancestral stimuli. 

Here also, it appears to me, is to be found the explanation of 
the well-known fact that crossing frequently leads to reversion. When 
two individuals are crossed together which are varietally or even 
specifically distinct from one another, but not toO' distinct to be 
fertile together, the offspring very frequently ' reverts " to some 
ancestral condition, as, for example, in the classical instance of the 
production of the ancestral blue rock pigeon by crossing of distinct 
domesticated races. Here we may suppose that the very different 
■characters of the immediate ancestors of the mongrel (represented 
in the germ-cells by stored stimuli), tend to cancel one another, whde 
the ciosely similar or identical characters derived from more reivote 
ancestors (also represented in the germ-cells by stored stimuli but 
usually over-mastered by more recently acquired stimuli) ten 1 to 
augment one another, with the result that ancestral characters 
appear in the offspring while more recently acquired characters are 
.absent. 

According to Weismann and his school amphimixis is to be 
regarded as a process whereby variations are produced b\ the per- 
mutation and combination of characters deri^•ed from two distinct 
lines of ancestry. These variations form the material upon which 
natural selection operates. 

According tO' our view sexual reproduction is by no means 
necessan- for the production of variations, which are due primarily 
to the influence of the environment. Indeed it seems more rea.sonable 
to suppose that the result secured by sexual reproduction is that of 
•checking excessive modification and preventing the organism from bje- 
coming too specialised and stereotyped. If a species or variety 
loses the power of adapting itself to its environment it is liable 
to extermination when that environment changes. The power of 
adaptation may be lost by over-specialisation in anv one direction, 
and this over-specialisation is checked by amphimixis, which must 
tend to maintain the average characters of a species in equilibrium 
^vith the average characters of the environment. 



340 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Darwin himself appears to have held a very similar, if not identi- 
cal view as to the meaning of sexual reproduction, for he observes : 
" When species are rendered highly variable by changed conditions 
of life, the free intercrossing of the var)ing individuals tends to- 
keep each form fitted for its proper place in nature. "■'*^) 

We may also' notice that long before Darwin wrote these words 
Lamarck, in favour of whose views on the subject of organic evolu- 
tion there is now such a strong reaction, had made a closely similar 
obser\'ation, viz. : " In reproductive unions the crossings between the 
individuals which have different qualities or forms are necessarily 
opposed to the continuous propagation of these qualities and these 
forms. We see that in man, who is exposed to so many diverse cir- 
cumstances which exert an influence on him, the qualities or the 
accidental defects which he has been in the way of acquiring, are 
thus prevented from being preserved and propagated by generation.''!' 



* Animals and Plants under Domestication, Vol. II., p. 3^5. 
t Lamarck, His Lil'e and Work, by A. vS. Pack.ird, p. 310. 



■SECTION C. 



29.— PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 
By Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bart., M.I.C.E. 



" Where\er and by whatever means sound learning and useful 
knowledge are advanced, there to us are friends. Whoever is privi- 
leged to step beyond his fellows on the road to scientific discovery 
^vill receive our applause, and if need be. our help. Welcoming and 
joining in the labour of all, we shall keep our place among those 
who clear the roads and remove the obstacles from the paths of 
science, and whatever be our own success in the rich fields which lie 
-before us, however little we may now know, we shall prove that in 
this our day we knew^ at least the value of knowledge, and joined 
heart and hands in the endeavour to promote it." These were the 
■closing words of Mr. John Philipps, the President of the British 
Association when he delivered his Address at the meeting held at 
Birmingham in 1865, and they well and fitly convey the aim, the 
iscope, and the spirit of the South African Association of Science 
which has just been inaugurated, and of which this is the first 
meeting. 

The aim of the Guilds and Societies of the Middle Ages was 
to guard their trade secrets, to conceal their methods of production; 
the broader-minded spirit of the 20th century is to spread the 
knowledge of every new discovery likely to tend to the further in- 
crease and economy of production and to publish the best methods 
of organisation, so as to arrive at getting the best results at the lowest 
<;ost. It is owing to the magnanimous way in which rival firms and 
rival nations competing for trade and markets are generally glad and 
willing to show their methods to each other, as well as to the now 
recognised value of research, and to the enormously increased means 
of communication throughout the world that improvements have 
been made sO' rapidly in the last few years in ever\' branch of manu- 
facture. The aim of our Association is to foster the vitality of 
scientific research, and to disseminate its result, so to encourage 
economical production, and to do our share to increase the 
resources and wealth of South Africa. 

Not many years ago there was a division, a barrier, between 
those who claimed to be scientific men and those who called them- 
selves practical. The latter reckoned that they had always got on 
well enough without so-called science, and believed that their share 
in the world's work was the most important, whereas scientific men 
looked upon themselves as a class apart. We are now getting beyond 
that stage, and we recognise the importance and the necessity of the 
work both of the chemist and his laborator}-, and of the business man 
who applies and utilises the knowledge of nature. If we here duly 
^understand the value of the intimate relations between science and 



34^ Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

applied art it should lead to such a rapid development as this world 
has never seen before. Even in European countries, where vested 
interests are strong, where vast amounts of money have been ex- 
pended in manufactures which are now not up to date, and in pro- 
cesses that are being rapidly superseded, there has been a consider- 
able quickening of spirit in the last few years, and there is a general 
wish lo set the house in order. How much more, then, should we 
in South Africa with the opportunity afforded by the latest know- 
ledge, with the open veld to build on, and living in a country w'ith 
such enormous mineral resources of iron, coal, and copper, besides 
its wealth of gold and diamonds, and the possibilities of agriculture, 
dulv improved by irrigation, resolve that, as far as in us lies, South 
Africa shall take her stand amongst the foremost nations of the 
earth. The keynote of this century is intensity of labour; it can 
scarcelv be said to be the motto of all in South Africa to-day, but 
with increased competition there is no reason, climatic or otherwise, 
why labour should not be as strenuous here as in America, and even 
to-day many men work as hard here as in any country in the 
world. One of the prominent questions of immediate: interest is 

IRRIGATION. 

Mr. Will cocks, in his able report on this subject for South 
gation. Mr. Willcocks, in his able report on this subject for South 
Africa, suggested that all rivers and torrents should be proclaimed 
as public domain, the property of the Government representing the 
people, as was done bv Victor Emmanuel in Italy ; whether this is 
possible or not is not a matter for discussion here, but this is certain, 
that some legislative measure dealing with irrigation is necessary 
before much can be done in the way of large irrigation schemes, 
except in rare and isolated cases where all the riparian owners are 
of one mind. Without proper legislation we shall continue to see 
millions of cubic feet of flood water roll away uselessly, and what 
might lie a source of wealth to thousands of farmers wasted every 
year. The great factor of course in successful irrigation work is 
common-sense ; it is of no use making irrigation works at a cost that 
makes each area irrigated so costly that it will not pay to work, nor 
is it economically wise to irrigate more area than you can possibly 
get cultivation for. The two great instances where successful irri- 
gation works have been carried out on a large scale are in India and 
Egypt; in both these countries the inhabitants have cultivated the 
soil for many centuries. In India 23 million pounds sterling have 
been expended by the British Government on vast irrigation works 
providing water for the irrigation of upwards of 13 million acres, 
that is, at a cost of about 35s. per acre. In Egypt the great works 
which have just been completed have cost probably ^10 per acre or 
more, but as this Ian 1 when irrigated is worth never less than ^2^30 
per acre, and often considerably more, the work is economically well 
justified. It is interesting to see how we are ruled bv sentiment even 



Presidential Address. — Section C. 343 

in such engineering- enterprises. The Temples of Philae are Roman, 
not Egvptian. and are not more than two thousand years old. com- 
paratively recent, therefore, beside the old Egyptian Temples. The 
Assouan Dam. which cost over two millions of money, has raised the 
level of the water so that Philae is now half submerged, and the water 
raised to this height provides water sufficient to irrigate four hundred 
thousand acres. By spending ^500.000 more in raising the height 
of the dam, instead of four hundred thousand acres, it is estimated 
that one million six hundred thousand acres would have been irri- 
gated, but as this would involve the demolition or removal of Philae, 
it was not allowed, so that probably some five million pounds annually 
has been lost to Egvpt because of sentiment. 



RAINFALL. 

Any means of getting increased rainfall should be welcome to the 
inhabitants of this countr}" ; careful observation over a long period 
of years seems to show that forest soils absorb more and evaporate 
less than soil in the open, that forests tend to moderate the extremes 
of climate and to increase rainfall, and that the nearer we approach 
the Equator the greater is the effect of vegetation on rainfall. There 
has been great waste of timber in this country. Li Pondoland the 
natives were in the habit of setting fire to magnificent forest trees 
merely to grow mealies to better effect where the trees had been, 
and there is not a trace now left of trees where a few years ago there 
was not only bush but fine timber, too. Fertile soils disappear with 
the destruction of forests, and the accumulation of years is washed 
away, another instance of waste. Forestr}-, then, has an important 
bearing on the material wealth of a country apart from the value of 
the timber. This has been to some extent recognised in the Cape 
Colony, and money has been spent in v)i'oper plantations on scientific 
lines; and it is hoped that all the sleepers for the Cape Government 
Railways may be procurable from the plantations that have been and 
are being made. On the railways in the L'nited Kingdom the annual 
consumption of sleepers for renewals is about 3.750,000 a year at a 
cost of about ^750.000 a year. The cost of renewals in the Cape 
Colony IS probably at least a tenth of thi.^ sum, or _;.'^75,ooo, of which 
probably half should be saved on this account alone by the local 
supply, besides the benefit to the climate and the advantage of the 
employment given to those working the forests. A large amount 
of timber, too, is required by the Mines of South Africa for mining 
props and other uses, suitable timber for which can be grown in this 
country. Another probable source of demand for timber will be for 
the paving of the streets in towns, thereby adding to the comfort and 
health of the inhabitants. For road paving, wood is undoubtedly 
the material which the public likes best ; it is comparatively noise- 
less, and is not so sli]')])ery as asphalte. The so-called Teak forests 
of Rhodesia may possibly provide wood for this purpose, and in any 
case " Jarrah " and other suitable woods for street paving can be 



344 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

grown in South Africa, and, if grown in sufficient quantity, could be 
exported to England with advantage, forming an additional item of 
return freight. 

Return freight for ships is one of the crying needs of this 
•country, and every effort should be made to increase the tonnage of 
freight back to England, and so cheapen the cost of freight out to 
South Africa. The amount conveyed annually by sea to South 
African ports has increased enormously in the last few years. Besides 
imports from other countries the latest statistics show that the ex- 
ports from the United Kingdom to this country ha^•e increased three- 
fold in the last ten years. It is a notable fact that South Africa 
imports more now from England than any other country except India, 
and taken per head of the population more than any other country in 
the world. In 1902 British exports to South Africa were valued at 
^25,690,611, to India, whose population may be estimated at about 
294 millions of people, goods to the value of ^^30,109, 628, to the 
United States ^£23, 725, 971, to Germany ^22,852,252, to Australia 
^19,560,502, and to France ;^i 5,7 12,5 16. South Africa, then, with 
a population, white and coloured, say, of 4^ millions, purchased in 
1902 to the extent of ;^5.i4 per head. Considering this great in- 
crease in tonnage, it is to be hoped that freight ^•essels of larger s'ze 
will soon be the rule rather than the exception. The propelling 
power required for a vessel for a given speed increases in a slower 
ratio than the increase of its displacement, so that there is a great 
resulting economy in using large vessels at a moderate speed. For 
freight purposes there is probably no^ vessel so economical as a nine 
thousand ton boat with a speed of eleven knots, provided that it 
can fill up with cargo without undue delay; and considering the 
figures of the imports into South Africa and the purchasing power 
of South Africa, there should be no difficulty in running boats of this 
tonnage. Is it too much tO' hope that faster passehger boats may 
before long make the passage between Southampton and Cape 
Town in a fortnight? The twin-screw steamer "Oceanic,"' of 17,274 
tons gross and 6,917 tons net, the " Celtic," of 21,900 tons gross and 
13,449 tons net, make the passage between Liverpool and New York, 
about half the distance between Southampton and Cape Town, in 
seven and eight days respectively. The Cunard Company now pro- 
pose to build two fast steamers, and the German vessel now building, 
the " Kaiser Wilhelm II., is to have a speed of 24 knots, to carry 
1,800 passengers, and to burn 750 tons of coal a day, whereas the 
steamship " Cedric," now building, to carry 3.000 passengers, is to 
have a speed of 17 knots, and will burn only 260 tons of coal a day. 
There seems, except in South Eastern Russia, a hesitation in start- 
ing generally \\ ith oil as fuel for ships in spite of the fact that bulk 
for bulk oil will develop twice the power of coal, thereby affording 
more room for cargo, and that oil does away with the necessity of 
having stokers, saving probably 80 or 90 men on a steamer. The 
limits of size of ships have not yet been reached, and provision should 
be made for the larger vessels of the future, and accommodation 
should be provided in all new harbour work for vessels of 1,000 



Presidential Address. — Section C 345 

teet in length with a draught of 35 to 40 feet. Here in Cape Town 
Harbour, which should have been one of the iinest harbours in the 
world, we have an object picture of want of foresight and tinkering 
for present needs. l)ut there is hope in the fact that those now in 
authoritv have recognised the inadequacy of the present accommo- 
dation, and are prepared with a scheme of proper scope. In every 
fast growing country it is necessary to lay out a scheme prt)viding 
for very great expansion, and with a fitting sense of economv to 
carry out from time to time only such portions of that scheme as are 
warranted by the probable trade of the immediate future. 

When it is rememl)ered that at the old established port of J/iver- 
pool. in Lancashire, the rate-paying tonnage of vessels increased 
from 6,089,543 tons in 1875 to 10,021.725 tons in 1900, there is 
godd reason in anticipating a much larger percentage of growth in a 
country that is in the first stage of development. The handling of 
tonnage on a large scale, especially dealing with coal, ore, or grain, 
has led to the use of very special electric cranes of the gantry or 
cantilever class. The " Brown Hoisting Machinery Compans ,"' of 
Cleveland. Ohio, has erected machines on the Great American 
Lakes which handle nearly 20 million tons a year, and have brought 
the cost of handling down to an extraordinarily low figure. The 
" Temperley Transporter Company." in the United Kingdom, has 
done excellent work in providing transporting and hoisting plant, 
and special ap]iaratus for unloailing barges into trucks or into ware- 
houses, and in (ierman) ingenious coal conveying plants have been 
erected by the '' Benrathe Maschinen Fabrik," and the " Allgemeine 
Electricitals Gesselschaft." of Berlin. For working cranes electricity 
seems to possess advantages over steam or hydraulic cranes, or 
Clones worked by compressed air. The ideal crane shouiii start its 
load slowly, accelerate to a high speed, and slow down quickK to a 
.standstill. The electric crane meets these requirements better than 
an\ other. The further advantages of electric cranes are: (i) That 
the i^ower consumed is proporional to the work, (2) and that the 
power can be conveyed to a greater distance more easily and at a 
cheaper cost than l)y another means ; (3) the electric crane has a 
total efficiency of 72 per cent., whereas the efficiency of hvdraulic 
cranes is rarely more than 50 per cent. The s])ecial svstems of 
transportation alluded to have hardly been wanted here as vet, as 
they are only economically used when a large tonnage has to be 
handled for a short distance with great speed and at a low cost. 
At the Diamond Mines the problem is to mine the blue at the lowest 
cost, to haul it to the surface from a total depth of 1.200 to 1.500 
feet (and we may note that 600 tons of l)lue are hauled daily up one 
shaft) to carry it thence by endless haulage to the floors on the open 
veld, where it is exposed to weather and disintegration, and from 
thence to transport it after weeks of exposure to the washing machines, 
and thence to the pulsating machines, where the diamonds are caught 
and separated by grease and other special contrivances. An interest- 
ing development is taking place now at the De Beers Mines, where 
a central electric power station is being erected with all the a(' 



346 Repori S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

vantage of all the latest development of mechanical skill. The gold 
mines have had the benefit of the advice and supervision of the l)est 
mining engineers, consequently all appliances are up to date, and 
there has been a great advance in the knowledge of cyanide work- 
ing. The problem there of the immediate future is as to the best 
methods of working, and knowledge of hoisting ore from depths than 
has. up to now been attempted in mining; we may look forward 
shortly to the time when those who wish to take up mining as their 
jirofession will go to learn their lessons at the Rand. 

COAL. 

The requirements of the mines have resulted in the opening up 
of portions of the great coal deposits of the country, and it is worthy 
of notice that whilst the cost of coal mining varies consideral)ly, coal 
is now produced at one or two mines in the Transvaal for four 
shillings a ton at the pit's mouth, which compares favourably with 
anvthing achieved in Europe, though it is not .so cheaj) as in some 
of the Pennsylvanian Coal Mines, where it is said to be put on trucks 
for a total cost of 2s. 6d. per ton. 

The coal production of the world is estimated to be aljoul 800 
million tons, of which the United States produces al^out _'6o million 
tons, the United Kingdom about _\30 millions, and Germany 150 
millicms. 

Science and Chemistry have achieved important results in the 
last few years, first, in reducing waste, and. secondly, in utilizing the 
bv-products in all manufactures, notabK in the manufacture of coke 
in the ovens of the Otto Hoffmann, and the bauer, Breuer and 
Brunck, and later the Otto-Hilgenstock types, which are everywhere 
superseding gradually the old wasteful beehive oven. In these new 
ovens the coal shut up in close retorts and exposed to a high tem- 
perature gives in addition to the coke the following by-products, viz. : 
tar, gas-liquor, from which bv distillation sulphate of ammonia i'^ 
of)tained, largely used, especially in Germany, as a soil fertilizer or 
manure, and coal gas containing benzol. Attempts are now being 
made to utilize the waste heat of blast furnace.s ; the importance of 
this is shown by the fact that although the by-product gas of the 
f)last furnaces in the Cleveland Iron District in England has been 
successfully used for years in heating the hot blast stoves, and for 
raising steam, vet there is still a waste of some 61,000 horse-power 
in the gases, and Mr. Whitwell goes on to say that the furthei 
waste of heat in the iron and slag is equal to 276,140 tons of coal, 
or 31.500 horse-power, making a total i>ower going to waste of 92.5,00 
horse-power in that district alone ever}' }ear. 

Manv attenijjts have been made to utilize the slag l)y grinding 
it for mortar, making paving l)locks of it, and using it as a fertiliser, 
but the commercial result has . not been verv successful so far. 
Perhaps it mav be the good fortune of this countrv to produce 
metallurgists and engineers who will solve this problem. 

There are vast deposits of iron in South .Africa unworked except 



Presidential Address.— Sec iion C 347 

b\ the Kafirs. Let us hope that a change may come, and come 
quickly, and that we may ourselves see iron and Steel Manufactor'f-:s 
established in this country. 

Our knowledge of metals and their alloys has been much added 
to bv microscopical research. Chemical analysis can give us the 
components of an alloy, or the percentage of materials in a sample 
of steel, but experience has taught us that the behaviour of a n:etai 
under mechanical tests may vary very considerably, although its 
chemical composition, as shown by chemical analysis, may remam 
the same, and it is here that microscopic research is so valuable. 

One of the lessons we have learnt is the necessity of standardisa- 
tion both of tests and ot" sections and sizes of iron and steel. In 
America, (jermany, France, and now in England quite recently, 
standard sections have been adopted. The producer thereby can 
cheapen jnoduction, because he can roll the differejit standard 
sections, knowing that he can place the surplus to stock, and the 
purchaser knows that he can buy these standard sections at a low 
cost. Care must be taken that elasticity and expansion of idea are 
allowed ftir, and that standardization does not spell fossilization or 
check progress. The cheapening of steel and iron will mean 
perhaps more to South Africa than to most countries, for not only 
will there be here an enormous demand for rails, bridges, galvanized 
iron and fencing, structural steel, for high luiildings and warehouses, 
and all the other steel and iron ware, but there is in South Africa no 
construction timber grown, that is, the timber most largely consumed 
in engineering work, and in buildings, and as such wood gets dearer 
and dearer, and steel work gets cheaper, there will come a time, 
perhaps in the near future, when steel and iron will be used, perhaps 
fortified with concrete, in the construction not only uf tail structures 
and giant edifices, but in dwelling houses and cottages, instead of 
timber. The cheapening of aluminium has extended its use in ways 
unthought of a few years back. Who would have ^-entured a few 
\ears ago to say that aluminium would be used for the frames of 
carriages, or as an alternative to copper wire for electric power trans- 
mission? It is our duty to be ever on the alert to take advantage of 
the constant changes that take place and to utilize fresh materials 
and new methods, that from the fluctuation of prices become from 
time to time the most economical and the best for our purpose. 

We have had an instance of this in the growing use of the 
"Otto Hoffmann"' and "Otto Hilgenstock '" Ovens, .\nother im- 
portant instance is the start now made in the use of gas engines sup- 
plied by producer and water gas. Six years ago there was no 
general use for these, fiecause the gas used was exclusively made 
from expensive coal or coke. Hut in 1897 " Mond " erected a pro- 
ducer using soft coal slack, which was inexpensive. These ga.ses, 
such as " Mond's " or " Dowson's "' water gas. have a very low illum- 
inating power, and their calorific power is onlv a third or a fourth of 
that of ordinary illuminating gas, yet, as they can be used at a cost 
of about _y]. or 2d. per r,ooo cu' ic feet, it seems likelv that the large 

/. 2 



-48 Rki'ok'i S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

gas engine, as certain difficullies altending it are gradually combated 
with and overcome, will su])ersede the steam engine for land 
purposes. 

Great [irogress has been made in gas engines recently. In 
1900 the first gas engines above 400 h.p. were started running with 
Mond gas. In the same year at the Paris Exhibition the 600 h.p. 
Cockerill gas engine was exhibited. Since then Messrs. Korting 
Bros, have made a large number, of which in Se])tember last 32, 
with a total of 44.500 h.p., averaged 1.390 h.p. each. The John 
Cockerill (\)m])an\ has built one of 2.500 h.p., and the Snow Steam 
Pump Works of Buffalo. New York, have just made two large gas 
engines, gas compressors of 4.000 h.p. each. 

The internal combustion engine has found a great field in small 
power engines in small vachts. torpedo- boats, and in automobiles. 
Motor cars mav still be said to be in their infancy, and much time, 
money, and research will have to be expended on them before they 
liecome as reliable as commercial machines should and must be, l)ut 
there is an enormous field before them. The haulage of heavy loads 
along the roads is becoming every day more of a necessity. Motor 
wagons can carr\ larger quantities an(l heavier amounts of goods at 
a higher speed than is possible bv horsed vehicles ; they take up less 
room in the streets, and the damage to the road surface should be 
less than that caused by the ordinary traction engines. The motor 
omnibus has certainly not yet reached the stage which some predict 
for it, viz.. that it will supersede the electric tramway. The motor 
carriage that will never break down, and that can be purchased at a 
price within the means of all those who can afford a horsed carriage 
is still a thing of the future. Automobile petrol inspectors" cars are 
alread) running on some of the railways in this country. On railways, 
too. there may be a great future for automobiles. They are being 
tried at the present moment on one or two of the railwaxs in Eng- 
land, and bv the Gardner .Serpolet Company in France. For 
suburban traffic, where thousands come to their work in a city in the 
morning, and make a return journey mid-day for their meal, and 
return to their homes in the afternoon, large numljers have to be 
conveved within a verv .short period at certain times of the day, 
whereas during the rest of the day the traffic is much less, and trains 
at ten minutes or fifteen minutes interval will accommodate it. 
Hitherto electric traction has generally been proposed to meet the 
case. There is. however, a hesitation on the part of railway autho- 
rities generalK in incurring the heavy cost of electric installation, 
and it is rather a moot point whether there is any saving in working 
cost, although the increased accommodation is a benefit to the public. 
The multi]>le unit s\stem by which one. three, five, or more cars can 
be despatched at a time all under the control of one conductor gives 
just that elasticit\ of accommodation that is wanted to deal with the 
dailv variations of suburban traffic. ]f this svstem is adaptable to 
motor cars which is the subject of enquiry at the moment, there may 
be a great development of the automobile for suburban railways. 
There is no costlv installation, nothing has to be changed on the 



Presidential Address. — Section C 349 

present railwaxs. it is inereh a question of providing the motor 
carriages. A train that can equally well take a thousand passengers 
as fifty seems just to meet the problem of dealing with congeste 1 
traffic at certain times of the day, and a limited number of [)assenger.s 
for the rest of the day. For Tubes and Metropolitan Railways where 
the traffic is so great throughout the whole of the day that it requires 
a train, sav. everv three minutes all dav long to accommodate it. 
electrical working is the cheapest, but it is quite probable that where 
a less frequent service during most of the day will meet the wants 
of the public, and there is merely a congestion at certain times, the 
aiUomol)ile may prove the most economical. In a new country 
electricitv is readily adopted. It is forttuiate for us, perhaps, that 
electricity has advanced as it has. and reached the stage of standard- 
ization in dvnamos. transformers, and cables. l)efore we were ready 
to lake advantage of it to anv extent. In electric lighting some 
ec<jnomv ma\ result from the '"Cooper Hewitt" lamp, which gives 
an efficiency of al)out three candles per watt, but this light at pre- 
sent is of too ghastly a colour to l)e popular. If you look at your 
neighbour by it. vou .see onlv dingy, yellow, and dirty purjile in the 
complexion. It is a long glass vacuum tube about 5 feet long and an 
inch in diameter, with a bulb of mercury in the bottom. The electric 
current passing through gives out this light bv the radiation of the 
merctirv vajjotir. Xo doul)t some method of impro\ing ihe colour 
of this light will be found. Acetylene will under certain conditions 
be fotmd to be cheaper than electric light, and it is claimed for 
Kiisons new j^ietroleum incadescent lamj) that streets can be 
lighted bv it at one-fourth the price of electric light. The electric 
furnace is tiseful for melting glass, and jiossiblv .silica for optical and 
laboratorv purposes. In the electric furnace the temperature is 
limiteil only by the volatilization of the electrodes, that is to say, 
temijeratures. and con.sequently chemical actions are possible in the 
electric furnace which cannot otherwise Ije attained. Here, too, we 
are only on the threshold, so to speak. M. Harmet. Manager of the 
St. Etienne Iron and Steel Works, has designed an electri<' furnace 
for producing fniis.hed steel from raw iron ore. This furnace con- 
sists, first, of a calcinator. in which the oxides or other matters 
charged in the raw are dried, roasted, and calcined ; secondly, a 
reducer, in which is effected the reduction of the oxides : and thirdlv, 
the regulator where the metal which comes liquid from the reducer 
is finished. M. Harmet claims to make a saving of i6s. 8d. per ton 
b\ his ]irocess. 

In various parts of South Africa there are great possibilities of 
utilizing the water-power of falls, notably at the Victoria Falls on the 
Zambesi, one of the sights of the world which has not been visited 
bv more than 200 white peojile since the world began. The supply 
of water-power throughfmt the world is almo.st ahvavs greater than the 
demand. At Niagara I believe only 1 10.000 h.p. are utilized out of 
4^ millions available. At Victoria Falls, with perhaps double the 
horse-power of Niagara, it mav be a long time before we use ar. 
much. The advantages of water-power are its cheapness and its 



350 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science.. 

certai!it\. It does not depend on the flurtuatin^^ ])rire of coal, and 
it is indeijendenl of labour. l)Ul, on the other hand, we have to 
recognise the fact that the power required for man\ manufactories 
is onlv a small part of the cost of j^roduction. 

L'p to the present electro-metallurgical proce.sses have taken the 
most advantage of cheap water-power. Aluminium, phosphorus, 
carhonineum. soda and chlorine, cyanide of p<jtassium. electro-deposi- 
tion of copper, electro-fusion process, calcium carbide, and the manu- 
facture of flax fibre represent part of the field of activity near water- 
power. In many cases, as waterfalls are not where the\ are wanted 
commercial! V. against the cheap water-power must be put the extra 
carriage for materials, and coal, and the cost of carriage of the manu- 
factured article from the Fall to where it is to- be used. Luckily, in 
the case of the Victoria Falls coal of a very good qualil\ is close at 
hand in the " Wankie " coal field, and an\ manufactured jirodud will 
have the advantage of down freights. 

'I'he long distance transmission of electric power has increased 
from vear to vear. and for the past twelve months power has been 
delivered fmm the " Yulia "" Falls at Colgate, California, to Stockton, 
a distaiice of 216 miles. There is no difficulty now in the trans- 
mission. The question alwa\s is whether the power delivered, 
allowing for leakage, can be used commerciallv. that is. economicallv, 
as compared with any other motive power. 

Klectricilv as applied to agriculture is still in its iMfan<\. In 
(jermain power has been supplied from central power stations to 
farmers for threshing corn. l)ut the use of motor ploughs, motor 
harrows, and motor hav-making machines has hardly commenced. 
When water-])()wer comes to l)e utilized for agricultural purposes, the 
possibilities are immense. The cotton crop of the L'nited States is 
over il million tons annually, worth 55 million pounds, while the 
maize grown averages 40 million tons. For both maize and cotton 
the fertile c(juntr\' round the Victoria Falls is well suited, and if 
electricit\ can l)e applied successfullv to their culture there is a 
chance of ver\ cheaj) production there of the.se two important 
en )ps. 

The railways of South Africa have been built under various con 
ditions. but generally not until there was an outcry from .some more or 
less flourishing centre, but it is now recognized that thev can be made 
the pioneers of development, jirovided that thev are constructed on 
c(mimonsense lines. Where the traffic is large the line should I)e 
thoroughly well built to carry that traffic in the most economical 
and expeditious manner; where the traffic^ onlv warrants one or two 
trains a week the line shoulrl be laid down .so as to allow for future 
expansion of trade, but constructed on the most economical lines, 
so that even with the small traffic it may have a chance of pa\i ng 
its way. There is nothing new in this; it was done in .America, it 
has been done in New South Wales and other countries, and it is 
the best way of opening up a country of large distances but sparse 
population. 



Presidential Address. Section C. 35 1 

The cost of construction of railways in South Africa compares 
favourably with that of other countries under similar conditions. 
Some 6.000 miles of railways have been built in South Africa, and 
arrangements have been made to expend some 10 millions of money 
on new lines. It is a great pity that the original gauge laid down 
from Cape Town to Wellington of 4 feet 8| inches was altered to 
the present gauge of 3 feet 6 inches. There is no divine right in an\ 
particular gauge, but for apssenger traffic, especially over long dis- 
tances, a certain width of carriage is necessarv to accommodate the 
human frame. The passenger coaches, therefore, on the 3 feet 6 
inches gauge, which is the standard gauge of .South Africa, are as 
wide as thev are on the wirier gauge of Europe and America. The 
overhang, therefore, is ver\ much greater, and partly owing to this 
fact, and partly to the smaller locomotive wheel possible on the 
3 feet 6 inches gauge, the .speed of passenger trains in South Africa 
is about half that general on broader gauge lines. The inconvenience 
has not been much felt as yet. but as the public l)ecomes more and 
more addicted to travel, as it assuredly will do, the feeling against 
the present standard gauge of South Africa will become intensified. 
This is still a young countrv. l)ut it will grow ven" fast ; now. there- 
fore, is the time to insist that the l)est possible education should be 
obtainal)le. The employer r)f labour as well as the emplo\ee re- 
quires the best education that can be devised, and bv education is 
meant the cultivation of the natural jXDwers and talents of the child 
and the man so as to fit him to do his Avork and occupy his place 
wr)rthily as a member of societv and a citizen. 



TECHNICAL EDUCATIOX. 

" We do amiss to spend seven or eight \ears mereh in scraping 
together so much miserable Latin and Greek as might be leanied 
otherwise easily and delightfully in one year." So wrote the classic 
Miltfm nearly two hundred and sixty years ago, but the same process 
still continues in England, and it is only very recently that, pressed 
by the competition of other countries, a feeling that all is not right 
in the matter of education has arisen. Commissions have been ap- 
l)ointed to report on foreign educational systems, such as those of 
Germany and Holland. There is a general uneasiness all round, 
and some change now .seems likely to take ]>lace. The que.stion of 
education is of vital importance, especially the question of .so-called 
secondan education. 

The report of the Special Sub-Committee of the London 
Technical Education Board on the application of Science to Industn 
in August last, stated that various branches of inrlustn,- had during 
the past twenty or thirty years been lost to England owing to the 
competition of foreign countries, and that these losses were to be 
attributed in no small degree to the .superior scientific education 
provided in foreign countries, especially in regard to the transfer 
from pjigland to Germany of numerous departments of manufacturing 



35^ Report S.A.A. Advance.men r of Science. 

chemistry, as instanced li\ the manufacture ot aniline dyes and many 
other vahiable products, coal-tar. the manufacture of pottery of the 
finer kinds, and the manufacture of optical j;lass. all owing in a great 
measure to the deficiency of the educational .system in England. 
Summing uj) the evidence the Committee stated that they were con- 
vinced that the main cause of our relative failure in the chemical and 
optical iiKkistries were : - 

1. The lack of scientific training of the manufacturers them- 

selves, and their consequent inabilitv to recognise the 
importance of scientific assistance. 

2. The defective condition of our secondarv education. 

',. The lack of a sufficient supply of young men trained in 
scientific principles and methods, and the a])plication of 
science to particular industrial processes. 
4. The lack of anv Institution prcniding advanced techno- 
logical training which is sufficiently endowed to enal)le it: 
to give an equal attention to poor graduates and varied 
work. 
The ('(jmmittee further stated that the curriculum ha.s been so 
hampered by the exigencies of examining authorities, and examina- 
tions, that the teacher had been compelled to devote undue atten- 
tion to storing the minds of the students with facts for reproduction, 
at the expense of the time which should be devoted to stimulating 
their reflective powers, and making them think. The cause of the 
want of vitality in our scientific industries is due to the defect in 
secondary education and the lack of adequate provision for training 
and research. 

The fliplomatic and consular rejjoris jjublished from time to 
time by the Foreign Office estimate the whole value of German che- 
mical industries at not less than fifty millions sterling per annum, 
and that these have sprung up chiefly m the last thirty years, and 
that they are largely founded upon basic discoveries made by English 
chemists, and that the reason they were n(jt taken advantage of in 
England was due to the want of education among our .so called 
educated classes, and also among the workmen upon whom th<jse 
dei)end. The terms of this repoort must cause serious reflection — 
the whole of our .system of education wants correction. Too much 
stress is laid upon mechanical memorj- and the answer of ])reconcerted 
questions. The first thing should be to encourage the child's power 
of observation and of forming jufigments, to teach him to get to 
the bottom of things and never to be .satisfied with sui)erficial know- 
ledge and the mere an.swering of parrot questions ; care should l)e 
taken. To ground him in sound knowledge of principles and habits 
of careful exactness in his work, then to develop independent thought 
and action, by which he can later further advance his knowledge in 
any special l)ranch. having made himself acquainted with the most 
detailed information available of the jtarticular profession he is about 
to take up. All that can i>e done in the educatirmal institution is 
to impart a thorough grounding in the principles of science and theii 
logical application. The specialization must come later. All the 



Presidential Address. — Section C. 353 

educalional instilulion can do is to fit the student so as to lake up 
the practical work as efficiently as possible. Emploxers in enj^ineer- 
ing industries are ahvavs willing to accept from trained students a 
shorter ajjprenticeship than is asked in the case of untrained men. 
Men who have had a sound preliminary training take less time than 
the uneducated man lo acquire the practical knowledge, since they 
have learned how to think and applv such knowledge as thev have. 
The whole subject is full of difficulty, there is so much to learn and 
so short a time to learn it in. Many parents cannot afford to let 
their children have so many vears schooling as others can; but the 
importance of education is fully recognized in South Africa, let us 
see that such education shall.be the l)est obtainable, and the best 
adapted to the needs of this country. 

For Mining students at any rate it is hoped thai the establish- 
ment of technical schools at Johanne.sl)urg will sup|)l\ the advantage 
of acquiring knowledge on the soundest basis with the opportunity 
of becoming acquainted with the latest methods anrl practice at the 
mines. 

This is a great countrv in the course of making, ii teems with 
problems which will neetl all the wisdom of the wisest, all the honestv 
oi' the most upright : let us who are the heirs of the .\ges do our ut- 
most bv the mutual co-operation of scientitic workers, to extend the 
boundaries of knowledge, to take our part in moulding public oi)inion, 
and to influence frir good for all time the progress and development 
of .South .-Vfrica. 



-SO^^K ASPECTS OF SOl'TH AFRICAN FOKKSTRY. 
Bv I). K. HiTCHixs. F.R.Mkt.Soc. 



This paper was to have V^eeii on Forest Eduralion in South 
Africa. We are at jtreseiit absokiteh devoid of any forest teachin<; 
in South Africa. A proportion of Forest Officers in the Government 
Forest Department now receive their training at the India Forest 
School at Cowfiers Hill, England; but most mem. whether in the 
Forest Department or out of it. acquire their knowledge haphazard. 
At the Governmenl Agricultural Farm. Elsenberg. where there were 
formerl\ lectures oii Forestry there are now none, though curiously 
there are lectures on carpentry and wood-working. This is .something 
like cooking your hare before you have caught it I On reconsider- 
ation, however, I thought it better to alter the title of the paper to that 
which it now bears " Some A.spects of South African Forestr} ." thus 
making it of more general application and, I hope, utility. One is 
apt to forget ihat in a British communitv there is too often a complete 
ignorance of l'"orestr\ and to talk aboui it one has to start from the 
beginning. 

Owing to historical reasons. England and South Africa are to- 
dav practically without forests. In South Africa the reasons belong 
to geological history. Thev have not vet beai fully traced. We know 
from the coal-fields and fossil remains of trees that forest formerly 
existed in South Africa, both where it is now too dry for it to flourish 
and in well-watereKl [)arts. If we compare South Africa with West 
Australia, we see that each has a highly .specialized Forest Flora 
peculiar to itself: and a Flora within so restricted an area that it is 
comparable to many of the weak Island floras of the globe. Owing 
however to differences in the geological history of the two coun- 
tries, whereas West Australia has still preserved its giant tertiarv 
trees, the ancient forest of South Africa is gone, and the indigenous 
forest of to-day consists of generally stunted ever-green trees confined 
to sheltered kloofs and the most favourable localities on the moun- 
tains facing the coast. The trees are, as a whole, semi-tropical 
species, with a better development towards the tropics, while here in 
the extra-tropics, they are slow of growth, delicate in constitution and 
wnth a weak natural reproduction. It is probable that thev will 
gradually be replaced, as they have in the Cape Peninsula, bv the 
hardier members of larger forest Pdoras. In this respect, in appear- 
ance, and in characHeristics "enerallv. thev much resemble the 
" Shola " forest on the Nilgiri plateau of Southern India. There also 
we have a small isolated e\tra-tro])ical country with weak semi- 
tropical trees that are easily ousted l)y the stronger species of the 
Australian extra-tropical forest flora. 

In England and Northern Europe the ajicient tertiarv forest of 
giant Eucal\ pts is gone ; but England and Northern Europe in the 



South Airican Forestry. 355 

succession of t;lacial ami senii-lnipical periods liave never lieen cut 
off from the greal forest region of the North. L'p to comparative! \ 
recent times England was rich in forests. Cccsar found Oak and 
Beech in the South. Scotch-pine in the North and nearly the whole 
country a vast forest. There was still good forest when William the 
Conqueror came, but he had to resort to. perha])S necessarily, severe 
measures, to ol)tain the compact area in the South — the " New 
Fore.st." What finally destroyed the forest wealth of England was 
the confiscation of the rich Church forests in the time of Henry VHI. 
At that time the nobler were powerful, the people and the national 
sentiment of modern times were weak. Nearly all the confiscated 
Church forests went to the nobles, and shared the eventual fate of 
all private forests; that is to say, gradual destruction. On the Conti- 
nent of Europe the rich Church forests were not confiscated until the 
troublous times of the French Revolution at the l)eginning of 1800. 
When taken from the Church which had preserved them intact for 
centuries, thev were given, not to the nobles as in England, but to 
the people of the country. Hence we see the curious contrast of 
to-day, no National Fore.sts and no Scientific Forestrv in England ; 
on the Continent of Europe great and increasing forest wealth. The 
forests of Germany occupy one quarter of its total surface and their 
ca])italized value is reckoned at 900 million i)Ounds sterling. Great 
Britain and Ireland in Forestry occupy the lowest position among the 
States of Europe, being one per cent, worse off than Portugal : — 

Percent a !L!,c of Woodlands. 

Kiissia in Kurojx- ... ... .. 36 

Austria ... ... ... ... 30/ Scicntihcallv 

Germany ... ... ... ... jb conserved 

Switzerland ... ... ... ... it) and 

France ... ... ... ... 17^ permanent. 

Portuiial ... ... ... ... 5 

,- . X, ■. ■ 1111 I Parks, small 

dreat Britain and IrclaiKi ... ... 4. '. ,., , ,. 

^ I t^lantations, etc. 

The axerage jiroportion of p^)rest on the Continent of Europe 
is calculated at 2t;.', per cent. 



FORES'IRV IN IHE BRITISH ISLES. 

In no particular is the insular isolation of England seen more 
than in the matter of forests. To-day England is paying in round 
numbers twenty million pounds sterling yearly for timber that could 
be produced twice or perhaps thrice over within the limits of the 
British Isles if the ancient forests were restored. When we consi<ler 
that, in the more settled time before the late Boer war. the total cost 
of the Army was ^34.000 and of the National debt ^25.000 it will lie 
seen that this forest question in England is the great question of the 
future. It must come prominenth' torward in the near future in 



35^) Report S.A.A. Advancfment of Science. 

connection with the great social question of the rural [jopulation. 
Jf the loss of this goes forwanl at the present rate, the Empire must 
fail to pieces for want of recruits f(jr the Army. In Germany it is 
estimated that the yearly wages of thV people em[)]oyed on forest 
industries amount to something like ^30.000,000 sterling, and that 
roughl} 12 per cent, of the total population of Germany is employed 
in the forest and out of the forest. Aliout r, 000, 000 people in the 
lorest. i.e., directK employed in working the forest estates, and about 
3.000.000 out of the forest, i.e.. in working the forest produce, chiefly 
timber, into the yarious articles manufactured from wood. These 
forest workers in Germany are the pick of its manhood, the backbone 
of the nation. In England they haye been replaced by the weakly, 
hysterical, knock-kneed factory operatiye. and his sickly tea-drinking 
wife, whose mistaken ambition is to ayoid the health and strength 
following manual labour f)ut-of-d<jors I These are sad facts which 
struck me yery forcibly when irayelling through the forests of ihe 
Continent and the rural districts of England. It was not till I got 
to Sc<)i]and that I saw a woman working out-of-doors. In the first 
part of the Boer war, out of 1 1.000 men offering themselves as recruits 
in the Manchester district 8,000 were found to be physically unfit to 
carry a rifle " and of the 3.000 who wt-re accepted, only about 1.200 
attained the moderate standard of muscular power and chest measure- 
ment required by the militarx authorities." (R. E. Dudgeon, M.D.) 
England can Iietter afford to pay the cost of its wasted forests, yiz., 
^20.000.000 a vear. than allow the present waste of its manhoo(.l 
to proceed! 

Not only is there a loss of non-])roduction within the British 
Isles, but the cost of importation by sea of so bulky a material as 
timber is naturally very heavy. To produce within the British Isles 
the timber now imported would require an area of about nine million 
acres of forest, that is to sa\. one acre of forest to 8i acres of open 
country. This wotild amount to on an average about li "New 
I'orests to every county. Germain as we ha\e seen has one acre 
of forest to every 4 acres of open counlrv. ('ape Colony spends 
^^60.000 per year on its Forestry, or about one per cent of its average 
revenue. If England were to reforest at the same rate ;^i, 000,000 
yearly would represent the forest expenditure, and al)OUt two-thirds of 
a county the area of restored counlrx. France s|)ends over half a 
million yearly on Forestrv. 

According to the re))ort of the recent Commission on British 
Forestry there are 21.000.000 acres of heather and rough pasturage 
in England and Scotland available for reforesting; 8.000.000 acres of 
forest would produce the timber now imported. It is calculated that 
if all the waste lands of Cireat Britain and Ireland were reforested 
the production of timl)er (excluding a small pro]jortioii of hard- 
woo(is) would be 3 or 4 times the limber now imported. (National 
Forestry" in Jour. S(jc. of Arts, Nov.. 1899.) 

There is one redeeming feature in the present sad position of 
b'orestrv in England. Since the doom of English Forestry was sealed 
in Henr} ^'Il^s lime it has not been possible to restore artificially 



South African I-'oresirv. 357 

the National Forests, al a renunu-rative rale. When 1 was a 1h)\ it 
Avas necessarv' to pa\ 5",, fur moneN (in j^ood security, i-'oresls in 
Europe have not returned liilherto more than 2}, or 3%. It is only 
Avithin the last fiften or t\\ent\ \ears that monev could be l)orro\ved 
at a sufficiently low rate nt intt-rest to make the restoration of the 
forests renumerativel} jiossihie. 

FORESTS OF OAPE COEOXV. 

The total area of indiijenous forests in Cape Colon\. fr(jm Cape 
Town to Natal, is estimated at 500.000 acres, or 810 square miles. 
Of this all but an estimated area of about 30.000 acres is (lovern- 
ment forest worked s\stematically b\ the Forest Department. This 
is but a small percentat^e of the total area of the Colony, rather less 
in fact than -I per cent. Small though this area is, if it were well 
stocked it would be enough to supply the country's present wants and 
leave a good margin for export ; but unfortunateh the forest area is 
but poorly stocked with commercial timber. The yield of the 
Indigenous forest in its present poorly stocked state is estimated at 
only from 6 to 10 cubic feet per acre per year. This may be compared 
with the yield of Euro[)ean forests from 50 to 150 cubic feet, or with 
the yield in Eucalypt plantations which ranges up to 700 cubic feet 
per acre per vear. The following is a selection of actual forest vields 
from Eucalvpt and Pine plantations in Cape Colony. 

VIEI.D IN CUBIC FEET PER .\CRE PER VEAR OF TIMBER PLANIATIONS 
IN CAPE COLONV. 

Cubic feet. 

'J'okai : Kari (Prince Kasleel) 025. 

„ ., (Cedar ridge) 533. 

Eucalyptus saligna (Sphinx rock) ] Acre: ]8 \ears 

old in 1900 5-7- 

Worcester: Euc. globulus (Copse tirst 5 vears) 457- 

Tokai : Kari (Manor House Ridge) 377. 

Phmistead : Cluster ])ine (14 vears old) 341. 

Worcester: Euc. globulus (ist crop over the whole 60 

acre.s) ^,7,2. 

Ceres Road (sample area Paic. ghvbulus) 322. 

Newlanils : Cluster ])ine (G. 93. ^2. Heywood) 178. 

,. .. .. (Hevwood & P>rown) 170. 

An inspection of these figures brings out the cur'ous fact that as 
much timber can be got in one vear from a good Eucalypt [.lantation, 
as during 100 vears in the indigenous forest — the " rotation." or life- 
time of the forest (so to speak) from seed-time to harvest. 

EXHAUSTION OF COAL-FIELD.S MET BY FUEL PLANTATIONS. 

This high rate of production has a general interest outside the 
production of timber. As T showed recently (" Nature."' March 20ih. 



358 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

1902) it furnishes one of the most convenient and practical means of 
fixing and utilizing the sun's energy. The fixation of carbon, in a 
quick growing Eucalypt or Wattle plantation in South Africa, is about 
fifteen times that of a similar plantation in Europe. To-day, near 
('ape Town, it is less costly to plow the ground and produce wood 
fuel in a plantation of Wattles or Gums than to import coal fuel 
oversea, or by a long journe\ overland. If, on the World's surface, 
we take latitudes below 40° and rainfalls above 40 inches, and 
imagine this covered with forest, either with tropical forest or the 
quick-growing Eucalypt and Acacia forest of the extra-tropics, I 
calculated that there could l)e produced \eariy. at the lowest computa- 
tion, thirty times the world's present consumption of coal ! Details 
of this calculation are given in one of the forest pamphlets which 
are on the table for distrilnition. , 



CAPE COLONY S J IMBER BILL AND THE MEANS TAKEN TO MEET Tl". 

During 190J the imports of timber to Cape Colony amounted in 
round numbers to half a million pounds sterling. Previous to the 
war the a\erage for some years was a quarter of a million. South 
Africa is a poor drv countrw It cannot afford to go on sending these 
enormous sums out of the country to |>ay for foreign wood, hence 
the existence of forestry at the Cape. In its Forestry Cape Colony 
now stands at the head of every British communih-. Speaking recent- 
ly Dr. Schlich (who occupies at this moment the position of the 
highest authority on forest matters amongst Englishmen) stated that 
amongst the British Colonies and dependencies, only India and Cape 
(Colony had seriously considered the forest question. India is a 
tropical country with vast areas of ])oorly stocked pestiferous forests 
and a comparatively small area of well-stocked, healthy extra-tropical 
forest on the Himalayas. For some \ears past Ca])e Colony has 
spent, on an average. ^60.000 vearly on Forestry. Of this amount 
between ^40.000 and ^50,000 is spent on timber plantations, com- 
posed mainlv of Eucalvpts and Pines. The Inilk of the Eucalypt 
planting is to nroduce sleepers for the Railwaxs. The C'ape Govern- 
ment Railwavs require annually about one million cubic feet of timber 
and literallv train loads of imported sleepers, mostly Jarrah, can be 
seen now l)y any traveller on the Cape Railways. These Jarrah 
sleepers come from West Australia and cost at the rate of 5/- per 
sleeper delivered here. The Cape Government Railways have now 
to spend nearly ^100,000 yearly for imported sleepers. It is thus 
a matter of great importance to produce this timber at home, espec- 
iallv when it is considered that we have an exact duplication here of 
the climate of Australia, where these Eucalypt sleepers are produced. 
Eiiccil ypiiis marg'mata, or Jarrah, is the sleeper now most in favour. 
Some time back metal sleepers were used, but these have turned out 
as unsatisfactorv here as in most other places where thev have been 
tried ; and the creo.soted pine sleepers require the extra expense of 
a plate to j)revent them being cut into bv the heavv rails and rolling 



South African P'orestry. 359 

siuck thev now have tu earn. There are immense areas of Jarrah and 
Kari timber in Western Australia, in nearly pure forest, near the 
coast, so that access is easy and suppUes assured. Kari timber is more 
suitable for use above ground than in the ground, but Jarrah has a 
\vell-e.stablished reputation for lasting in the ground ; and there is, I 
think, no doubt that few better sleepers can be obtained than the 
Jarrah sleepers of Western Australia. East Australia is naturally 
fitted to produce equal or rather better sleei)ers. The Iron-bark 
timbers of Eastern Australia are harder and even more 
dural)le than Jarrah, and there are some half dozen other 
Eucalypt timbers equal to Jarrah in durability. Hut East Australia is 
comparatively an old settled country. It is 100 \ears shice the 
British Colonists set to work destroying the forests ; and to-day, East 
Australia cannot supply Iron-bark sleepers under 6s. tjr 6s. 6d. landed 
here. The unique Cedar-wood of East Australia, Cedrcla ioona, is also 
mostly destroyed ; and .so great and so utterly reckless has been the 
destruction of forest in East Australia that even the luxuriant Black- 
wattle has now become scarce. Xot many months ago an enquiry 
actually came from Australia, to the Natal Black-wattle plantations, 
asking at what price bark could be .shipped to Australia I The Black- 
wattle tree came not ver}- long ago from Australia to South Africa, 
and the Xatal plantations are entirely the work (;f the last few years. 
However, to^ return to our sleepers. The Cape Government Railways 
lately decided to lay down .special sleeper plantations, for which 
purpose sites have been chosen near existing lines of railway, so as 
to avoid the heavy cost of tran.sport to the railwav. The financial 
]>osition of these railway plantations is very striking. It is estimated 
that they will co.st ;^6o.ooo or ;^7o,ooo, and in 20 or ^5 \ears will 
bring in a perpetual revenue of ^100,000 per aiiiiuiii. This is 
calculated on the basis of the present mileage of Ca])e Railways and 
the prices paid for sleepers. The species of Eucalvpls that I have 
selectefl for sleeper plantations are the following: — 

EUCALVPTS FOR SLEEPER PLANTATIONS. 

(i) E. paiiiculatd : an Ironf)ark. 

(2) E. pilularis ; Flintwood. 

(3) E. microcorxs ; Tallow-wo<Ml. 

(4) E. rcsinifcra ; a Jarrah-like timber. 

(5) E. saligna ; (^uick-gnnving good timber. 
(E. marginata ; Jarrah. low vield.) 

These timbers are equal or su])erior to Jarrah. and Ihev are 
more fast growing. 

SOFT-WOOD FOR SLEEPERS AND HOUSE BLTILDIXG. 

In spite of the fact that Soft-woo<l sleepers require the extra cost 
of a bearing plate and of creosoting, they are now l)eing produced 
largely, especially in plantations where the poor nature of the soil is 
unadapted to the rapid growth of Eucalvpts. The s]»ecies which 



360 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

is almost exclusively used for these plantations is Cluster-pine (Piii//s 
pinaster). This is a tree which has l)ecome completeh naturalized 
in the South-west of Cape Colony, and which, by means of planta- 
tions, is spreadinu elsewhere in South Africa. Cluster-pine is lars^ely 
used for sleepers in the South of France and the North of Spain. 
It is so hard) and l;t"o\\s so vigorously along the Southern Coast of 
South Africa that Mr. J. S. Clamble (author of the classical work on 
Indian timbers) is of opinion that it should be given the preference 
to Gums in sleejier plajitations. it is spreading self-sown up the crags 
of Table Mountain, and out over the sands of the Cajie Flats. The 
Cape Poorest De])artment uses about twelve tons of Cluster-pine seed 
vearh in its re-foresting operations. So far. it is free from any 
serious pests, insect or fungoid. From its great enemv. fire, it is 
protected bv cutting uj) the ])ine plantations, like a chess-board, with 
protective strips of Ku<-al\])ts. These Eucalvpt fire-lines are ])ro- 
ductive instead of being a source of expense, and are more effecti\e 
in arresting sjjarks than the usual cleared or plowed fire-lines. 

The other [)ines thai have grown largeK enough to be now con 
sidered naturalized are : — 

I'niiis iiisigiiis. or Insignis jjine. 

Piiiiis Jialcpciisis. or Jerusalem ])ine. 

Pimts caiiariensis. or Canarv Islaml pine. 

Piiiiis piiicd. — 'I"he Stone-pine, or L'mbrella-pine. of TtaK. has 
i)een grown at the Ca])e tor 150 \ears or more; a{)parentlv il was 
introduce<l before the Cluster-i)ine. but about 25 years ago it was 
attacked \\\ a fungoid disease — Pcrouospera sp. and has now 
ceased to ha\e an\ importance as a forest tree. Putiis iiistgiiis 
suffers Iroin a xarieU o( diseases; il can no longer with safety l)e 
plante<l in large masses, tor which purjiose its place- mav be taken 
b\ its home associaie Piiiiis iiinncahi. 'J"he beaut v and rapid growth 
of the insignis pine will. howe\er. ensure its continueil planting as an 
ornamental tree. 

The four Pitch-] )ines of the Gulf States of the I'nited States of 
America are being planlefl with caution. The\ are climatically 
suited only to ihe wettest parts of the Southern coasl. Thev are :- - 
Piiiiis ans/rci/is. 

mi/ is. 

ciibciisis. 

tiicda. 

OlllER IREE-S. 

Besides the KucaKpts and I'ines a great varietx of other trees 
are being ])lanted in Cape Colonv. It would take too 

long even to enumerate these. The Cedars alone would 
require a paper to themselves to describe. About twentv- 
five sjjecies yielding Cedar or Cedar-like wfvod are under cul- 
tivation. These are absolutelv the most valuable timbers grown in 
South Africa, but thev have not the economic importance of the 
Kucalvijts and Pines on accouiit of their slow urowth. These trees 



South African Forestry. 361 

belong to the genera Juniperus, Cupressus, Callitris, Cedrella, and 
Cedrus. Cape Cedar, the most useful of the indigenous timbers, is 
Callitris arbor ea. It grows on the rugged Cedarberg Range 100 miles 
North of Cape Town, to the size and stature of the Cedar of the 
Atlas Mountains; but, alas, the former extensive Cedar Forests of 
Cape Colony were ravaged, by axe and fire, for 150 years before the 
Forest Department came into existence, and only vestiges of these 
valuable trees now remain. Unlike the delicate trees of the ever- 
green Indigenous forest, Cape Cedar is perfectly hardy against wind, 
drought, frost, and snow; it seeds abundantly, and is easily propa- 
gated. 

Other interesting timber trees now being planted are the Black- 
wood, Acacia melanoxylon, and the Camphor. Black-wood has a 
timber like walnut; and Camphor the scented wood yielding the 
Camphor of commerce. 

Of ornamental trees we may niention the Pepper-tree, Schinus 
molle, which flourishes in the dry inland districts; the brilliant 
scarlet flowering Gum, Eucalyptus ficifolia, on the coast districts ; 
the noble English Oak, which is here more a fruit tree than a timber ; 
and the Plane, with its dense foliage flourishing, like the Weeping- 
Avillow, near water. 

The Government timber plantations, which are mostly near Cape 
Town, or in the mountains North of King William's Town, now em- 
brace about 20,000 acres of timber, and they are now manufacturing 
timber for the country- at the rate of about three million cubic feet 
yearly. This is above one-third our present timber im- 
portation, 7^ million cubic feet, or more than half of what 
we were importing before the war, 5 million cubic feet. None 
but it has been used for pit props, and the thinnings supply already 
a great deal of firewood. Indeed, one of the oldest of the plantations 
near Cape Town keeps a sawmill constantly at work sawing up fire- 
wood, and the revenue from the sale of firewood and young plants in 
these plantations now equals the expenditure, before cutting a stick 
of the main timber crop ! This is a most satisfactory result. 

There are, as mentioned, up to date, about 20,000 acres of fully 
stocked timber plantations in Cape Colony. One of the oldest and 
best known of these plantations is at Tokai, ih hours from Cape 
Town. I was absent from Cape Town when the official programme 
of the Association's visits was drawn up; but an unofficial visit to 
Tokai has been since arranged for Friday afternoon, and I shall be 
ver>- happy to see there, on that day, all those who take an interest 
in Forestry. If they will kindly give me their names now, I will make 
the necessar\' arrangements for free conveyance by rail and cart to 
Tokai. 

The short time remaining now at our disposal will be fullv 
occupied with the examination of the South African wood specimens 
on the table. 



31.— DRY CRUSHING OF ORE PREPARATORY TO THE 
EXTRACTION OF GOLD. 

By Franklin White. 



The extraction of gold from the rock or from the other minerals 
in which it is contained may at first sight seem to be a matter of 
commercial rather than scientific nature. A judicious application of 
scientific knowledge is, however, generally found to be of great 
assistance to industrial enterprises. 

The Gold and Diamond industries are of great importance to 
South Africa as a whole, as it is, comparatively speaking, a young 
country as regards its advance in agriculture and in manufacture of its 
raw materials ; the application of science as affecting gold extraction 
especially as regards South Africa may, therefore, be reasonably in- 
cluded in the discussion of this Society. 

It is impossible to say when or in what manner man first collected 
and made use of gold. Recent research in Egypt has shewn the 
existence there of very ancient circular crushing mills very similar to 
the South American and Mexican " Arrastra " (a word indicating 
'• dragging," from the verb " Arrastrar," to drag, referring to the 
dragging of mullers or stones over the ore to be crushed), or to the 
pug mill of the modern builder. 

It is claimed that both in papyri and in sculptures, in the ruins 
of Beni Hassan and Thebes, the system of gold extraction then in 
vogue is shewn, the general features being the breaking up and pound- 
ing of the quartz containing gold until the fragments were made 
small enough to set free the precious metal, which was then washed 
out on sloping tables. 

The modern stamp mill, which is nothing but a collection of 
pestles and mortars moved by mechanical means, is a f>erfected sur- 
vival of this system. Quicksilver has, however, been made use of as 
a means of collecting the gold more completely and expeditiously. 

The modem " blanket strakes " is nothing more than a cheap, 
though efficient, substitute for the sheep skin, amid the hairs of 
which the gold was formerly collected, and the Grecian fable of 
Jason and the Golden Fleece is probably a poetical reference to a 
successful raid on a community of alluvial gold washers. 

Certain negroes are reported to collect gold by pouring water 
and sand containing gold on to the woolly heads of their fellows, and 
then picking out the precious metal. 

Man would probably first find gold in alluvial deposits, its pre- 
sence there resulting from the breaking up and wearing away of gold- 
bearing rocks by atmospheric disintegration, earthquakes, avalanches, 
and .subsequent pounding in the mountain torrents. 

He would then discover gold in the parent rock, and pound it 
free himself. 



Dry Crushing of Ore. 363 

As his knowledge expanded, fire would be used as an efficient 
aid, eventually bringing him to smelt such rocks or minerals as were 
suitable. 

Although these methods in process of time were vastly improved, 
no notable advance in a new direction was made until Messrs. 
MacArthur and Forrests made a commercially successful application 
of the already known possibility of dissolving gold by means of cyanide 
solutions, and the subsequent collection of the precious metal by 
using zinc to effect its precipitation. 

At first sight this system appears to be simplicity itself. All 
•that is required is (in theory) to break up the rock containing the 
gold into sufficiently small particles, put the whole into a bath of 
cyanide solutions, and then collect the gold as before explained. 

Metallurgists have always recognised that the recovery of .gold 
by stamps only was limited to say 65% of the actual contents of the 
ore, and that there was always a more or less considerable proportion 
lost w^hich remained in the sands and muddy waters produced by 
■their stamp mills. 

They eagerly availed themselves of the new method for collect- 
ing what was before an apparentlv unavoidable loss. 

The following figures will give an idea of the advantage obtained 
by this successful application of a scientific fact : — 

Gold Outjjut on the Rand in first eight months of 1899: — 

Ore milled 6,067,317 ions. 

Gold produced (fine) 2,976,766 ounces. 

Value ^[2.468,617 

This gold was obtained: — 

Ounces. 

From Mills 1,945,236 equals 65.35% 

From Concentrates, etc. 74)294 ,, 2.50% 

By Cyanide 957.236 „ 32.15% 



2,976.766 .. 100.00% 

VALUE. 

Mill Gold ^8,161,185 

Concentrates 304,398 

Cyanide 4,003,034 



Total value ;^i2,468,6i7 

It can be correctly said that the additional amount of gold won 
by the use of cyanide converted gold mining on the Rand from a 
probably insignificant average profit-giving industr}- into a very re- 
munerative undertaking. 

This new and important process has. however, not been 
accorded its proper place. Instead of being considered as the final 
and principal operation up to which the others should lead, it has 
.been tacked on as an auxilian- to stamp mills and amalgamation 



364 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

processes. The reverse should be the case. The mechanical pre- 
paration of the ore should be directed to providing a product especi- 
ally suited to the Cyanide treatment. 

It was soon found that the crushed material generally produced 
by stamps was not well suiter] to cyanide treatment. 

It contains too large a percentage of extremely fine material 
which fills up the interstices between the larger grains, not only im- 
peding the filtration and efficient draining off of the cyanide solu- 
tions from the mass of sands, but also checking the free entrance of 
air which supplies the greater part of the oxygen required for the 
efficient dissolving of the gold. 

The following table will gi\e an idea of the effect pro<luced l)y 
crushing b\ different .systems. 

The percentages given indicate the amount of crushed ore or 
sand which passed through sieves of certain number of meshes per 
square inch, but remained on the next smaller size. 

Meshes per s(}uare inch 400 900 i6oo 3600 8100 



0/ 



/o 



Wet Stami:)s. 700 Mesh — 11.15 -8.53 9.21 51.11 

Dry Stamp.s, 400 Mesh — 20.30 9.80 21.80 49.10 

Rolls. 400 Mesh 29.00 35.00 14.00 22.00 

Ball Mill. 500 Mesh 20.07 -4-38 13-88 41.67 

Rand experience shews that about 25';,, of the Mill product 
should be classed as " Slimes," i.e., a material ^\•hich does not afford 
free passage to solutions. It is clear, therefore, that wet crushing 
stamps make a far too' large proportion of a finer product than is 
necessary for efficient extraction of the gold, the excess of which must 
be removed and treated separately. 

Dr\' crushing by stamps gives even worse results : see the example 
given where the crushing was stopped at 400 me.sh instead of 700. 

Ball Mills follow clo.sely on stamps. Rolls, however, give a pro- 
duct, the whole of which theoretically should offer no difficult}- to 
percolation, and this has been found to be the case in practice. 

When the ore has been crushed sufficiently fine tO' allow the 
cyanide solution to attack the gold and extract a sufficient percentage, 
any finer crushing is not only a needless waste of power and wear of 
materials, but is also actually detrimental to efficient treatment. 

A distinction must be made between an economically satisfac- 
tory extraction and a very high extraction, as the latter ma}' be ol)- 
tained at a greater cost than the additional gold is worth. 

It has been shewn that a very large amount of gold is won from 
the Mines on the Rand, but it must be remembered that the ore 
mined, milled, and treated to produce this quantity reached the 
enormous total of over six million tons, the gold won from the ton 
(2,000 lbs.) being on the average but 9.81 dwts. (say, 235?, grains) 
worth, say, thirty-nine shillings and threepence (39s. 3d.). 

For this comparatively small value to provide for cost of working 
and give profit as well, it will be readily conceded that great care 



Dry Crushing of Ore. 365 

and economy must be obser\ed in even,- department and full ad- 
vantage taken of even- assistance that mechanical and chemical 
science can afford. 

A saving of one shilling per ton means an addition of ;^45o,ooo 
to the annual profit from the Mines on the Rand. 

Out of the 9.81 dwts. won from each ton of ore, cyanide claims 
credit for at least 3.17 dwts., and it is very probable that the whole 
could have been obtained by the latter process. 

It is surely worth consideration whether the system of mechanical 
preparation of the ore which for centuries has only enabled the miner 
to extract as a rule less than two-thirds of the gold from his ore 
should not be modified or even changed in order to suit the important 
additional means with which science has furnished him in the last 
13 years, a system which has increased the quantity of gold won by 
nearly one-half. 

It is evident that the ideal crushing machinery or system will be 
one which can be adjusted s(j as to reduce the bulk of ore to such a 
size as will enable an economically efficient extraction to be obtained, 
the percentage of particles below this size being as low as possible in 
order to avoid loss of power and the production of the objectionable 
material known on the Rand as " Slimes." 

It is hardly necessarv- to say that the finer the ore is crushed the 
greater will be the expense. 

When treating comparatively low grade ores such as those of the 
Rand, or, say, containing I ounce per ton (worth, say, 40s.), great 
oare must be exercised to avoid that the extra cost incurred in crush- 
ing and extracting an additional five per cent, (worth, say, 2 s.) does 
not exceed, say, is. 6d. (one shilling and sixpence), otherwise the 
operation would be unprofitable. 

On the other hand, ores such as are often mined in Kalgoorlie 
containing 2 ounces of gold per ton could well afford an increased 
cost of several shillings, as 5 per cent, of that value would equal 8s. 

This Paper deals principally with ores of the lower grades, in 
•dealing with which strict economy is necessary. 

A visit to a modern stamj) batter}' in w'ork is necessary in order 
to realise the enormous effect produced by a number of heavy masses 
of iron exceeding half a ton in weight being raised .six to nine inches 
at least 90 times ever}' minute and falling on to solid foundations or 
anvils. 

There is no possibility of arresting the action of one of these 
pestles when in motion, and the ore beneath them stands as much 
chance of being crushed too fine as of being reduced to the required 
size. 

To crush one pound of Rand ore an effort equivalent to from 
7,000 to 8,000 foot pounds is demanded from the engines, not in- 
cluding loss of power from friction, &c. 

The impossibility of checking the crushing action of a stamp 
battery is the cause of the formation of the large percentage of 
slimes bv that method. 



366 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Water is used in stamp milling in order to carry the ore from 
under the stamps. The resulting mixture of slimes and water be- 
comes of higher specific gravity and is more capable of carrying off 
fine particles of gold than pure water could do. Subsequent careful 
settling is necessary in order to collect these particles, and the result 
of the creation of these undesirable slimes was the evolution of the 
" slimes treatment," the weak point in the Cyanide process. 

The addition of lime to the water used in Mills has reduced the 
diflftculty in settling, and also lowered the value of the slimes, but 
unfortunately without leaving the slimes sufficiently poor to throw 
away. 

Dr) crushing, chiefly by means of rolls, offers a solution of the 
problem. The ore can be crushed without water, and the degree of 
crushing can be controlled to a far greater extent than in stamp mills. 

This system has an additional favourable feature, and that is 
that in the case of many ores the whole of the gold could be extracted 
by cyanide in one operation and the cost of the amalgamation process 
avoided. 

To obtain successful results the ore should be broken down in 
stages. 

The material as it comes from the Mine often being in large 
pieces should be first roughly broken in a powerful rock-breaker and 
then passed on to a smaller sized machine which would still reduce 
it to a smaller size. From these machines it should be fed to the 
rolls, each set being adjusted to take the ore from the preceding 
machine and again reduce it in size. By this means each machine 
will be kept working on pieces of a size which suits its design and 
adjustment, and the power available will be economically used. 

The advantages obtained in crushing the ore dr\ preparaton,- to 
cyaniding may be put down as : — 

1. Economy in expenditure of power partly due to ihe crushing 
of the ore being carried only to the extent necessary to give a good 
extraction, and partly to the use of more economical crushers than the 
gravitation stamps. 

2. The outlay in machinery will be less in proportion to the 
saving in power. 

3. Economy in water required, as a ton of dry crushed ore can 
be successfully treated at the expenditure of less than one quarter ot 
a ton of water, whereas stamp batteries require a ver)' large amount, 
frequently passing five tons. 

4. The possibility of winning the gold in one operation, namely 
by exposing the whole of the ore to one cyanide treatment instead 
of having three operations, i.e. amalgamation, cyanide treatment of 
coarse sands and collection and treatment of the slimes. 

The objections raised against Dry crushing can be summed up 
as follows : — 

1. Increased wear of crushing surfaces. 

2. Injurious effects on workmen, machinery, &c.. from the dust 
produced. 

3. Difficulty of crushing and sifting the ore if it is damp. 



Dry Crushing of Ore. 367 

4. Expenses incurred in crushing fine enough to separate the 
gold from the rock. 

5. Impossibility of dissolving coarse gold by cyanide. 

For some reason or other Engineers in South Africa have looked 
upon any departure from the venerable process of wet milling with 
little favour. 

In other parts of the World very large quantities of gold are 
being produced from dry crushed ore. Alfred James in his work on 
Cyanide Practice refers to the " Mammoth installations of the Metallic 
Extraction Company " ; " The Economic Gold Extraction Company '" ; 
the " De la Mar Mines " at Mercur, all in America, the latter plant 
being able to crush 750 tons of hard ore per day to i/8th inch mesh. 
At the Waihi Mines in New Zealand hard ore is crushed dr}' in the 
ordinary stamp battery,, an application of an unsuitable machine to 
a good system, but the results are nevertheless satisfactory. 

In the famous Mount Morgan Mine in Queensland (p. Argall on 
Sampling and Dry crushing in Colorado) in one year 175,000 tons 
were crushed by rolls and Krupp Ball Mills to a i/43rd inch, and in 
Eomeo extremely coarse dn,^ cru.shing has given ver}' good results. 

Some of the American dn crushing mills deal successfully with 
the troublesome telluride ores. 

It should be possible to deal with some of the South African 
ores by dry crushing, although of course some are not suitable, but 
the most important class, namely the Rand Conglomerates, do not 
offer any special difficulty, as on the one hand they contain practically 
an inapp)reciable amount of coarse gold and on the other they do 
not require to be crushed to the extreme fineness of, say the Kalgoorlie 
ores, whxh are commonly reduced to pass a sieve of 40,000 holes per 
square inch. 

The " Marriner " and " Diehl "' processes which give such success- 
ful results in Kalgoorlie ore require extremelv fine grinding as aji 
essential. 

The " Objections " should be dealt with first, for if these can be 
overcome the " Advantages " are too obvious to require much to be 
said in their favour. 

1. Wear of crushing surface. This is given by Argall as 0.108 
lbs. per ton of the rather soft and friable Mount Morgan ore. It is 
crushed to pass sieves of 1,600 holes per square inch. 

At the Euipards Vlei Mine, Witwatersrand, the wear on a mixture 
of free milling and pyritic ore was found to be 0.805 l^s. per ton 
crushed to 200 meshes per square inch. The wear of shoes and dies 
on a typical Rand mill (Wet stamps) crushing to say 600 meshes per 
square inch is returned as 0.75 lbs. per ton of ore crushed. There 
is therefore not much difference between the two processes as regards 
waste of metal. 

2. Diisl. In a well-constructed Roller Mill the escaping dust 
is practically inappreciable, especially if the ore is somewhat damp. 

3. Damp Ore. The cost of drj-ing is not alarming. Argall gives 
it at 5 cents (ski-) per ton to bring moisture flown from 6% to 1%. 
At the Wanderer Mine, Southern Rhudesia. damp ore containing 



368 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

11% to 15% moisture is reduced without difficulty to 2% by means 
of Pape Henneberg driers. Ore with 4% moisture is workable with- 
out drying. The driers are only used in the wet season. 

4. Expense incurred in fine crushing. This is frequently over- 
done. Rand practice is gradually altering and coarser crushing is 
gaining ground. At the Luipards Vlei Mill, pyritic ore crushed to 
700 mesh per square inch was reduced in value to i^ dwts., indicating 
aji extraction practically as good as the average obtained in Wet 
Milling plants. 

5. Di-fficulty of dealing with coarser gold. This is of course 
aji important and positive objection, when it does exist, but in the 
majority of cases the gold is fine enough to be freely dissolved. Gold 
which passes through a sieve with 200 or 300 meshes to the inch 
can be dissolved without much difficulty, and coarser particles should 
not escape if the sieves are working properly but be returned to the 
crushers for further reduction. 



ADVANTAGES. 

1. Saving of power. This brings with it less capital outlay in 
plant as well as in working cost. The economy will more than counter- 
balance any possible excess in cost of renewals. 

At the Wanderer Mine, friable ore of ver)- low grade is economi- 
cally crushed and cyanided when crushed tO' pass sieves with clear 
apertures of 3/i6ths inch square, or 16 to the square inch. The final 
residues do not exceed one dwt. in value per ton and the quantity 
treated at present is 2,000 tons per week. 

2. Simplicity of operations for extracting gold. Plate and 
battery amalgamation are not required. The smaller percentage of 
slimes produced can be mixed with the sands, and the whole treated 
by cyanide in one operation instead of two. The material produced 
is more suited to the action of cyanide solutions and consumption of 
this chemical is lessened. 

3. The amount of water required is very little ; the cost of pump- 
ing is reduced to a minimum, and the large outlay in dams and 
pumping plant inseparable from a stamp battery is reduced to a 
minimum. The balance is decidely against wet crushing. 

A dry crushing plant is not recommended, however, for installa- 
tions dealing with lesr; than 100 tons per day. 



32.— SEWAGE DISPOSAL IN CAPE COLONY. 
By J. Edward Fitt, A.M.I.C.E. 



In dealing with the question of Sewage Disposal in Cape Colony 
very little can be said about what has been done up to the present 
in th.o direction, as with the exception of Cape Town, Sea Point, aiid 
Simon's Town, which have water carriage systems of sewerage with 
sea outfalls, all the Towns and Villages of this country adopt the 
pail system, and the night soil from these receptacles is invariably 
disposed of by bur}ing in the ground, the manner of carrying out 
the work varying only according to the nature of the ground available 
for the purpose or to the fancy of the contractor who undertakes the 
sanitary removals. 

A feeble attempt is made by some Municipalities to cart away 
the urine, slop-water, and other liquid sewage, and dispose of this 
by emptying it upon the land set apart for the reception of the night 
soil ; but as a rule this portion of the sewage is allowed to soak away, 
if it can, into the ground, or to lind its way into the nearest water- 
course. 

The only works for sewage disposal that have been carried out 
in this country are some small installations of the Scott-Moncrieff 
plants which have been erected in several places to deal with the 
sewage from private houses and institutions, some of which have been 
very successful in their action, and the works which have recently 
been established at the Native Location, Maitland, for the purpose 
of dealing with the sewage of a population of about 7,000. These 
works, which will be referred to later on, comprise a septic tank, 
single contact bacteria beds, and final treatment of the effluent b\ 
intermittent filtration through land. 

From this summary of the present sanitary conditions in the 
Colony it will be seen that the question of Sewage Disposal here is 
all for the future. We are fortunate in this respect that before an} 
important works of this description have been carried out, the problem 
which for so many years defied solution has, after much expenditure 
and many failures, been practically sslved by modern research which 
has shown that, under favourable conditions, sewage is capable of 
i)ringing about its self-purification by means of bacteria which are 
indigenous to all sewage, and that these favourable conditions are 
not difficult of attainment, so that this country will be saved the costly 
failures that have resulted from all attempts to deal with sewage by 
chemical treatment which so many English and European Towns 
have experienced when dealing with the question of the disposal of 
their sewage. 

The Bacterica] treatment of Sewage is effected by : — 

(a) Septic Tanks. 

(b) Contact Beds. 

(c) Intermittent continuous filtration. 



37° Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

The Septic tank is one through which the sewage is allowed to 
flow at a slow rate so that the suspended matter in the sewage sinks 
to the bottom of the tank where a certain percentage of it is, in time, 
either liquefied or changed into gaseous products, thereby reducing 
the amount of sludge which has ultimately to be dealt with, while at 
the same time a bacterial action or fermentation is set up in the tank 
and we have a self-purifying process or " working " of the sewage. 
The result is a liquid from which has been removed a large percentage 
nf the solid matter in susp>ension and a smaller percentage of solids 
in solution. Just how much of these solids are removed depends on 
such conditions as the strength and condition of the sewage, the 
general temperature and the rate of flow through the tank, under 
favourable conditions the amount of sludge decomposed appears to 
be from 26 to 30 per cent, of the total suspended matter arrested in 
the tank. 

During the past five or six years the Septic tank has been installed 
in a great many places and while it cannot be considered a complete 
solution of the sewage purification problem it has come to be looked 
upon as an essential first stage in the l)acterial treatment of sewage, 
and in one form or another now takes its place in all sewage disposal 
works. 

" Contact Beds " are filters of porous material in which the 
sewage is allowed to rest for a certain length of time in contact with 
the nitrifying bacteria which form in the filter and which by their 
life process effect a chemical change in the sewage by which it is 
purified. The essential principle of the beds is that a certain amount 
of time should be given between each filling of the beds to allow them 
10 thoroughly aerate in order t(j sui:)ply the organisms with the 
atmospheric oxygen which enables them to perform their work. 

Beds on this principle have i)een extensively used in various 
parts of the world during the past few years Avith success. The 
percentage of purification effected by them depends largely upon the 
regularity in which the periods of filling, standing full, emptying and 
standing empty or aerating is maintained. These contact beds were 
originally used for treating crude sewage but are now used in conjunc- 
tion with septic tanks and it is generally conceded that sewage after 
having undergone preliminary treatment by the septic tank process 
can be purified by contact beds so as not to undergo secondary pu- 
trefaction at the rate of 500,000 to 1.000,000 gallons per acre per 
diem. 

The system that for want of a better title is known as the " Inter- 
mittent continuous filtration " method to distinguish it from continuous 
liltration efl'ects the purification of sewage by the same process as the 
Contact Beds, the difference in the action of this method being that 
instead of allowing the sewage to remain in the filter in contact with 
the nitrifying bacteria for a length of time it is passed through the 
filter in a thin continuous stream, the supply of atmospheric oxvgen 
that is necessary to enable the bacteria to perform their function be- 
ing attained by special construction of the filter and by the means 



Sewage Disposal. 371 

taken to apply the sewage intermittently in a thin stream or in the 
form of drops or spray. 

The filters on this system which are being tried at the present 
time are the " Scott Moncrieff," the " Ducat," the " Whittaker-Bryant.'' 
the '• Corbett " and the " Stoddard " filters. 

Without going to the length of describing the methods uiX)n 
which these different filters are constructed I may state generally that 
these filters are used in conjunction with the septic tank and are 
capable of dealing with a greater amount of sewage than the contact 
beds. The " Ducat '" filter is said to deal with sewage at the rate 
of 1,000,000 gallons per acre per diem; one of the largest plants on 
the intermittent continuous system — a " Whittaker-Br}ant"' plant erect- 
ed at Church near Accrington — is dealing with sewage at the rate of 
2,000,000 gallons per acre per diem and the purification is said to be 
good, while a small " Stoddard "" filter erected near Bristol has been 
nmning successfully at the rate of 5.000,000 gallons per acre per 
diem. 

The construction of these filters, with the exception of the last 
named, is more costly than that of contact beds, and owing to the 
special means that have to be taken to ensure complete aeration the 
cost of maintenance is considerable. 

A brief description of the Sewage Purification works on the 
Contact system which have been constructed at the Native Location, 
Maitland, may be of some interest. 

The sewage is brought from the various parts of the location to 
the sewage works in iron trolleys running on an 18 inch gauge tram- 
way, where it is emptied into a screening chamber and from thence 
it passes over a weir into a septic tank. This is a covered tank with 
a capacity of 6.000 gallons, which is estimated to be the quantity of 
sewage that will be treated daily when the various sanitar}- conveni- 
ences in contemplation have been constructed. The septic tank is 
fitted with partitions or scum boards at a distance of one foot from 
each end. which extend from above water line to within two feet six 
inches of the bottom, an arrangement which causes the liquid passing 
from the tank to be drawn from the middle portion, leaving undisturb- 
ed the sediment which is deposited at the bottom and the thick crust 
or scum which forms at the top ; a weir is formed at the outlet similar 
to the one at the entrance extending the full width of the tank and 
over this the effluent passes in a thin film to a collecting tank 
designed to contain 1,000 gallons; in this tank there are fixed two 
syphons set to discharge the whole of the contents of the tank when 
the liquid reaches a certain level ; these two syphons work automatic- 
ally and discharge alternately on to two bacteria beds which are 
constructed immediately below the tank. 

The bacteria beds are designed to contain 1,000 gallons in 
addition to the filtering material so that each time one of the syphons 
discharges the contents of the collecting tank one of the bacteria beds 
is filled while the other bed is being aerated preparator}' to coming 
into work at the next filling of the collecting tank. 



372 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

The bacteria beds are fitted with automatic timed discharge 
syphons operated by the liquid in the beds passing through a small 
regulating cock which can be set so as to start the syphon and 
discharge the contents of the bed after it has been in the bed. and 
consequently in contact with the bacteria, any desired length of time. 

When these beds are working up to their full capacity each bed 
will be filled three times during the 12 hours of day and will stand 
empty to aerate during the 13 hours of night. 

The filtrate from the bacteria beds passes into an effluent chan- 
nel which discharges into an irrigation furrow, from whence it is led 
over the land in furrows or on to beds according to the requirements 
of the crops to be irrigated. 

Each of the Bacteria Beds is 20 feet long by 8 feet wide and 
averages 3 feet in depth and when working to their full capacity will 
deal with sewage at the rate of 822,800 gallons per acre per diem. 

The cost of the construction of the works was ^400. 

The information and data which we have regarding the Ijacterial 
system of sewage purification is derived from works which have been 
constructed in countries which have a humid climate, where on 
account of the dense jwpulation it is desirable that the area set apart 
for sewage disposal should be as small as is compatible with the 
purpose and where the excessive rainfall makes it necessary that the 
superfluous water should be got rid of as soon as possible. In this 
country those conditions are reversed ; here we have a dry climate 
and at present a scanty population, and under these conditions the 
waste water from sewage works instead of being looked upon as a 
necessar}' evil, to be got rid of as soon as possible, would be stored 
for irrigation purposes and thus form a valuable asset. The area 
of land which would be utilized for the final treatment of the purified 
effluent instead of being as .small as possible would be as large as tht^ 
volume of water would irrigate, and when we consider that the appli- 
cation of water to land increases its value from jQi to ^20 jDer acre 
it seems reasonable to assume that the cost of carr}'ing out Sewage 
Disposal Works in this countPv' will be largely met bv the increased 
value of the land utilized and by the sale of the waste water for 
irrigation purposes. 



1^^ — V.<g^ 



33._THE IRRIGATION QUESTION IN SOUTH AFRICA 

BV \V. Wl-STHOFEN, M.I.C.E. 



The climatic conditions prevailing in South Africa — the un- 
certainty and insufficiency as well as the inequality in distribution of 
the annual rainfall, make it absolutely necessary that irrigation should 
be resorted to if the countr\- is ever to be made a self-supporting one 
so far as the production of foodstuffs is concerned. 

Thousands of square miles of the most fertile land are lying waste 
— more particularly in the Cape Colony, owing to the want of this 
most essential adjunct to agriculture and hu.sbandry in a semi-arid 
climate. 

Irrigation ha.s been practised in South Africa from time imme- 
morial no doubt, yet it may be said with much truth, that the manner 
in which the aboriginal has led water on to his little patch differs Imt 
little from that in which irrigation is practised at the present. 

Broadlv speaking, when it has pleased Providence to provide the 
element, man has, in a leisurely way, seen fit to utilize it, and when it 
has pleased Providence to withhold it man has tamely submitted to 
do without it. 

Within the last 30 or 40 years some progress has certainly been 
made, mainly by individuals who tried to benefit by the experience 
gained in other countries and to- utilize the advantages which scientific 
research and engineering skill has placed at their disposal. But these 
efforts were spasmodic and never on a scale Avhich could result in 
profit to the whole community rather than to the individual. 

It is the object of this paper to examine to some extent into the 
causes which underlie the want of progress in a matter so deeply con- 
cerning the ^yelfare of this countr}- and its inhabitants. 

First and foremost must be held the fact that all public work.s- 
are to a great extent looked upon as counters in the political game. 
However enlightened a Government may be and however anxious to 
further a good cause, it is controlled by Parliament and it has not 
the power to pa.ss measures whirh have not the approval of a majority 
in the Legislature. 

No one who has followed the debates on Irrigation in the House 
of Assemblv could fail to be struck w'ith the extremely narrow and — 
if the term be permissible — parochial views which are held by the 
majority of country Members and which find expression in their 
speeches. It is evident that they are ignorant of what has been done 
in other countries and cannot realise that only by co-operation and 
by working unitedly for the benefit of the whole Colony can any 



374 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

material success be achieved. On the contrary they seem each and 
all interested only in the fortunes of the particular Districts which 
they represent and the idea of one District receiving a large grant 
of money in which others are not tO' share equally is utterly abhor- 
rent to them. 

Thus, whenever a large Government Irrigation scheme is propos- 
ed some Member is sure to rise and argue that it would be far better 
to allow 500 farmers to have an irrigation dam each at the public 
expense than that the whole of the sum total should be spent upon 
one comprehensive scheme in a single District. And that Member 
invariably secures considerable support in his contention. 

Next in importance to the subject just mentioned is the fact of 
the non-existence of efificient and comprehensive laws dealing with 
the ownership of water and its apportionment. Although the subject 
has been brought to its notice year after year for nearly half a century, 
the Legislature of the Colony has never yet made a serious effort to 
establish a code of laws which would once for all settle the vexed 
question of water-rights. It has acted rather on the assumption that 
the existing laws, such as they are, may be looked upon as sufficient, 
and has contented itself in facilitating their application in certain 
directions. 

Various Bills dealing with irrigation were submitted to the 
Legislature between 1861 and 1875, but these were either rejected 
by the Council or by the Assembly, or else withdrawn by their 
proposers. 

The first Act which passed the Legislature and became law in 
the Colony was Act 24 of 1876, called the " Right of passage for 
Water Act," dealing with the right of conveying water for irrigation 
purposes across other persons' lands and with matters connected 
therewith. This Act was, however, repealed by Act 36 of 1882. 

In the year following another Act was passed. Act 8 of 1877, 
constituting Irrigation Districts and Irrigation Boards, defining their 
powers and duties, the raising of loans and fixing of rates of interest 
and repayment, providing for irrigation schemes promoted by private 
individuals, granting them powers to raise loans in Districts where 
Irrigation Boards had not been constituted and laying down regula- 
tions for the settlement of disputes by Arbitration. 

Act 28 of 1879 provides for Municipalities exercising under 
certain conditions the same powers as Irrigation Boards with regard 
to the raising of loans and the imposition of general rates for purposes 
of irrigation or domestic water supplies. 

Act 7 of 1880 was passed in amendment of Act 8 of 1877, 
enabling Government tO' advance instalments of one-fifth of the total 
amount of a loan granted under previous Acts in order tO' assist in 
the construction of Works and to cover preliminary expenditure. 

By Act 26 of 1882, as already stated above. Act 24 of 1876 was 
repealed. It provides more in detail the means of passing water over 
the lands of other proprietors, compensation bv arbitration and 
limitation of servitude. 



The Irrigation Question. 375 

Act lo of 1893 introduces a modified scale of repayment of loans 
granted under preceding Acts. 

Act 33 of 1896 provides for the construction of certain irriga- 
tion works by Government, namely Kenhardt, Steynsburg and 
Calitzdorp. 

Act 24 of 1897 makes further provision for advances to Irriga- 
tion Boards, Municipalities or private persons, and for payment of 
interest and repayment of capital advanced. 

Act 40 of 1899, commonly called the Water Act, 1899, deals 
with the establishment and the constitution of Water Districts and 
Water Courts, solely for the settlement of disputes with regard to 
Water rights. These Courts have very full powers in reference to 
rights of abutment in constructing weirs across watercourses, in 
deciding what materials should be used in the construction of such 
weirs or dams, in apportioning or distributing the available water 
among the various proprietors interested and in fixing the liabilities 
of all such proprietors with regard to expenditure incurred in the 
construction and maintenance of Works, and finally, in dealing with 
questions of compensation. The Act further empowers the Governor 
to disregard section 66 of Act 8 of 1877 which insists upon all loans 
being secured by first mortgage on the properties interested and to 
accept a second mortgage provided the value of the security offered 
be sufficient to cover both first and second mortgage. 

The last Act passed. No. 19 of 1902, provides for the construc- 
tion of the Thebus Irrigation Works by Government. 

It Will be noted that in none of the above Acts has an attempt 
been made to touch the thorny subjects of water-rights or to define 
such in any way. Consequently in all cases where disputes about 
water-rights cannot be settled amicably or by arbitration, recourse 
must be had to the Supreme Courts of the Colony — a fact which has 
a most deterrent effect upon investment of capital in Irrigation 
enterprise. 

Although these Acts provide, to all appearaiice, ever)thing in 
the way of assistance to enterprise, yet as a matter of fact they have 
not proved so successful in operation as had been expected. This 
is proved by the fact that but few persons or public Bodies have 
availed themselves of the facilities offered, and the reasons are not 
far to seek. Some of the conditions attached to the grantmg of 
loans are extremely onerous in many cases and in some absolutely 
prohibitive. 

Months are often spent in the examination of titles in connec- 
tion with the mortgages, and in the end the loan is refused for some 
reason or other. 

Again, the terms of various Acts with regard to loans are 
contradictory or insufficiently clear and several of the Acts require 
amendment. For instance it is laid down in Act 7 of 1880 that 
Government may advance one-fifth of the total loan granted. Such 
an advance is undoubtedly of great assistance to men who do not 
command a large capital, but the Act leaves it uncertain whether 
further advances can be made when the amount of the first advance 



376 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

has been dul) and satisfactorily expended upon the Works, while 
another Act lays it down that advances can only be made to the 
extent of two-thirds of the value of work actually carried out and 
certified to by a Government Engineer. Thus assuming that a loan 
of ^5,000 had been granted, an instalment of ;£i,ooo would be 
advanced on starting the works, but the applicant must spend an 
additional ^2,000 of his own money (or ^3,000 altogether) before 
a second instalment of ^1,000 could be advanced to him, and he 
would have to expend a total of ^4-50° before he could receive a 
third instalment of ;£ 1,000. If the applicant has not sufficient capital 
of his own it is obvious that he will have to borrow elsewhere, prob- 
ably at a high rate of interest, and it will thus be seen that the 
assistance offered by Government is less in reality than would appear 
from a superficial examination. 

The Acts should therefore be amended in such a manner that 
it would be possible to advance a second instalment of one-fifth of 
the total so soon as the first instalment had been properly expended 
upon the work. 

It must be considered that an enterprising farmer who rai.ses a 
loan or mortgage runs a very considerable risk of losing his property, 
should for instance an abnormal flood occur, which might sweep away 
the whole of the Works while luider construction, and to such men 
every assistance and encouragement should be given in the furtherance 
of their objects. 

Other reasons why Irrigation enterprise has not prospered may 
shortly be stated : 

Want of capital. 

Want of experience. 

Ignorance of the best methods of storing water or of applying 
it to the best advantage when it is available. 

Absence of public spirit and disregard of the value and the 
advantages of co-operation among the persons most intere.sted. 

It would be absurd to question the wisdom of the policy of 
constructing roads and railways in order to open up the interior of a 
countr)' and so allow its produce to be distributed in the country 
itself, or else to be forwarded to the ports whence it can be shipped 
to other countries. But it is equally the duty of the Government 
which provides the means of transport to render assistance to the 
producer in the only way in which he should be assisted in the semi- 
arid country, namely, by supplying him with the water he is in need 
of. For a railway once it is constructed may carry a thousand tons 
a week, but it can be made to carry ten times that quantity at com- 
paratively little extra expense. In the former case it may be worked 
at a loss, in the latter at a profit. It stands to reason, therefore, 
that if the producer is enabled to double or treble the amount of hi.<^ 
produce the railway and the whole country must benefit by it. 

Hitherto the assistance given to the producer has mainly been 
in the direction of protective duties, which course, while benefiting 



The Irrigation Question. 377 

him to a slight extent, has had a most disastrous effect in abnor- 
mally raising the cost of living. And what is worse, these protective 
duties have in many instances induced the less industrious and less 
progressive class of farmer to cultivate less of their lands because 
the increased price of the produce has yielded them the income 
which satisfied their wants. 

The serious falling-ofif in the agricultural produce of the Colony 
may not be altogether due to this cause, but from the many instances 
reported of less land being under cultivation it is not unfair to come 
to the conclusion that it has a great deal to do with it. 

It may. therefore, justly be urged that the construction of roads 
and railways should go hand in hand with irrigation works which will 
help to make the railways pay, and which may ultimately not only 
provide food-stuffs for the }jeople of this Colony, and so make it 
self-supporting, but ma\ even open up a trade with other countries in 
articles which are now imported in large quantities. 

And, further, the subject of irrigation should be treated in a 
broad and generous spirit, and .so long as there is a reasonable 
prospect of the iieople generally benefiting by this policy, the question, 
whether a scheme is likely to pav interest in one or two years on 
capital expended should never be raised nor should it influence a 
•decision. 

The subject of irrigation mav be broadly divided into two main 
sections : — 

1. The collection and preser\ation or storage of water. 

2. The utilization of the water to the best advantage after it has 
been stored. 

With regard tO' the first, it is ncjt to the credit of the Legislature 
that so little has yet been done in that direction. One of the most 
important features in connection therewith is the knowledge of the 
amount of water available at a given point, and to obtain this the 
very first requirement is a complete hydrographic survey of the 
Colony. 

It is true that a commencement was made as earlv as i860, when 
Government established the Meteorological Commission — the labours 
of which have resulted in furnishing a number of useful data. The 
Commission has placed a large number of rain gauges in different 
parts of the Colony, and has arranged for readings to be taken and 
recorded. These results are published year by year in a report to 
Parliament. 

The funds placed at the disposal of the Commission are quite 
inadequate, however, for the purpose, and the rain gauges far too 
few in number to furnish an\ thing but very general data. With one 
rain gauge to perhaps one hundred or several hundred square miles 
sufficient information of a reliable nature cannot be obtained, more 
particularly when it is considered that there may be plains adjoining 
mountain ranges rising to 3,000 and 4,000 feet, with the rain gauge 
placed — not at a point where a fair average fall might be registered, 
but in a place where the unpaid observer can conveniently get to it. 



378 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

The data obtained from rain guages, however, are not in them- 
selves conclusive, inasmuch as in all cases the whole of the rainfall 
could not be collected or stored owing to the absorption by the soil 
and evaporation by sun and wind. Hence it is necessary, in order 
to arrive at a correct idea of the amount of water available, to 
measure, in conjunction with the rainfall, the amount of flow-off in 
river channels. 

This is the object of the proposed hydrographic survey, the 
importance of and necessity for which has been impressed upon 
successive Governments, but so far without result. 

In this Colony, where we do not derive any water from the 
eternal snoAvs which are denied to South Africa, we are dependent 
entirely upon rainfall and its conservation, and to our rivers we must 
look for our supplies — yet of the capacities of our rivers we are as 
vet absolutely ignorant. 

The hydrographic survey is necessary to esta1)lish :- - 

I. The amount of rainfall over a given area, which is called a 
watershed, and which embraces the sources and tributaries of a great 
river. 

::. The periods of the year during which such rainfall occurs in 
the various sub-divisions of a watershed. 

3. The amount of flow-off at various points along the course of 
the river, that is, the difference between the total quantity of rain- 
water which falls and that which has evaporated, or has been absorbed 
by the soil before the point is reached at which measurements are 
being taken. 

As a ground work or basis upon which such observations will be 
made, the Colony has been divided into ten distinct hydrographic 
areas or districts, each of which comprises the whole of one or more 
large rivers, and each such district may be sub-divided into smaller 
districts, which may embrace one or more of the tributaries. 

The first work of the survey would consist of laying down 
definite boundaries for each district or sub-district, and to ascertain 
the exact superficial area of each. Rainfall statistics would be ob- 
tained at various points in order tO' establish a fair average figure for 
such rainfall, and at suitable points measuring weirs would be placed 
to ascertain the amount of flow-off. Similar weirs placed at or near 
the confluence of several tributaries would establish a check upon 
the detailed readings, and would allow of arriving at a fair estimate 
of the losses due tO' soakage and evaporation in the larger channels. 

Data collected in this manner would be of the greatest value 
and utility in estimating within a comparatively short period of time 
the potentialities of any irrigation scheme submitted to GoAemment, 
while under present conditions much of the information required has 
to be guessed at or based upon entirely insufficient information. Nor 
are such data of use in the case of irrigation alone. 

In the designing of bridges, for instance, the principal item 
of knowledge required is the maximum flood level recorded at the 
site fixed upon. At present it is an established custom, when 



The Irrigation Question. 379 

direct evidence is not obtainable, to consult the oldest in- 
habitant, but the information furnished by those worthies is 
frequently very misleading and incorrect in recorded instances by 
8 to 10 feet in the height reached by a flood. The designer naturally 
does not wish tO' place his structure higher than necessar\- for safety 
— to avoid unnecessar}- expenditure in piers, abutments, embankments, 
and approach roads — ^yet, on the other hand, placing it a foot or two 
too low may spell disaster, and much greater expenditure in the end. 

Equallv important is the knowledge of river flows in the case of 
^^•ater supplies for villages or towns or for industrial purposes. 

During the sittings of the Peninsula Commission the writer was 
asked to furnish information with regard to the approximate cost of 
surveys of the river sources of some of the principal streams within 
50 or 60 miles of Cape Town. In not a single case were any data 
available shewing the extent of the watersheds, the average rainfall, 
or the amount of flow-off, all of which would have been found in the 
records of a proper hydrographic survey. 

.Such a survey would also disclose the localities where permanent 
weirs might be constructed tO' retain some of the water, which now 
after heavy rains disappears into the sea in the course of a few hours, 
thus robbing the agricultural lands of an inestimable benefit. 

^lany of the Colonial rivers, such as the Orange, the Great Fish, 
the Oliphants, the Gamka, the Gouritz, and many others, carry with 
their flood waters into the sea immense quantities of soil and organic 
substances extremely valuable as fertilising agents. A series of low 
weirs with sluices in each would hold up the greater bulk of such 
matters, and when the floods have subsided the sluices could be 
gradually opened, the water drained off, and the deposits allowed to 
solidify, after which they could be carted away and deposited upon 
the poorer lands and ploughed in. Or in places where the configura- 
tion of the ground is suitable the silt laden flood waters could be led 
upon such lands direct. 

Another useful feature of the hydrographic survey would be the 
gradual collection of data regarding what has been done or is doing 
at the present time in the various divisions of the Colony in the way 
of irrigation. Of such ver\' little is to be found in official records, 
and this mostly in connection with schemes carried out within the 
last decade. It is well known, for instance, that irrigation is prac- 
tised on a fairly large scale in the Oudtshoorn District, but what this 
actually amounts to, what crops are raised, and in what quantities, 
what area of land is actually under irrigation, the amount of water 
consumed, the manner of its distribution, the sources from which it 
is taken, are all matters which may be well known to a few local 
people, but of which nothing reliable can be obtained from official 
records. 

This paper has so far dealt with rain water stored directly after 
it has fallen. There is, however, another supply available, namely, 
the water which has been lost to ordinary storage by having per- 
colated into the ground and formed natural storage reservoirs in 



380 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

crevices or cavities in the pervious strata. Such water can be 
reached and recovered by means of tunnels, if in the hill side, or 
else by boreholes or wells. A paper on this subject will be read 
during the present session, and it is not necessary, therefore, to say 
here more than that the cost of raising such water to^ the surface is, 
owing to the scarcity and high price of fuel in the Colony, at present 
prohibitive except when dealing with comparatively insignificant 
quantities. 

The same drawback exists in the case of rivers with high banks, 
where the lands tO' be irrigated are situated some 30 to 40 feet above 
the river bed. Several very promising irrigation schemes on the 
Orange and other Colonial river systems had tO' be abandoned 
through this cause, the local conditions being such that only by an 
abnormally long canal, the maintenance of which would be much too 
co.stly, could water be conveyed to such lands by gravitation. 

With regard to the second main point, namely, the utilization of 
the water collected and stored, this falls partly within the scope of 
the Engineer and partly within that of the Agriculturist and Chemist. 

To the Engineer belongs the construction of the head works, 
the main canal, sluices, aqueducts, flumes, flood gates, overflows, 
bridges, and so forth. 

The main difficulties are met with in the construction of the 
main canal, passing as it does through soils and materials of all sorts, 
now through hard rock, next through gravel or thrcnigh sand, \\hen 
pitching with stone or puddling with stiff clay may become 
necessary. 

Rivers and swamps have to be dealt with in the most economical 
manner, and overhanging krantzes negotiated by laying pipes or 
flumes on brackets fastened tO' the rock. Careful and accurate 
levelling is of the utmost importance in order that the water may have 
a gradual fall towards the end. The hydraulic gradient must be 
reduced to a minimum in order that a maximum of irrigable land may 
be commanded, in recent cases the fall being as little as 8 to 9 inches 
per mile. 

Much trouble is caused to weirs and canal l)anks by moles, cral)s, 
and rats, which burrow for sustenance and moisture under the 
bottom and through the banks, and cause serious leaks which are 
difficult to locate and to stop. The tramping of cattle and sheep u]) 
and down the banks in search of water also causes frequent damage, 
and last, though not least, thunderstorms and winter floods fre- 
quently destroy in the course of a few hours the work of many 
months. 

IntO' the question of applying the water when it has been brought 
to the lands it is not the object of this paper to enter — it is a verv 
large and very important subject for this Colony, and will probal^K 
be dealt with on a future occasion. 

Under the Acts enumerated above only two public schemes have 
so far been constituted. 

Some 15 years ago an Irrigation Board was established at 
Warrenton on the Vaal River, and has been in existence since. It is 



The Irrigation Question. 3Jii 

said to be successful, but no data whatever as to its development or 
its present condition are available. 

About the same time the first Government scheme was started 
at Douglas, on the Vaal River, not far from its confluence with the 
Orange. But it was badly conceived, and had to be entirely recon- 
structed in 1893-95 '^y the Public Works Department. 

There is water in abundance and good land, but the spirit of 
enterprise and co-operation is wanting. 

A large number of en^en have been sold, and at good prices, 
but the people complain that they have no market for their produce, 
and so restrict their energies to the production of what they require 
for their own immediate use. 

A road is now being constructed from Duuglas to Belmont — a 
station on the railway to Kimberley — and facilities will be given for 
the disposal of all produce on the Kimberley market. 

The most successful scheme so far is undoubtedly that of the 
Breede River Irrigation at Robertson. It was originally contemplated 
to start this as a Government scheme, and the route of the canal and 
the irrigable lands were surveyed, but the amounts asked as com- 
pensation by the owners through whose properties the canal M^as to 
pass were so large that the scheme had to be abandoned. 

Subsequently a few of the more enlightened and energetic pro- 
prietors formed themselves into an Irrigation Board, with the sanc- 
tion of the Government, and raised a loan of ^30,000 for the con- 
struction of the works. These consist mainly of a weir in the Breede 
River, about six miles above Robertson, and nearly 31 miles of main 
canal. The weir itself is 1,200 feet in length, and consists of a 
concrete wall or core backed by pitched rubble slopes on each side. 
The concrete core is 15 feet in depth, and is carried down to 8 feet 
below the river bed. The stone for the backing had to- be con- 
veyed for a distance of nearly two miles. 

The work was started in February. 1900. and would have been 
completed about 12 months agO' but for the abnormal flood of 
February. 1902. which did a great deal of damage to some of the 
minor works. The weir itself, however, has successful 1\ withstood 
the severe Breede River floods, some of which overflowed it to the 
extent of 9 feet. 

The canal terminates near Ashton, and discharges its surplus 
waters into the Cogman's Kloof River, but a further extension of 
about 3^ miles is contemplated. 

The total area to be irrigated by the scheme is about 5,200 
acres, and though in an unfinished state lands have been irrigated 
for many months past at a distance of from 14 to 16 miles from the 
head works. 

It is interesting to note that the compensation paid to land- 
owners along the line of canal has, under the arrangements made bv 
the Irrigation Board, not amounted to as many hundreds as 
thousands were asked for when it was looked upon as a Government 
scheme. 



382 Report S.A.A. ADVANXiiMENX of Science. 

In concluding this paper, it is only fair and just to acknowledge 
that the present Government, since peace has once more been pro- 
claimed, has — in the person of the Commissioner of Public Works 
(the Hon. Arthur Douglass) — taken active and energetic steps to 
place the subject of irrigation in the forefront of public works to be 
carried out in the immediate future. 

During the last Session of Parliament a Bill passed the Legisla- 
ture authorising the construction of the Thebus Irrigation Works, at 
an expenditure approximating ;^i 50,000. 

This work was practically commenced some months ago. Further 
schemes are contemplated to be submitted to the ensuing Session 
of Parliament, and all those interested in the question of irrigation 
may, therefore, look forward with hope and confidence to an era of 
prosperity and progress in this our Colony of the Cape of Good 
Hope. 



34-— THE ARTESIAN WELLS OF THE CAPE COLONY 
By Bernard William Ritso. ^LI^•ST.C.E., F.G.S. 



TERMS USED.. 



As a doubt exists in the minds of many whether there is a differ- 
ence or not between a bore, a boring, or a borehole, and an artesian 
well, it is better at the outset to make this clear. 

From early times holes have been bored into the earth to tap 
subterranean water confined, in porous strata, under sufficient hydros- 
tatic pressure to rise to the surface, and as wells of this description 
were tirst known in Europe in the French Province of Artois, the 
term " artesian "' implied originally a boring from which water flowed 
at the surface, or was spouted above it, like a fountain. In many 
cases, however, the pressure was not sufficient to raise the water in 
the borehole to the surface; still, the same term was applied to all 
wells from which water could be conveniently pumped. To-day. 
judging from current European literature, the term " artesian well " 
is used to designate all vertical shafts of narrow dimensions put down 
for the especial purpose of obtaining water, in contradistinction to the 
expression '' well,'' which signifies a vertical shaft of much larger 
diameter. The American terms " drilled-well " and '' dug-well " 
express the meaning excellently, and are synonymous with the pre- 
sent use of " artesian well '" and " well." 

SURFACE FEATURES. 

The geography and superficial features of this Colony, which 
now includes Bechuanaland and the Transkeian Territories, are too 
well known to require more than a passing remark. The land rises 
from the sea towards the interior in a series of terraces, formed by 
ranges of mountains, which, having comparativel}- little slope on the 
landward side, constitute a succession of gigantic steps from the 
coast to the Great Karroo, a plateau which can be described as a 
part of the central tableland of South Africa. The position of the 
coast plateau, of the Southern and Central Karroos lying between the 
ranges of mountains and the Northern Karroo and Bechuanaland 
beyond them, "as well as the situation of the Eastern slope and the 
Transkei, are familiar. The relative heights of these plains have 
been noticed by ever}one travelling from Cape Town by rail towards 
the Orange River, but few people have become acquainted with the 
geological structure of the country, upon which so' much depends 
with regard to the existence and accessibilitv of underground sup- 
plies of water, so that a brief sketch of it may assist in explaining some 
of the allusions to geological data in connection with artesian wells 
in this Colonv. 



384 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

GEOLOGY. 

The systematic study and observation of the facts recorded in the 
rocks, which throw light on the general structure of the more 
southerly part of the African Continent, have been carried on by the 
Geological Commission during the' past seven years, and the collec- 
lioni and interpretation of the phenomena met with have done much 
in deciphering the historx of the formation of the earths crust ii? 
these regions, and have gone far to unravel the mysteries of the far 
distant past. 

The \ast abvss of time which these archives embrace is ha[)pily 
divided in two by the records of a change of climate, singular for 
this latii''de. and unsuspected in .so remote an era; and this can be 
conveniently used to separate the groups of sedimentary strata into 
the older and the }ounger rocks, especially as the much tilted posi- 
tion of the former contrasts with the nearlv horizontal beds of the 
latter. 

There is no beginning to this history, only, far back in the early 
stages of continental evolution in this hemisphere, a group of rocks 
of aqueous origin was formed, but where the sediments came from, 
or how these sea deposits Avere made, is a subject difficult even to 
speculate on. Nothing can be seen but the remnant of an ancient 
land, a relict of the remote past. ])laned down to a sea level bv the 
denuding forces of countless ages, crumpled by stupendous crustal 
movements, and through it have intruded the once molten masses 
from below, which, sunk again deep below the ocean, for millions of 
years perhaps, have made a foundation (in which to build another 
Continent — one we know more of. 

A part of this Continent, which prol)abI\ extended far to the 
South, and possibly was connected with India and Australia, is the 
land of to-day in the Southern portion of this Colony. It has been 
formed, layer by layer, in ancient seas, of the water-borne debris of 
Continents no longer known in connection with the present distribu- 
tion of sea and land. Again, it has risen above the surface in 
obedience to the mysterious laws of elevation and subsidence, to 
which land appears subject, and the very alphabet of which is as yet 
dimly understood. Standing thus, exposed to denudation, active 
through a hundred thousand centuries, its upper beds have, in places, 
been cleared away, and even the lowest strata laid bare. In the Cape 
Peninsula the first layer of Table Mountain sandstone can be seen 
resting on the tilted strata of the ancient Malmesbury slate formation, 
and on the denuded surface of the granite rocks ; but inland towards 
the North and East, as the land rises, the two succeeding grej. t groups 
of strata are still found at the surface of the ground — the earlier, 
known as Bokkeveld Beds, occupying the Southern Karroo, and the 
later forming the mountains beyond, called Witteberg Beds. These 
older formations are chiefly composed of schists, .slates, quartzites. 
sandstones, and shales, and. after having been folded into mountain 
ranges, have suffered much denudation, and this espec'allv nearer the 
coast. 



Artesian Wells. 385 

Thai succeeded the period alluded to. as separating the older 
from the younger rocks, and a glacial conglomerate was formed on or 
near what seems to have been the shores of an inland sea. and, later, 
through the immense space of time which stretches from the beginning 
of the Carboniferous epoch through the Permian to the end of the 
Triassic. this sea seems to have gradually filled up — the alternate 
beds of sandstone and shale, full of fossil remains, pointing to long 
continued deposition in shallow water and subsequent elevation. 

Intervals, when deposition ceased and was renewed under 
different conditions, have divided this great mass of strata. 6.000 
feet thick, into three well-defined series, and these have been named 
after the places or districts in which they have been found tvpically 
developed. The first after the Dwyka or glacial conglomerate is 
called Ecca Beds, forming the Central Karroo, the next Karroo Beds 
covering the Northern Karroo, and the third, spreading over the 
Eastern Upland. Stormberg Beds. 

Excepting Bechuanaland. where there are series of rocks whose 
relations with those in this Colony and in the Transvaal have not yet 
been studied and defined, these eight groups of strata form the great 
bulk of the part of the Continent called Cape Colony, which, save 
small areas in the Southern portion of the Colony covered with 
deposits in seas of Jurassic and more recent times, has been dry land 
since the middle of the Mezozoic period ; that is to say, that while the 
greater {)art of Europe, including Great Britain, and much of North 
America, w^ere under the ocean, and the Cretaceous and Tertiary^ 
systems of the Northern Hemisphere were in the process of forming, 
South Africa was drv land. 



RAINFALL. 

Whatever the climate may have been like in ages gone bv. the 
Colony, except the country near the Southern Coast and the Trans- 
keian Territories, does not in these days enjoy sufficient rainfall to 
make the excellent soil, which it generally possesses, productive. 
This dr\ness is most accentuated in the North- Western areas — in fact, 
the district near where the Orange River enters the Atlantic Ocean 
is almost rainless — and the rainfall increases from West to East across 
the Colon V. save in the South-West comer. A series of observations, 
extending (-jxer many years, have been taken all over the Colony by 
the Meteorological Cop'mission. K-hich most useful work renders it 
possible to map out .he areas of country over which different 
quantities of rain f?^';. 

From these duca. to give an idea of the relative dryness, it mav 
be roughly stated that over half the Colony — which includes the 
Northern and Central Karroos, the North- Western Coast, and a por- 
tion of Bechuanaland — the rainfall is less than 10 inches annually; 
over a third, which takes in the Southern Karroo, the Eastern Uplands, 
and the rest of Bechuanaland. it is between 10 and 20 inches; and 
onlv over the remaining sixth, consisting of the Cape Peninsula, part 



386 RbroRT S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

■of the Coast and the Transkei. does the rainfall exceed 20 inches. 
This latter portion is irrigated by perennial streams and rivers; 
si^rings and streams derived from the more moist mountain districts 
give a supply, which serves for cultivation, to the second ; but over 
half the area, of the Colony rivers flow for only a few days in the 
year, and that vast tract of country which, under other climatic 
conditions, would be as fertile as any in the world, is practically a 
desert. 

INCREASING DRYNESS. 

This unhappily is not all. There is a notion abroad that the 
climate is growing still more dry. It is to be met with in papers and 
books, and in man}- parts of the Colony the older farmers have shewn 
the author where streams and rivers once ran, and told him of 
numbers of springs years ago yielding plentiful supplies, which are 
gradually falling off. Through the observations of rainfall for nearly 
50 years, and by the help of other records extending over the period 
of 50 years before that, it can be confidently stated that there 
is no appreciable diminution in that respect, but there are other 
causes which will produce a similar effect, and doubtless the 
change of climate noticed by these old residents is due to them. It 
is evident tliat if vegetation, which [)revents the fallen rain from im- 
mediately running off the surface and facilitates its soaking into the 
soil or the porous rock, is destroyed, and its journey to the nearest 
channel, which conducts it to a stream which leads to a river, and so 
to the ocean, is assisted, the country will benefit much less by rain 
that does fall ; and practices which bring about these results do 
appear tO' increase year by year. One of these is the burning of the 
veld, so that young grass may spring uj:* — an ancient custom of doubt- 
ful benefit to the pasturage but of positive harm to the .springs ; 
another, the destruction of forests, which, despite the strenuous 
efforts of the Forest Department to preserve them, seems to go on 
in some parts of the Colony ; but the principal cause is over-stocking. 
The evils of over-stocking are not only the too rapid eating down of 
the grass but the animals, by passing over the same tracks again and 
again, make shallow channels for the water to run in after rains, and 
these gradually deepen, not only quickly carrying away the surface 
water but draining the ground to some extent below the surface, and 
water which would have penetrated into the earth or have l:)een 
converted into vapour, to descend again as rain, now is hurried away 
to the ocean. 

RIVERS AND LAKES. 

The sources of the rivers too are in the interior, where the 
country becomes drier, and as the scanty rainfall there is not distri- 
buted over many days in the yeaf, the laii, wiien it does come, is 
heavy, so that the streams, owing to the sharp slope of the land to the 
sea, roll in torrents to the coast, but when the floods are past their 



Artesian Wells. 3^7 

beds soon become nearly dry channels again. They have cut their way 
through the mountain ranges in deep gorges and have eroded 
channels, sometimes hundreds of feet in depth in the lower part of 
their courses, so that their waters cannot be used for irrigating the 
lands they pass through without heavy expense in pumping. There 
are no lakes in the Colony, but " pans " or depressions retain fresh 
water for a while after rains, but these become too brackish to be of 
any use even to cattle before they dry up. 



SUPPLIES OF WATER. 

For a country so situated, the essential factor of its agricultural 
development, as well as the primary need of all its communities, is 
water. The storage, however, of the portion of the rainfall which 
flows off the surface, and the utilisation of the river waters, have so 
many especial drawbacks in this Colony that of late years attention 
has been directed to the possibility of obtaining supplies from the 
portion of the rainfall which percolates into the ground, and experi- 
nents in that direction have met with such success that high hopes 
are entertained that a part of the much-needed supply can be 
procured from below the surface, instead of being caught upon it. 



UNDERGROUND WATER. 

The advantages of naturally filtered water were so obvious that 
the only doubt remaining was whether it existed in sufficient volumes 
at depths below the surface from which it could be economically 
drawn. It was thought that, although there was plenty of porous 
rock in the Karroo formations, the iX)sition of the strata was not 
favourable, and that in other parts of the Colony the older rocks 
were not water bearing, but these theories have been proved to be 
incorrect. It was doubted too whether boring would tap water which 
would rise to the surface of the ground, but all over the country 
sites have been found where the necessary geological conditions ob- 
tain and excellent true artesian supplies result, sometimes spouting 
15 to 30 feet above the surface, but not of any large volume. Ho^v- 
ever, now that the Government possesses machinerv capable of 
boring deeper, it is anticipated that, by employing qualified geological 
assistance in the selection of sites where the requisite conditions 
prevail, much may be accomplished, especially in the svnclinal folds 
of the older rocks, which the small machines have not hitherto been 
able to reach, although it is well understood that no extensive artesian 
areas, like those in Australia or the United States, exist in this 
country. From the work done and the experience gained during the 
last ten years, the important and gratifying fact has been established 
beyond question that an excellent supply of underground water does 
exist almost all over the Colonv. 



388 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

FLOWING WELLS. 

The principal yield of flowing water ha.s been from the Karroo 
Beds, which have been subjected to more recent vf)lcanic movement, 
and where dolerite has intruded into fissures formed in the sedimentary 
crust with very little disturbance of the strata. These ridges of 
igneous rock are quite impervious to water and extend to unknown 
depths, so that they are practically underground dam-walls, cutting 
off the flow of water along inclined strata of porous rock, and, where 
these are covered by watertight beds and have also the strata im- 
mediately below impermeable, the w^ater rises to the surface or above 
it. In other parts of the countr)' also water flowing at the surface is 
tapped, but the occurrence of the necessary conditions at shallow 
depths is less frequent. However, there can be little doubt but that 
great numbers of sites can be selected among the folded rocks of 
the pre-Karroo formation where flowing water could be successfully 
tapped by artesian wells at greater depths than tho.se reached up tO' 
the present time. 

PUMtABLE WATER. 

With regard to water under ordinary conditions, standing in 
saturated porous strata, moving slowly through them, or passing by 
fissures, joints and cleavage planes into more ojjen channels or 
subterranean reservoirs,' this in less or greater quantities exists every- 
where in the Colony, except over some small areas of igneous rock. 
in the Karr(K) Beds the strata are porous, the sandstones more so 
than the shales, to a depth of 100 feet, and then become compact and 
impervious. The Ecca Beds of the Central Karroo yield good supplies 
at depths of 50 to 200 feet, and the Bokkeveld Beds of the Southern 
Karroo at still greater depths, but the supplies tajjped toward the 
coast line in the older rocks at these shallow depths are not so 
plentiful as in the Karroo. In Bechuanaland, the relations of the- 
water-bearing strata are not clearly understood, as the general 
stmcture of the region has not l)een systematically examined, and 
the boring done there, although in a measure successful, has been 
executed without sufficient knowledge of the geological conditions, 
while in the Transkeian Territories a sufficient number of boreholes 
has not \et been put down to afford an idea of the volume and depth 
of the supplies. .Since, however, the Ecca and KarroO' series are 
developed there and the rainfall is far greater, there is every reason 
to suppose that water will be found in larger quantities than in the 
drier regions of the Karroo, although the igneous intrusions appear 
at present to cause more trouble than those more to the West. 



QUALITY OF WATER. 

These underground waters are usually of excellent quality, though 
occasionally they are impregnated with salts or sulphuretted hydrog'^n 



Artesian Wells. 3^9 

from the decomposition of iron pyrites. When, however, the gas 
from the latter has been evaporated by exposure to the atmosphere, 
the water is often drinkable : indeed, cattle have sometimes been found 
to prefer it to pure water, and vegetation flourishes when watered 
by it. 

UTILISATION OF SUPPLIES. 

The existence of such supplies of .subterranean water would be 
of little value unless a more economical method of reaching them 
could be found than digging wells, but the advances made during 
late years in boring machinery and methods of sinking boreholes 
have practically solved the question, and the extensive experiments 
made have proved that this magnificent store of water — one of the 
Colony's most valuable assets^ — can be tapped and utilised at a cost 
within the means of any stock-farmer or agriculturist. The boreholes 
as yet put down, although admirable for the stock-farmer, are not 
large enough to^ be used for extensive irrigation. However, one of 
the principal improvements aimed at in sinking artesian wells is 
the increase of the supplies by enlarging the diameter of the bore- 
holes and deepening the same if necessary. From the small 
beginnings already made in this direction developments of a highly 
satisfactor}^ character are expected, which the addition of more power- 
ful machiner}- to the boring plant has made possible in the future. 



DEPTH OF SUPPLIES. 

The depth at which water is struck varies considerably with the 
geological formation and the earth-movement to which it has been 
subjected, and ranges from lo to 800 feet. Search at greater depths 
has not been carried on, because it is only now that boring machinen,^ 
capable of sinking deeper has been provided, except in the case of 
one bore in the Lower Karroo, which was put down to a depth of 
1,500 feet with a machine of obsolete pattern, but produced no re- 
sult from which anything could be learned on this subject. 



RISE OF THE WATER. 

The water in about one-third of the artesian wells rises to the 
surface and sometimes above it. owing to the geological conditions 
being such that the water-bearing stratum contains the water under 
hydrostatic pressure. Some of these are the well-known conditions 
where porous beds, which being exposed at the surface receive 
supplies from the rains or rivers, are underlaid and also covered by 
impervious strata, and the series of strata are bent into a basin or 
trough with no escape for the water until boreholes are pierced 
through me upper impervious beds, when the pressure forces the 
water to the surface. Other less familiar conditions, producing a 



39© Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

similar result, are where the water enters the coarse stratum at its 
outcrop on the surface and flows down the dip of the beds, being 
confined to the porous strata by impervious material above and 
below, until it reaches an obstruction to its course, such as an igneous 
dyke, or a portion of strata which has graded into a more compact 
rock whicii gives no passage to the water, or a fault cutting it off 
by an impervious rock barrier, so that being tapped at a point where 
the surface is lower than at the catchment outcrop, the water rises 
almost to the same level as the intake. In the remaining two-thirds 
of the artesian wells these conditions either do not exist or are so 
modified that the pressure is not sufficient tO' cause the boreholes to 
flow at the surface, and windmill pumps or other means are required 
to raise the water. 

WATER-BEARING HORIZONS. 

The question of underground water supply has so recently 
received attention in South Africa that our knowledge of this great 
and important subject, in its relation to this country, is naturally at 
present limited, but as the number of artesian wells increases so will 
the knowledge of water-bearing horizons in the various geological 
formations become enlarged, so that there is a strong hope these may 
be determined definitely in certain regions of the Colony. 



SELECTION OF SITES. 

In most cases the selection of sites for boring is restricted, and 
in some there is nothing that can be termed selection at all. Water 
supplies for Public Buildings and Institutions are usually required on 
the premises, and it often happens that if the site could have been 
shifted a few yards a much less depth would have sufficed to reach 
the water; or if the position of the borehole could have been moved 
down the dip of the strata a short distance, flowing water would have 
been tapped and pumping entirely avoided. Even on farms, where 
the space is not so limited, the really good site is often just over the 
boundary fence, and it is seldom that, in picking out sites for the 
shallower bores, under 500 feet in depth, there is sufficient choice of 
ground to give an adequate opportunity of applying the principles 
of hydrogeology tO' advantage. These principles would suggest the- 
careful examination of the surface indications — like the lines of 
land drainage, the existence of bush or forest which impede the 
flow off of the rain, the areas where percolation is probable, and the 
existence of springs shewing where the surplus water below finds 
access to the surface — before taking into< consideration the denuda- 
tion and erosion the original land has undergone, and the deposition 
of the resulting drift or alluvium ; or the effect which dip, strike, and' 
structural jointing of the stratified rocks would have on the course ol 
subterranean drainage, and that which the position and capacity of 
the water-bearing formations would have on the lines of saturation.. 



Artesian Wells. 391 

In localities disturbed by volcanic upheavel, or by the more 
lateral thrusts of cmstal movements due to secular refrigeration^ 
faults and folding of the strata make the selection much more difficult 
and uncertain than in regions where the rocks lie more or less as they 
were deposited, because the faults and fissures lead the underground 
water in directions impossible to estimate at the surface, and often 
to inaccessible depths ; and it requires considerable experience, allied 
with keen observation, to determine on favourable situations for 
boring. By sinking a number of boreholes in it, a practical acquaint- 
ance with a formation may be gained, which is of great value in this 
work, and the local knowledge of the occupiers of the land is often 
of assistance. 

GEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

In the younger rocks of the Karroo, where the beds of sandstone 
and shale are almost horizontal and are traversed in all directions by 
dykes of igneous rock, the selection of sites is fairly easy, as the im- 
pervious dolerite obstructs the flow of subterranean water and 
encloses .spaces of various areas forming underground tanks, which, 
if the strata have any inclination and the denuded ends of the porous 
sandstone beds are exposed, act as true artesian areas. An examina- 
tion of the dip and strike of the strata and of the position of the 
walls of impervious rock point to a situation for a borehole which will 
drain the whole of the enclosed underground area, and, under favour- 
able conditions, flow at the surface. But among the older rocks of 
the South and West of the Colony, besides the supplies nearer the 
surface, there would appear to be water stored in the trough-like folds, 
due to earth-movements, lying, however, at considerable depths, 
which, if it could be tapped, would require deep borings, from which 
it must flow at the surface to be of material value for agricultural 
purposes. Sites for .such boreholes must not be restricted in any 
way, and must be placed in the position determined by a geologi- 
cal sun-ey of the neighbourhood shewing the syncline in which the 
water is stored, and the preceding and succeeding anticlines on 
which the ends of the porous and impervious strata are generally 
exposed by denudation, and alsO' the position of the axial bend, which 
makes the folded rocks approximate tO' or fulfil all the conditions of 
a basin. In like manner, if the high value of Avater for domestic 
purposes makes it worth w-hile to pump it from a considerable depth, 
a geological sun'ey must be made of the vicinity, and all available 
knowledge relating to the water-bearing possibilities of the formation 
should be collected, in order to ascertain if even a large expenditure- 
would be likely tO' result in tapping a sufficient supply. 

THE "DOWSER." 

These considerations are, however, in the minds of some people,, 
of no importance, and all that is necessar}- is to get a man called a 
" dowser " or " water-finder,'"' whoi possesses some facult}- which enables 



39^ Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

him tO' walk about with a forked twig in his hands, which twig bows 
itself down when the man passes over water under the ground. More- 
over, if the " dowser " is exceptionally gifted, his twig, by other signs, 
Avill tell him exactly at what depth the water will be found and the 
quantity in gallons. As a professor in a Science College has written 
428 pages on the subject, and presumably educated men, such as 
Noblemen, Bishops and Members of Parliament, employ these clair- 
voyant though illiterate men, it is not surprising that the Karroo 
farmer should have developed a partialitv for the " dowser's " 
mysterious art. 

PERCENTAGE OF SUCCESS. 

The degree of success, however, in finding water achieved by 
the Government without any supernatural assistance in the selection 
of sites, has been gratifying, as about 75% of the number of bore- 
holes put down have yielded a satisfactory supply. There is, of 
course, a certain element of chance in the striking of a good supply 
of water, which has in the nature of things to be allowed for, but 
which makes the work more fascinating than the almost certain 
methods which can be applied to the collection of surface water. 

SIZE OF BORES. 

Some 3,500 boreholes have been sunk since the first machine 
was imported in 1890. During the first two or three years little 
progress was made, but the numbers have steadily increased since 
then, and with the present plant about 500 boreholes can be jmt 
down per annum. These vary in depth from 10 to 800 feet, and in 
diameter from 2 to 6 inches. Many of these were originally put down 
of the smaller diameters of 2 or 3 inches and were afterwards reamed 
out tO' 4h or 6 inches, when the supply of water struck was large 
enough to warrant it, in order to insert a deep well pump-barrel of 
sufficient capacity. Only boreholes in the softer formations are lined, 

•or when the harder formations are interstratified with layers of looser 
material which will not stand alone. Both collar-jointed and flush- 
jointed tubes are used, as may be most suitable to the method of 

iboring adopted. 

YIELD OF BORES. 

The yields of these bores vary, in relation both to the size of 
the hole and the strength of the supply, between 100 gallons and 
100,000 gallons in each 24 hours. Generally, the water stands in 
the boring much higher than where it was struck, but when it does 
not flow at the surface it is raised by an ordinary deep well pump 
and a windmill, or other power. Siphons, where the configuration 
of the ground allows them, and suction pumps are made use of where 
the water rises in the borehole to near the surface, and where the 
•drawing off or pumping does not lower it enough to interfere with the 



Artesian Wells. 393 

^Yorking of those appliances. Boring is usually continued some 
distance below the point where the water is tapped, in order to 
strengthen the supply, and the pump cylinders are placed well below 
the rest level of the water to allow for lowering this level by pumping. 
Exhaustive tests of these water supplies are made, and the effect on 
the surface level and the quality of the water are carefully recorded, 
and sections of all bores, with core samples of each of the strata 
passed through, are preser\-ed for future reference. 



METHODS OF EORIXG. 

There are two principal methods of drilling vertical holes into 
the crust of the earth, the (jne more suitable for boring in certain 
formations or under particular conditions than the other. The older 
of these methods is what is called the " percussion system," known 
and extensively used in a primitive form in the East long before it 
reached Europe in the twelfth centurx. The essential feature of the 
machine employed in boring on this system is a heavy steel chisel, 
susp>endej, with weighting and turning attachments, by a rope or 
line of rods from a derrick above the ground, which is raised and let 
fall by mechanical means, so that the steel tool cuts and pulverises 
the rock it acts on at the bottom of the hole, and with the assistance 
of water ptjured in gradually extends the hole downwards. The de- 
bris thus detached is brought up by introducing a hollow cylinder, 
with a hinged valve at the bottom opening upwards, which fills with 
sludge and is drawn up. The chisel is then put to work again. This 
kind of boring plant works quickly and economically in the softer 
formations, but when the rock becomes hard a more effective machine 
is the diamond drill, introduced about thirty years ago. The active 
principle of this machine is quite different from that of the one first 
described, as by this method a rapidly revolved tool, pointed with 
diamonds, cuts away and abrades the rocks, penetrating gradually 
downwards, leaving a smooth, clean hole. As the cutting edge of the 
tool is annular, it cuts a clear space on the outer part of the hole and 
leaves a central core, which is taken out as the work proceeds, while 
water under pressure is pumped down the centre of the hollow boring 
rods, which rotate the diamond cutter, and returns to the surface 
outside them, having flushed the cutting tool, bringing the debris 
with it. In some cases, however, boreholes are of a loose and soft 
material in one part, in another of verj- hard rock, and it is necessary 
to employ both systems of drilling. This difficulty is overcome by 
fitting some boring machines with a combination of both methods, 
so that alternate layers of soft and hard material can be dealt with 
with equal facility. 

A quantity of water is absolutely necessary for boring, besides 
that required for the boiler of a steam-power machine, and this varies 
from 50 to 200 gallons a day for drilling purposes, and from 100 to 
300 gallons a day for the boiler, according to the class of machine 
employed. 



394 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

SKILLED FOREMEN. 

In boring operations with any class of machine, an important 
factor of success is the skill of the foreman. To' work on the percus- 
sion system a man must be trained to the business, just like the trade 
of a carpenter or blacksmith, and the foreman in charge of a diamond 
drill must have been trained first as mechanic, and afterwards in- 
structed in the manipulation of the machine for a long period before 
he can become competent to be entrusted with such delicate and 
valuable tools as those used with it. The work of boring is of such 
a nature that delays and accidents are unavoidable, and it is only 
by the employment of the best machinery and skilled men of exper- 
ience that they can be minimised. 

PLANT AND MACHINERY. 

The boring machines used by this Government are of the follow- 
ing types and sizes : — 

(i) Steam-power Sullivan Diamond Drill, capable of boring a 
2^" hole to a depth of 3,000 feet; a ;^l" to a depth of 
2,000 feet; or a 4I" hole to a depth of 1,000 feet. 

(2) Steam-power Diamond Drill, capable of boring in solid 

rock to a depth of 600 feet a 2J" or 3^" hole, which can 
be reamed out to 4^" if required. 

(3) Hand or Horse-power Diamond Drill, capable of boring, to 

a depth of not more than 400 feet, a 2 J" hole, which 
can be reamed out to 3". 

(4) Combined Percussion and Hand-power Diamond Drill, 

boring, in loose formations, to a depth of about 300 feet, 
holes from 2" to 6" in diameter. 

(5) Steam-power Percussion Drill, capable of sinking, in softer 

formations, a 6" hole to a depth of 400 feet. 

No. (i) is a powerful plant, consisting of a boring machine, line 
of rods, hauling gear, force pump, engine, boiler, and derrick 60 
feet high. An important feature is the hydraulic apparatus for regu 
lating the feed down, or rate of cutting of the diamond tool. The 
boiler is 15 horse-power, and the vertical engines, boring machine, 
feed gear, and hoisting apparatus are comprised in one machine, but 
each can be operated separately. The steam pump is of necessity 
separate, but stands beside the machine, and is connected with the 
hydraulic feed, as well as the boring rods. The machiner}- stands 
directly beneath the derrick, the four legs of which enclose a 
galvanised iron house, to protect it from the weather. Although the 
plant weighs 21 tons in all, it is fairly portable, and can be moved 
from place to place with ease, but as the deep holes for which this 
apparatus is employed take some time to drill there is no necessity 
to shift it often, 

Noi (2) is a much smaller steam plant, consisting of a boring 
machine, force pump, derrick, and line of rods. The engine is 



Artesian Wells. 395 

attached to a vertical boiler mounted on wheels, aiid fitted with a 
" disselboom '' for draught purposes, and the rest of the gear can be 
loaded on an ordinar}- wagon. 

The Hand or Horse-power Diamond Drill, No. (3) is made up 
of the same parts — with the exception of the engine and boiler — as 
the steam-power, but the whole is of a lighter make, and is driven by 
means of a crank handle or horse-gear. 

The combined ^lant, No. (4), is made up by adding to the 
Hand-power Diamond Drill monkey weight, lifting jacks and other 
gear for driving and drawing lining tubes, and cutting chisels, sinker- 
bar, and all appliances necessary for working on the percussion 
principle. 

The Steam-power Percussion Machine, No. (5), is characterised 
especially by its portability. On a wagon-frame, with wide-tired 
wheels, is mounted a boiler and engine, a walking beam to give the 
best motion for drilling, a hauling gear, a steam pump, a pipe driving 
attachment, and a derrick; and the whole can be diawn over the 
roughest roads by inspanning a small team of oxen or horses. It is 
necessary, however, if the roads are bad tO' carry the heavy steel 
chisels, sinker-bars, recovery tools, and other detachable gear, in 
another wagon. The arrangement of the frame and working parts 
is .such that the foreman can stand at the tools while drilling, or 
while cleaning out the debris from the bore hole, and at the same 
time reach the throttle valve, so that he can regulate the speed of the 
engine as circumstances may require. The derrick is of the folding- 
ladder pattern, and answers the purpose very well for bore holes not 
<ieeper than 400 feet, to which depth the strain is not so great as to 
neces-sitate a built derrick. 



DIAMONDS. 

An extremely important matter in connection with boring for 
water is the construction of the tool edged with diamonds, or crown, 
which is used with the diamond-drilling machine, and which is 
essential where hard rock is met with, and under circumstances where 
it is necessary to secure a core to shew the section of the geological 
formation passed through. The diamonds, employed in this work 
are obtained either from the mines in Brazil or from those in South 
Africa. The black diamond, or Brazilian Carbonado, in composition 
nearly pure carbon. 'is the hardest substance known, and is used for 
piercing the densest rocks, such as quartz and dolerite, but several 
kinds of Kimberley brilliant and boart are also made use of. as they 
work very well in the less compact rocks and are not so costlv as the 
Brazilian stones. Diamonds of pure water and good shape, such as 
can be cut for ornamental purposes, are not as a rule used for boring, 
hardness and freedom from cleavage planes being the qualities 
most .needed. Suitable stones could be purchased at reasonable 
prices in the earlier days of diamond drilling, but now this industrv 
has reached such large dimensions that the better class of drilling 



396 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

diamonds fetch more in the market than those used for decorating 
the person, and even Kimberley diamonds, since the war. have not 
only advanced immensely in price Imt have become scarce. 

SETT IXC CROWNS. 

The steel crowns, or l)its, in which the diamonds are mounted, 
vary in outside diameter from 2 to 6 inches, and in length from 3 to 6 
inches. They have a female thread for attachment to the barrel in 
which the core cut is carried, and are .set alternately on the outside 
and inside of the cutting face, which is |" to f" in width, with six, 
eight, ten, or twelve stones, according to the size. The insides of 
the crowns are tapered, so that an annular hardened steel ring, 
grooved and bevelled, placed in the larger space, more remote from 
the cutting face, between the tapered inside of the crown and core 
of rock cut by the diamonds, will, if the crown and core barrel be 
lifted out by the boring rods, grip the core, break it off, and bring it 
up. Reamers for enlarging boreholes are similar in construction to 
the crowns, except that the reamers have a slightly wider face and 
have guides projecting, to ensure their filling exactly the borehole 
which is being reamed. The steel of the crowns is found tcj wear most 
in .sandstone, and diamonds boring in that rock require frequent reset- 
ling, for should a stone become loose and drop from its mounting, the 
crown will rotate upon it and quickly break the rest of the diamonds. 
The actual wear of the diamonds is considerable, and the harder the 
rock the more wear they sustain. The loss by breakage, however, is 
generally due to unequal density of rock, such as is met with in the 
formations which have fine veins of quartz infiltrated in them, or are 
of the nature of a conglomerate. All crowns and reamers are .set 
and dismounted, at the shop for that purpose in Cape Town, by 
skilled and experienced diamond setters, and are despatched by 
registered post to the boring operations all over the Colony. 

COST 01- bORKS. 

The cost of boring is a most difficult matter to state. Bore- 
holes var\' in depth, size, and hardness of the material pierced, and 
many of them have to be lined with ircjn tubes when the ground is 
too soft or loose to stand alone. The value, too, of the skilled fore- 
man's services, of machinery, diamonds, tran.sport, and all the other 
items which go to make up the cost, fluctuates considerably. And. 
again, the conditions under which the work is undertaken greatly 
influence the cost. The want of modern and economical machinery, 
or a disturbed political and commercial state of the countn,", will 
prevent the carrying out of the work in the minimum of time. Wars, 
cattle diseases, droughts, or interrupted railway services, cause end- 
less delays, and paralyse ever)- effort at economic organisation. 

The past five years of boring work have unfortunately embraced 
almost every factor calculated to retard economic operations and 
divert funds from their legitimate channel ; and it is beyond question 



Artesian Wells. 397 

that, under happier auspices and more advantageous circumstances, 
expenditure, which by no means appears large, may be further re- 
duced. Another difficulty is that some of the items which make up 
the full cost, such as Kafir labour, fuel, water for drilling, and wagon 
transport, are not supplied by the Government, and consequently 
reliable accounts of such expenditure cannot be kept. An approxi- 
mate figure may, howe\'er, be arrived at b\- taking an average over 
a large number of boreholes put down during a long period, which 
figure, of course, must l)e understood to appl\ to the cost of a large 
number and not to any single one or small number of artesian wells. 
Roughly, it may be stated that :?,ooo boreholes between 10 and 800 
feet in depth, and varying from 2 to 6 inches in diameter, put down 
b\ this Government during the past five years have cost on an average 
^^50 each. The cost per foot varies from 4s. to ^£4, and no average 
price can J)e .stated that would in anv wav be of value to either the 
general public or professional men. 

RESULTS OF BORTNG. 

Artesian wells have been put down in nearly even.' division of the 
■Colony, Namaqualand, Bechuanaland, and the Transkeian Terri 
tories, with success, and from the experience thus gained it may be 
safely deduced that an excellent supply of underground water exists 
almost all over the Colony, at a reasonable depth, which, being 
tapped by boring, flows at the surface or can be utilised by means 
•of an ordinary deep well pump, and, moreover, at a cost within the 
means of nearly ever\- farmer. Although the wells yet bored are not 
large enough to permit of any extensive irrigation, agriculturists are 
only too glad to make use of them for the high cultivation of small 
areas, as is evidenced by about a thousand acres of garden ground, 
orchards, and lucerne fields, irrigated from boreholes in diff"erent parts 
of the Colony. To the stock-farmer, however, they are a source of 
pros[>€rity and wealth, as the supplies alreadv met with are amply 
sufficient for watering stock. The loss by drought by this means can 
be absolutely avoided, and by tapping supplies in different parts of 
a farm its stock-carn,ing capacity can be considerably increased. 
Were there any question regarding the results of boring for water, 
the great, nay. ovenvhelming. extent to which owners and occu[)iers 
•of land have availed themselves of the facilities afforded for obtaining 
a good water supply from underground sources would loudly testifv 
to the value and beneficial character of the results achieved. 

rCBLIC BCILDIXGS AND VILLAGE.S. 

The advantages of this mode of obtaining supplies of pure water 
for gaols, asylums, court-houses, and other public buildings, soon 
became api>arent to the Government, and at many of these buildings 
in different parts of the Colony the succes.sful boring operations 
<-arried out have been the means of effecting a large economv 
in charges consequent on the substitution of boreholes for other and 



398 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

more costly methods of supply ; and, further, it has been the means 
of improving the quality of the water used for drinking purposes. 
This source of .supply is also being utilised for the water supply of 
small towns and villages. Avhere its importance in yielding pure sup- 
plies of water, and thus eliminating the danger to public health from 
water-borne disease, is being recognised. 

PRESENT POSITION. 

The present position, then, with regard to a water sujjply from 
underground sources for the Colony is briefly this. Just beneath 
the surface of the ground is stored a supply of water which, if utilised, 
would be an important factor in the development of the industries 
of the country and ensure its material prosperity ; and, further, it has 
been proved that this water sujiply can be put on the land at a very 
reasonable cost. As it is extremely doubtful if any other part of 
South Africa possesses such ample supplies under the same conditions 
of accessibility, the valuable nature of this resource is apparent, and 
the desirability of proceeding to take achantage of it becomes obvious 
to any one interested in the progress of this Colony. The question, 
then, arises as to what extent this source of water supply can be made 
use of. Unlimited it cannot be, as water is not manufactured in the 
earth but comes from the atmosphere above, so the rainfall must ht 
considered. 

RESERVES OF UNDERGROUND WATER. 

The distribution of the annual rainfall over the area of the 
Colony not only varies in quantity but also in season of the year, 
a greater part of the country enjoying summer rains, and only that 
portion on the West and South receiving winter rains. The annual 
quantity in the North-Western districts is small, but as it increases 
towards the East and South considerably it is possible that the rocks 
of the drier <listricts contain nifjre water than actually falls on the 
ground immediately above them ; in fact, the movements of 
underground water, as far as they are known at present, would seem 
to indicate that water travels immense distances in the cnist of the 
earth, descending by the faults and fissures of a formation in one 
part of the country and ascending by other channels, in different 
strata, in quite another region. In view of this possibility, and of the 
fact that the rainfall, although only lo inches over a half of the 
Colony, ranges up to 30 inches over the rest of the countrv. it would 
not appear to be making an exaggerated estimate of the quantitv 
which percolates into the ground and feeds the reservoirs of water 
in the rocks if 2J, inches be taken as the average all over the Colon\ . 
Assuming this calculation to be correct, the part of the annual rain- 
fall which feeds the subterranean reservoirs amounts to a dailv 
quantity of 27.715 million gallons, whereas the total quantity now- 
daily drawn from it by all the boreholes put down up to the present 
time is not more than 25 million gallons, so that no efforts of ours 
need be limited by any fear that the general reserves of underground 



Artesian Wells. 399 

water will run short; in fact, these are so large that what has been 
done in tapping them, by comparison, appears only a small 
beginning. 

FUTURE OPERATIONS. 

If this is so. the many advocates of this method of water supply 
will naturally say that " ever}- farm should have its boreholes," to 
which there would be no objection as far as the supply of water 
available is concerned, as most farms have an extent of more than 
a square mile — an area capable of yielding 100,000 gallons per diem. 
It \s. however, on account of the number of farms in the Colony, 
perhaps 100,000, that such a scheme can only serve as an ideal to 
work up to in future years, but still, to make any appreciable differ- 
ence in the productive power of the stock-farming and agricultural 
industries, the water supply of at least 5,000 farms must be improved 
in the immediate future. Already 1,000 farms are on the books to be 
dealt with as soon as facilities become available, and there must be 
added a number of villages where no wholesome water supply at 
present exists, which cannot be neglected, and hundreds of insti- 
tutions where the underground water is the only safe source of supply 
available ; and as each farm requires two or three boreholes it can 
be readily seen that it is necessary to undertake the sinking of a 
minimum number of 10,000 boreholes at once if this Colony is to 
keep abreast of the other Colonies of South Africa (which are about 
to expend large sums on irrigation works) and develop her agricul- 
tural and pastoral resources, while an era of great prosperity reigns 
and high prices rule. These borings will average about ;^5o each, 
so that, if the opportunity of establishing the industries on a sounder 
basis is to be emliraced the expenditure of a sum, say, of ^500,000. 
will ha\e to be faced for the carrying out of this work during the 
next two or three years, but with a definite scheme for the refund of 
a large part of the expenditure. 

STATE AID IN THE PAST. 

Hitherto, as is well known. State-aid has been granted in tapping 
supplies of underground water to assist the stock-farming and agri- 
cultural industries, as these have suffered from drought, disease, and 
the disturbed state of the country more than any other industry, and 
it has been appreciated, judging from the immense number of appli- 
cations regi.'Jtered. The exact amount of this assistance has varied 
in accordance with the circumstances and cost of the work, but is at 
present practically regulated on the ^ for ^ principle. Later, how- 
ever, when the farming industry recovers its prosperity, which it is 
boimd to do with the finest market of the world in its midst, f^erhajjs 
a larger contribution may be expected from it. The regulations now 
in force have applied to comparatively shallow boreholes, but now, 
as the Government is in a position to bore deeper, a differently pro- 
portioned State-aid might be introduced, which would bear fairly on 
the landowner benefited and the taxpayer. 



400 Report S.A.A. Advancement of Science. 

Under the present system the Government supply machinery and 
material and skilled labour, and the farmer transport and rough 
Kafir labour. This method has acted very well, as the cost of the 
boreholes has not been great, and in the event of failure to obtain a 
.su])ply the loss sustained by the farmer has not been heavy; but 
in boring deeper holes the cost will become too heavy a hiss for the 
farmer to bear if unsuccessful, while success would unduly enrich him 
at the expense of the taxpayer. He .should, under these circum- 
stances, at least pay the whole cost of the work, which has jffobably 
increased the value of his property ten times. An equital)le plan 
would be for the Government to select sites where there appears to 
be a probaljility of tapping supplies of artesian water, and enter 
into an arrangement with the landowner to bore the hole. The 
agreement should be that if the borehole yielded over a certain 
quantit) of water under certain conditions, he (the landowner) should 
repay the full cost in instalments, extending over a period of 5 or lo 
years, but that if no adequate quantity of water were found Govern- 
ment should bear the greater share of the cost. There would seem 
to be few difficulties in the way of carrying out such a scheme, which 
would encourage enterprise in the agricultural industr}- very consider- 
ably ; and as the proportion of successes is far larger than that of 
failures, the refunded amounts would probably be largely in excess 
of those chargeable to the Government. With Municipalities and 
Public Institutions pa) ing full cost of boring, and a large refund from 
the farming industry, the net cost to Government would n(jl l)e a great 
part of the ^500,000 required, 30% perhaps, and the ample repro- 
ductiveness of this expenditure in increasing other sources of revenue 
should recommend it as an ouliav which would be repaid indirectly 
in the course of a very few \ears. 

REFUND OK STATE-AID. 

The enormous possibilities latent in the development of this 
source of water supply, and the resulting appreciation in the value of 
land benefited by the use of the underground water, more than pio- 
mise that a step further may be taken in the direction of refun<ling 
the cost of sinking artesian wells advanced bv the Government. 
Manx landowners assess the increase in \alue of a farm on which a 
good boring has been made at 100% per morgen. but on some pro- 
perties it is much more after a good supply of flowing water had been 
tapped, .sometimes ten times its former value ; but, estimating the 
increase in value to be only 50%. an average sized farm of. say, 500 
morgen, previously worth ^500, would realise jQ'i$o, and if the bore- 
hole costs ^50, the enhanced value, dire("tly due to it, would be 
^200. As there are some 100,000 square miles of the Colony as vet 
undisposed of, it is almost certain that goo<i sites for boring could be 
.selected on i ,000 Government farms where water Mas much needed, 
and the execution of the work would ])roduce an increase in the value 
of the land equal to a sum which would pay off the amount not 
refunded bv the agricultural industr\. as well as the charges for 



Artesian Wells. 4°! 

interest on the whole expenditure for boring work, and so relieve the 
taxpayer of all incidence. Without the actual expenditure of puVjlic 
funds, but b) simply making use of its own splendid asset, the like 
of which no other country is fortunate enough to possess, the Colony 
would receive such material benefit that its future prosperity would 
be assured. 

BORING FOR THE MILITARY. 

It mav be of interest in reviewing the uses of underground water 
to refer to its imjx^rtance in connection with Military operations, as 
it proved of great value during the recent campaign in this country ; 
and some account of the methods employed and the results obtained 
— the bulk of which has already appeared in the Annual Reports 
of the Department — may fomi a fitting conclusion to this paper : — 

Having, prior to the outbreak of hostilities, executed some boring 
for the Imperial Goveniment at one of the Base Camps near Cape 
Town, the Colonial Government was, soon after the War broke out, 
approached with a request that it (the Colonial Government) would 
undertake the sinking of Ijoreholes to provide water for General 
Gatacre s Division, which was at the time at Stormberg, in response 
to which the Colonial Government immediately caused three boring 
plants, equipped with two foremen each for continuous working, 
and a field sui)erintending inspector, to be placed at the disposal of 
the Military Authorities for service in that Division. Excellent su})- 
plies of water were obtained for the Column while in the Stormberg 
District, while subsequently, during its march into the Orange River 
Colony, two out of the three boring plants, fully equipped, accom- 
panied the Division, with the result that plentiful supplies of water 
were obtained at various points en route for the purposes of Camps, 
Militar) Posts and Hospitals. Meanwhile, another plant had tapped 
a large supply of water at Rensburg Camp, and at other positions 
in the surrounding countn. occupied by General French's Cavalry 
Division. A little later, when the Modder River l)ecame con- 
taminated after Lord Methuen's reverse at Magersftjntein and enteric 
fever broke out among the troops lying there, two more fully equipped 
steam plants were despatched to those Camps, and, working without 
intermission, obtained an excellent supply of pure water within 30 
hours of their arrival. Boreholes were also put down in the course 
of the following week at Enslin, Graspan and Belmont, not onlv with 
the object of providing those Camps with water, liut also in order 
lo meet anticipated requirements of the main Army under Lord 
Roberts on the forward movement. These subsequently rendered 
immeasurable assistance to the Army under the P'ield Marshal during 
the operations which resulted in the relief of Kimberley and the 
capture of Bloemfontein. Without water for the transport animals 
employed by the immense convoy following the Army, the execution 
of the gigantic Military operations involved — the essential feature of 
which was rapidity of movement — undoubtedlv would have been 
seriousl) nampered. To' meet the large demands of the Army while 
resting at ]:{loemfontein prior to the resumption of the advance North- 



402 Report S.A.A. Advancemfxt of Science. 

wards, additional boring plants were forwarded to that town, as many 
as eight operating there at one time, and it is worthy of note that 
during the possession by the enemy uf the Water Works at Sannas 
Post supplying the town, water obtained by means of boreholes was 
pumped into the street mains of the City. Boring plants subsequently 
accomjjanied the Army during its march to Pretoria and during 
various operations Northwards and Eastwards, a boring plant even 
accompanying the Column which cleared the country to the 
Portugue.se frontier. General Tuckers Division depended entirely 
on the boreholes at Karee Siding, the only other source of supply 
being unsuitable, owing to surface jKjUution. Boreholes were also 
sunk to the North of Kimberle\ and proved of great assistance to 
the operations in that direction, which culminated in the relief of 
the gallant garrison of Mafeking. In the Transvaal a number of 
boreholes have been put down, but at most of the sites the geological 
formati(jn consisted of volcanic rock and only a small measure of 
success wa.s obtained. In the Orange River Colony, however, Camps, 
Hospitals and Blockhouses have been extensively supplied with good 
drinkable water, particularly in the neighbourhood of Bloemfontein 
and Kroonstad. Boring has also been of service inside the defences 
of Steynsburg and Middelburg, and at the Refugee Camp at Aliwal 
North ; and when the difficulties of suppressing the Rebellion in this 
Colony made it a military necessity to build a line f)f Blockhouses 
across the Karroo, from Victoria Road on the Western line of Rail- 
way to Lambert's Bay on the Coast, a distance of 400 miles, boring 
had to be resorted to, in order to enable the construction of the work 
to be proceeded with, as. owing to the arid nature of the countn, 
supplies of water on the route selected were extremely scarce. Con- 
sequently, at the request of the Military Authorities, strong parties 
of foremen, with all the boring plants then available, were despatched 
by this Department to either end of the proposed line, and work 
commenced early in January, 1902. No effort was spared to keep 
the boring work in progress without intermission during the hours 
of daylight — work at night being impossible owing to Bf)er snipers — 
and, although surrounded by the danger from constant attacks 
of small parties of the enem)'. the foremen and men worked 
with so much will that over 100 bt)reholes were put down, 
and excellent supplies of water furnished all along the line by the 
beginning of June. The number of feet bored amounted to 6,060. 
each pl